Friday, June 7, 2013

KUMPULAN MAKALAH TENTANG ILMU SOSIAL BUDAYA DASAR



MAKALAH ILMU SOSIAL BUDAYA DASAR



CHAPTER 1
PRELIMINARY


 
1.1 Background


Culture or cultures derived from the Sanskrit buddhayah, which is the plural form of the buddhi (mind or intellect) is defined as the things pertaining to the mind and human reason. In English, the culture is called culture, which is derived from the Latin word Colere, the process or work. Can be interpreted also as cultivate the land or farming. The word culture is also sometimes translated as "culture" in Indonesian.

Culture is a way of life that developed and owned jointly by a group of people and passed down from generation to generation. Culture is made up of many complex elements, including religious and political systems, customs, languages, tools, clothing, buildings, and works of art.

Culture is a whole way of life. culture is complex, abstract, and broad. Many aspects of culture determines the communicative behavior. Elements of the spread of socio-cultural and include many social activities someone trying to communicate with people of different cultures and adjust differences, proving that culture is learned.



1.2 Problem Formulation

    How social and cultural development of Indonesia?
    What factors affect the socio-cultural development in Indonesia?
    In what ways have social and cultural Indonesia progressing?



1.3 Purpose of

Which is the goal of this paper is as follows:

    Explain how social and cultural development of Indonesia?
    Knowing the factors that influence social and cultural development in Indonesia
    Knowing these things Indonesian social and cultural development, what has

1.4 Systematics Writing

In preparing this paper we use a method which is the method of writing literature or means we use literature study of the literature in the form of electronic media.


CHAPTER II


Discussion


Indonesian Social and Cultural Developments



Every life in this world depends on the ability to adapt to their environment in a broad sense. However, unlike other life, human relationships with the environment actively. Humans do not just rely on the mercy of the environment they live life like when Adam and Eve lived in the Garden of Eden. In meeting their needs to manage the environment and resources to actively cultivate suits him. That's why people develop habits that institutionalized in social structures and cultures. Because of its ability to actively adapt it anyway, humans managed to position ourselves as being the highest rank in the land and meet the world's most widely spreading.

On the other hand, the human ability to build relationships with the active environment has created opportunities for the development of different forms of organization and culture towards civilization. Social dynamics it has been embody multifarious variety of society and cultures the world, either as the embodiment adaptation social group against local environment nor the because of speed its development.

2.1 Indonesian Society and Culture

Social and cultural dynamics that struck the Indonesian community is no exception, although the broad spectrum and different speed. Similarly, people and culture of Indonesia had grown rapidly in the past, although today's development is lagging when compared with developments in other developed countries. No matter how, society and culture of Indonesia who diverse it does not never experienced stagnation as the embodiment active responses society against the challenges who arising due environmental changes in the broad sense nor alternation of generations.

There are a number of forces that led to the development of the social culture of Indonesia. Categorically there are two forces that lead to social change, First Instance, is the power of the community itself (internal factors), such as the change of generations and various local discovery and engineering. Second, is the strength of the outside community (external factors), such as the influence of contacts between cultures (culture contact) directly or dispersion (elements) as well as the culture changes in the environment which in turn can spur social and cultural development of the community who had to re-lives them.

No matter how fast or slow the development of socio-cultural hit, and any factor cause, any changes that occur will cause a reaction for and against the community or nation concerned. The size of the reaction of the pros and cons that can threaten the stability and even can also lead to social disintegration, especially in a pluralistic society with multiple cultures such as Indonesia.

2.2 Development of Social Culture and the Modern

Indonesian society today is undergoing a transition period is very powerful as a result of a thorough reform demands. Moderate reform demands that originate on national development activities that apply advanced technologies to accelerate their implementation. On the other hand, without realizing it, the application of advanced technology that requires a reference

cultural values, social norms and new orientation. It is not surprising that Indonesia's diverse multi-cultural with it as if it had in restructure the social order, politics and culture today.

2.2.1 Application of Advanced Technology

The application of advanced technology to accelerate national development over 32 years ago has demanded the development of cultural values, social norms in addition to the skills and expertise of the workforce with a mental attitude that supports it. Application of advanced technologies that require costly major capital investment (capital intensive investment); great capital it must be managed in a professional (management) in order to be profitable optimum material; Because it also requires skilled manpower and professionals with orientation always pursuit of success (achievement orientation).

Without realizing it, the fact is, have spurred the development of the social order in all sectors of life which in turn has led to various reactions pros and cons among the people. In the process of socio-cultural development, it is usually only those who have a variety of socio-political advantages, economic and technology that will come out as winners in free competition. As a result they are not ready to be relegated and have aggravated his life, and widen and deepen social inequalities which in turn can lead to jealousy that increase the potential for conflict  pluralistic society with multiple cultures.

2.2.2 Limitations of the Environment (Environment Scarcity)


Application of advanced technology that is expensive and tends to be exploitative expansif implementation. In order to optimally pursue material gain, weight machines are expensive and maintenance costs, encourage employers to use it extensively without knowing the time. Deforestation on a large-scale without knowing the time day and night, thus also machine factory must work continuously and mengoah raw materials into finished goods who ready in the throw into the market. Fulfillment of the necessary raw materials has led to pressure on the environment, which in turn threatens the lives of people who were born, raised and lives in the developing environment in explotasi massively.

In addition, the application of advanced technologies also tend not to recognize environmental limits geographic, social and cultural as well as political. Where there are natural resources necessary to facilitate industrial activities, supported by modern equipment, there is also modern machinery imported and used without regard to the environmental wisdom (ecological wisdom) locals.

Socio-cultural inequalities between rural and urban residents in turn also be one of the triggers for the development of social norms and cultural values ​​that serve as a guideline and reference framework that rural residents should be able to extend the benefits of social networking. What is often forgotten is the collapse of the old social order so that the population as if losing the guidelines in the conduct of activities. Even if the social institutions that still exist, but no longer work in managing the day-to-day lives of residents. As if there has been a kind of social paralysis Sidoarjo hot mudflow case, illegal logging by the city, seizure logs without a clear legal reasons, tenure by those who are not eligible.

Social paralysis that has led to protracted social conflict and continuing

with violent conflict or amuck.

2.2.3 Regulation and Legislation

A number of rules and regulations issued by the government to protect the rights and obligations of all citizens, such as monogamous marriage law, the recognition of human rights and gender equality as well as the recognition of the inaugural "personal, individual ownership" over the family fortune into force and affect mental attitude population with all its consequences.



2.2.4 Education

Powerful forces of change, but is not recognized by most people is education. Although education is a social institution anywhere that primarily serves to prepare its members to be residents of skilled and responsible with the planting and strengthening of social norms and values ​​of the prevailing culture, but the side effect is an open horizon and desire to know the students. Hence, education can be a force major social changes due to cultivate creativity of learners to develop renewal (innovation).

In addition to the innovative creativity that equip learners, the success of one's education leads to employment ladder opportunities for social mobility is concerned. In turn to influence the social mobility patterns of social interaction or social structures that apply. Seniority principle is not limited by age, but also education and job seniority imposed in managing social relations in society.

Thus school education as an element of power changes introduced from the outside, in turn, forces of change in a society that is very potential. Even within plural society Indonesian with the multi its cultural, education has the double function as a means integration of the nation who instill mutual understanding and homage towards fellow citizens without distinguishing the origins and backgrounds socio-cultural, ethnicity, religious, regionalism and racial. School education can also serve as a damper potential conflicts in a pluralistic society with multi kulurnya, if organized properly and sustainably.

In addition to education, law enforcement is required to menjain social justice and democratization of the nation in the era of reform that socio-cultural perlembangan trigger today. Most people do not realize the impact of social reform, though they powerfully demanding realignment of social and national life. Real reform payload containing socio-cultural changes that must be anticipated with the public readiness to accept reforms that often creates uncertainty in the process.

Without the rule of law in a transparent and accountable, socio-cultural development in Indonesia will result in a more severe social disaster, because the loss of public confidence will encourage them to act alone as initial symptoms appear today. More dangerous if the social movements that characterized religious beliefs, such as the arrival of the queen penatian fair and movement purification (purification) which forbids any renewal is considered the "mother" chaos.

No matter how society must be be ready to face social change cultural who diniati and began implemented with reforms that contains the meaning progression to direction of improvement order of life society and a state.


CHAPTER III


Cover

3.1 Conclusion

In the socio-cultural development of the people of Indonesia. Categorically there are two forces that lead to social change, First Instance, is the power of the community itself (internal factors), such as the change of generations and various local discovery and engineering. Second, is the strength of the outside community (external factors), such as the influence of contacts between cultures (culture contact) directly or dispersion (elements) as well as the culture changes in the environment which in turn can spur social and cultural development of the community who had to re-lives them.




MAKALAH ILMU SOSIAL BUDAYA DASAR

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