Friday, June 14, 2013

KUMPULAN MAKALAH BAHASA INGGRIS TENTANG MEDIA PEMBELAJARAN



PAPER ON MEDIA LEARNING


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A. Background

In the learning process, are two very important elements is the method of teaching and learning media. This paper will discuss how the differences between instructional media, media education and media in learning English.

In teaching methodology there are two of the most prominent aspects of the teaching methods and medical education as a teaching aid. While the assessment is to measure or determine the level achieved whether teaching purposes. Position of educational media as a teaching tool in the methodology component, as one learning environment that is set by the teacher.

There will also discuss the use of instructional media. As we know that many kinds of learning media. For good teaching and learning process we must use appropriate learning media. More detail can be seen in the description in this paper.

B. Destination
1. Knowing the Definition of Learning Media
2. Knowing the difference Media Learning Media Education and Mass Media
3. Knowing the benefits of instructional media in teaching English


CHAPTER II
DISCUSSION

A. Definition

The word media comes from the Latin medius, which literally means "middle", "middle", or "introduction". In Arabic, the media is the medium () or introductory message from the sender to the receiver of the message.
According to Gerlach and Ely (1971), when the media is understood broadly human, material or events that establish conditions that enable the child to acquire knowledge, skills or attitudes. So that teachers, textbooks and school environment media.
Fleming (1987: 234) states the media serves to organize an effective relationship between the two parties, namely students and content.
Hainich et al (1982) suggested the term media as an intermediary that transmits information between the source and the receiver.

In conclusion, the media is anything that can be used to deliver a message from the sender to the receiver. So as to stimulate the mind, feelings, concerns and interests of students so that the learning process occurs.

1. Learning Media
Instructional media is media that carry messages or information aimed at containing instructional or teaching purposes by Gagne and Briggs (1975) study media includes physical tool used to convey the contents of the teaching materials consisting of books, tape recorders, cassettes, video camera, video recorder, films, slides (images), photos, pictures, graphics, television and computer.

2. Media Education
The understanding of the educational media include:
a. Media education has the physical sense (hardware) or hardware, such as the one object that can be seen, heard or touched by panea senses.
b. Media education has a non-physical sense (software) or software, the content of the message contained in the hardware that is content to be conveyed to the students.
c. Education there is an emphasis on visual media and audio.
d. Media education has aids understanding of the learning process both inside and outside the classroom.
e. Media education can be used in a missal (radio, TV), large and small group (films, slides, video, OHP), or individual (modules, computers, radios, tape / cassette, video recorder).

So in conclusion, media education is an intermediary that carry information or messages as a source of learning, both in the form of software and hardware. Examples of media education are drawings, photographs, sketches, diagrams, charts / charts, graphs, cartoons, posters, radio and others.

3. Mass media

Media derived from two words, namely the media and the masses. Media is a tool or intermediaries, while the masses are the crowds and the general public. So it can be concluded that the mass media is an intermediary to convey the message to people or crowds. The message that contains the information needed by the community, both on the political, social, economic, and cultural. So with the media people get knowledge about the country. Examples of mass media was newspapers and newspapers.

B. Benefits of Learning Media

One reason for the use of instructional media is related to the benefits of learning media for the success of teaching and learning in the classroom. One aspect that determines the success of teaching and learning is the selection of appropriate learning media.

According Hamalik (1986), appropriate learning media can evoke motivation, desire interests, and stimulation to students. So it can help understanding, the present data with interesting and reliable, easy interpretation of the data, compressing information.

As for why appropriate learning media can bring success in learning and teaching in the classroom, according to Levie and Lentz (1982), it is because the learning media especially the visual media have four functions:
a) attentional function, which can attract and direct the attention of students to concentrate on the content related to the meaning of the visual display or accompanying text and subject matter.
b) affective functions, which can arouse emotions and attitudes.
c) cognitive function, which aim to facilitate the understanding and remembering information / messages contained in the image.
d) Function compensations, which can accommodate students who are weak and slow to accept and understand the content presented in text or verbally.

The reasons why learning media can enhance students' learning process, namely:
a. The first reason is related to teaching media itself, among others:
1. Teaching students more attention, so the motivation to learn.
2. Teaching materials more clearly its meaning, so as to master the learning objectives well.
3. Teaching methods will vary
4. Students can learn a lot more activities, such as observing, doing, demonstrate and others.

b. The second reason is in accordance with the level of student thinking. Starting from the concrete to the abstract level of thinking, starting from simple to complex thinking. Because the presence of media teaching abstract things can and complex things can be simplified. Those are some reasons why learning media can enhance the success of the learning process.

C. Differences Media Two Dimensional and Three Dimensional

1. Two Dimensional Media
Two-dimensional media are often called graphics media. Two-dimensional media is media that has length and width. Graphics as a medium of instruction can combine facts, ideas clearly and strongly through a combination of expressions or graphs. The words and numbers used as the title and description of the graphs, charts, diagrams, posters, cartoons and comics. While sketches, photos and even a symbol used to interpret the facts, and the idea that understanding is essentially a graphical representation. Examples of two-dimensional media C graphic media, namely:

a. Chart
The combination of graphics and media images designed to visualize in a logical and orderly on the basic facts of the idea. Function chart is to show relationships, comparisons, relative amount, development, processing, classification and organization.

b. Diagram
That is a simple picture that is designed to demonstrate a reciprocal relationship, especially with lines.

c. Graph
Is a data presentation framed. Chart is more interesting integration with a number of well-structured data tabulation well. Goals in the chart is showing a comparison, qualitative information quickly and simply. Several kinds of graphs such that graph line, bar, circle, or plates and charts.

d. Poster
Ie visual combination of strong design with meaning and message in order to catch the attention of passers-by but long enough to embed the notion of meaning in memory. Useful for motivational posters, alert and creative experience.

e. Cartoon
Namely in the form of paintings or depictions of caricatures of people, ideas, or situations that are designed to influence public opinion.

f. Comics
That is a form of cartoons that reveal character and act out a story in a sequence that is closely linked to the image and is designed to provide entertainment to the readers.

2. Three-Dimensional Media
Media that has length, width and contents. Three-dimensional media is often used models and dolls. Model is a 3-dimensional replica of a real object is too large, too distant, too small, too expensive, too rare, too complicated to be brought into the classroom, and students studied in their original form.

1) This type of model and its use
a) solid model (solid model), which shows the outer surface of the object and often discard the parts that confuse main ideas of form, color and composition. Examples of solid models, namely dolls, flags, balls, human anatomy. Solid models in order to assist and serve the students as information on some of the knowledge that students better understand the lesson.

b) Model (cuteway model), which shows how an object is visible, if part of the surface was appointed to determine the composition of its interior. This model is useful for subjects of biology, as it serves to replace the real object.

c) Model of work (working model), which is a clone of the object that shows the exterior of the original object. Point to clarify the provision of materials to the students.

d) Mock-ups, ie the composition of the constituent parts and the simplification of a process or system that is more complicated. Teachers use a mock-up to demonstrate various forms of real objects such as capacitor-condenser, tube lights and loudspeakers, a symbol-a symbol that is different from what is shown in the diagram.

e) Diorama, which is a 3-dimensional view of the mini aims to describe the real landscape.

2) The type of doll and its use

Eg hand puppets, and puppets that can be used to make students become more interested in learning.

D. Various Forms of Media Audio Visual

Audio-visual media consists of two words, namely audio and visual. Audio means hearing or can be heard, while the visual that appears to the eye or visible. So the audio-visual media is a media that can be heard and can also be viewed by our senses. Examples of audio-visual media, namely television and computer.

Excess Audio Visual media, namely:
a) On television; television is direct, can bring the real world into the home and into classes, such as people, places, and events, through direct broadcasting / recording.
b) Save time teachers and students.
c) Television is direct and obvious, so that students can clearly see what else the program aired and can maximize the function of the eye and the ear senses.
d) More attract students
e) more varied and memorable lesson
f) Its reach is broad

Weakness audio-visual media are:
a) Diversity broadcast on TV broadcasts difficult for teachers to choose which one is good and appropriate to the lesson.
b) Equipment and funds allow.
c) seize time teacher, having to explain every event there again.
d) Not every teacher is able to explain the events that there is gambling.

E. Media Selection Criteria Lessons
Factors that should be considered in the selection of media education are as follows
- Relevance procurement of educational media educational
- Feasibility study of educational media procurement
- Ease of procurement of educational media educational

It should be recognized that each medium has a weakness and. Knowledge of the advantages and limitations of the media to be important for  minimize the weaknesses of the media chosen by the teacher and can directly select the desired criteria.
Criteria for selection of instructional media, namely:
a) In accordance with the objectives to be achieved. Media selected based instructional objectives that have been defined both in terms of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor.

b) Integration (validity). appropriate media should be to support the lesson content that are facts, concepts, principles or generalizations.

c) The media must be practical, flexible and enduring. If not available time, funds, or other resources to produce, should not be forced. Be expensive and take a long time is not a guarantee. As the best medium. So that teachers can select existing media, easily obtained and easily made by the teacher. Selected media should be used wherever and whenever with the existing equipment in the surrounding environment, and easy to carry and moved anywhere.

d) The media must be used properly and skilled teachers. Whatever the medium, the teacher should be able to use in the learning process. Computer, projector transparency (OHP), slide projectors, and movies, and other advanced equipment will not mean anything if the teacher has not been able to use it in teaching and learning in the classroom.

e) technical quality. Development of both visual images and photographs must meet certain technical requirements. Visual example on the slide should be clear and will find the information or message to be conveyed and should not be distracted by other elements that form the background.

f) The media used should be appropriate to the level of student thinking. Media used must be able to support and assist students' understanding of the lesson so that the learning process can proceed smoothly and in accordance with the learning objectives to be achieved.

According to Prof. Drs Hartono Kasmadi M.Sc in selecting media education that needs to be considered that there are 4 things: production, learners, content, and teacher.
1) Consideration of production
- Availabilty
- Cost
- Physical condition
- Accessibility to student
- Emotional impact.

2) Consideration of participants
- Students characeristics
- Students relevance
- Students involvement

3) Consideration of contents
- Curriculair - relevance
- Content-Soundness
- Presentation

4) Consideration of teacher
- Teacher-Utilization
- Teacher peace of mind


CHAPTER III

CLOSING

Conclusion

Media is an intermediate (tool) to achieve the learning objectives. Appropriate use of media to support the success in the learning process. Media two-dimensional and three-dimensional each is different and has its own advantages and disadvantages. Instructional media described above can be applied in the teaching of English. It will be easier for teachers and students in achieving the learning objectives. As we know that many kinds of learning media. For good teaching and learning process we must use appropriate learning media. Therefore, teachers should be able to choose the media that fits the learning materials so that objectives can be achieved smoothly.

References
Arsyad, Azhar. 2006. Media Pembelajaran. Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Persada.
Danim, Sudarbuan. 1995. Media Komunikasi Pendidikan. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara.
Sudjana, Nana dan Ahmad Rivai. 2002. Media Pengajaran. Bandung: Sinar Baru Algensindo.
S. Sadiman, Arief, dkk. 2003. Media Pendidikan. Jakarta: Rajawali Pers
Harjanto. 2002. Perencanaan pengajaran. Rineka cipta


KUMPULAN MAKALAH BAHASA INGGRIS TENTANG MEDIA PEMBELAJARAN

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