Wednesday, June 12, 2013

KUMPULAN MAKALAH BAHASA INGGRIS TENTANG COOPERATIVE LEARNING



COOPERATIVE LEARNING MODEL PAPERS

INTRODUCTION
Praise be to Allah SWT. Prayers and peace always to the Prophet. Thanks to the abundance of His grace and author of this paper is able to complete the task in order to fulfill the task of the course Introduction to education.

The paper is organized so that readers can expand knowledge about cooperative learning model, which we present is based on observations from a variety of resources, references, and news. The paper compiled by the authors in the various obstacles. Whether it will come from authors or from the outside. But with patience and the help of God especially finally this paper can be resolved.

Hopefully, this paper can provide greater insight and to contribute ideas to the readers especially the students of the University of Makassar. I am aware that this paper is still a lot of flaws and is far from perfect. For that, to my supervisor asks input for improving the manufacture of my papers in the future and expect criticism and suggestions from readers.





CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A. Background

Model Cooperative subjects especially Mathematics needs to be given to all learners from primary schools to equip them with the ability to think logically, analytical, systematic, critical and creative thinking and the ability to work together. In teaching mathematics to students, if the teacher is still using the paradigm of learning time in the sense of communication in mathematics tend to be the general direction of the teacher to the student, the teacher is more dominated learning the lessons tend to be monotonous, resulting in learners (students) feel tired and tormented. Therefore in teaching mathematics to students, teachers should prefer a variety of approaches, strategies, methods appropriate to the situation so that the planned learning objectives will be achieved. Keep in mind that whether or not a poll learning model will depend learning goals, compliance with the learning materials, the level of development of learners (students), teachers' ability to manage learning and optimizing the learning resources available.

B. Destination
This paper aims to broaden the readers, especially the Student Education Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, State University of Makassar for later in making a lesson plan can implement cooperative learning model appropriate to developmental level of students and learning materials.


CHAPTER II
DISCUSSION


A. Definition of Cooperative Learning Model

Efforts of teachers in teaching students is a very
important in achieving success learning objectives that have been planned. Therefore the selection of a variety of methods, strategies, approaches and techniques of teaching is a major thing. According to Eggen and Kauchak in Ward (2005), a learning model is a program or user guide teaching strategies designed to achieve learning. The guidance includes the teacher's responsibility in planning, implementing, and evaluating learning activities. One model that can be applied to teacher learning is a model of cooperative learning.

Is cooperative learning model it? Models of cooperative learning is a learning model that prioritizes the groups of students in the group have a level of different (high, medium and low) and if possible the group members come from different races, cultures, ethnic groups, and concerned gender equality. Cooperative learning model prioritizes cooperation in solving the problems to apply knowledge and skills in order to achieve the learning objectives. According to Nur (2000), all models marked with the structure of learning tasks, goals and structure reward structures. Task structure, purpose and structure of the reward structure in cooperative learning model different from the structure of the task, purpose and structure of the reward structure learning model to another.

The purpose of cooperative learning model is the result of increased student academic learning and students can receive a wide diversity of friends, as well as the development of social skills.

B. Basic Principles and Characteristics of Cooperative Learning Model
According to Nur (2000), the basic principle in cooperative learning as follows:
1.Setiap group members (students) are responsible for everything that is done in a group.
2.Setiap group members (students) need to know that all the members
3.kelompok have the same goal.
4.Setiap group members (students) have to split the duties and responsibilities equally among group members.
5.Setiap group members (students) will be subject to evaluation.
6.Setiap group members (students) to share leadership and skills needed to learn together during the learning process.
7.Setiap group members (students) will be required to account for the material that is handled on an individual basis in a cooperative group.

While the characteristics of cooperative learning model are as follows:
1. Students in groups cooperatively resolve learning materials appropriate basic competencies to be achieved.
2. The group was formed of students who have the capability of different, good level of high, medium and low. If group members may come from different races, cultures, ethnic groups, and with regard to gender equality.
3. Award more emphasis on the group rather than each individual.

In cooperative learning are developed discussion and communication with the aim that students share skills, learn to think critically, each expressing an opinion, give each other a chance to channel capacity, mutual learning, mutual assess abilities and roles themselves and other friends.

C. Cooperative Learning Steps
There are six (6) steps in the cooperative learning model.
1. Presents the objectives and motivate students
Teachers express purpose of learning and communicating basic competencies to be achieved and to motivate students.
2. Presenting information
Teachers present information to students.
3. Organize students into learning groups
The teacher informs the student grouping.
4. Guiding the study group
Teachers motivate and facilitate the work of students in the groups studied.
5. Evaluation
Teachers evaluate the learning outcomes of the learning materials that have been implemented.
6.Memberikan award
Teacher recognizes the learning outcomes of individual and group.


CHAPTER III

Cooperative Learning Model Type STAD

A. Definition

Cooperative learning Student Team Achievement Division (STAD) developed by Robert Slavin and his friends at the Johns Hopkins University (in Slavin, 1995) is a cooperative learning the simplest, and is a cooperative learning is suitable for use by teachers who are just starting to use learning cooperative.

Student Team Achievement Divisions (STAD) is a type of cooperative learning is the simplest. Students are placed in learning teams of four who is a mixture according to their performance levels, gender and ethnicity. Teacher presents the lesson and then the students work in teams to ensure that all team members have mastered the lesson. Eventually all students are quizzes on the material in the record, when the quiz they can not help each other. Type of learning is to be applied in the study of mathematics.

STAD Cooperative Learning Model is an approach that emphasizes cooperative learning activities and interaction among students to motivate each other and help each other master the subject matter in order to achieve maximum performance. Teachers who use STAD propose new academic information to students every week using Verbal presentations or text.

B. Stage Learning Implementation Model STAD
1. Material preparation and application of students in the group
Before presenting the teacher should prepare an activity sheet and answer sheet will students in cooperative groups. Then assign students in heterogeneous groups with a maximum number of 4-6 people, rule of heterogeneity can be based on:
a). Academic ability (good, medium, and low)
Obtained from the academic (initial score) before. Keep in mind this division must be balanced so that each group consisted of students with students with achievement levels balanced.
b). Gender, social background, innate pleasure / nature (silent and active), etc.

2. Presentation Lessons
a. Preliminary
Here it should be emphasized what students will learn in a group and inform the important thing to motivate student's curiosity about the concepts they will be learning. Subject matter presented by the teacher using learning methods. Students follow the teacher presentation carefully in preparation to take the test next

b. Development
Do developing appropriate materials the students will learn in groups. Here, students learn to understand the meaning of not memorizing. Question- given an explanation about right or wrong. If the students have grasped the concept it can be switched another.

c. Controlled practice
Practice restrained done in presenting the material by having students work on the problems, calls on students at random to answer or solve problems that students are always ready and in giving assignments do not time consuming.

3. Group activities
Teachers hand out worksheets to each group as the students will learn the material. The contents of LKS besides the subject matter is also used to train cooperative. Teachers provide assistance to clarify the order, repeat the concepts and answer questions. In this group activity, the students together to discuss problems encountered, compare answers, or correct misconceptions. The group is expected to work with the best and help each other in understanding the subject matter.

4. Evaluation
Done for 45-60 minutes independently to indicate what students have learned in working in groups. After the presentation of the activities of teachers and group activities, students are given tests individually. In answer to the test, students are not allowed to help each other. Evaluation results are used as the value of individual development and contributed as the value of the development group.

5. Group awards
Each member of the group is expected to achieve test scores are high because these scores will contribute to an increase in the average score of the group. From the results of the value of the development, then the award on group achievements given the level of awards such as the group is good, great and super.

6. Recalculation of baseline scores and change group
The assessment period (3-4 weeks) was recalculated score evaluation as students start the new score. Then the group made changes so that students can work with another friend.

C. Relevant mathematics with STAD
Mathematics materials that are relevant to the type of cooperative learning Student Team Achievement Divisions (STAD) is material only to understand the facts, basic concepts and do not require reasoning also memorizing, for example integers, the sets, number of hours, etc.. With presentation of appropriate materials and attractive to students, as well as STAD cooperative learning can maximize the learning process so as to improve student achievement.

D. Excellence Learning Model Type STAD
Superiority of STAD cooperative learning method is cooperation within the group and in determining the success of the group depends on the success of individual ter, so that each member of the group can not rely on the other members. STAD cooperative learning emphasizes on activities and interaction among students to motivate each other to help each other master the subject matter in order to achieve maximum performance.

CHAPTER IV
Conclusions and Recommendations


A. Conclusion

1. Cooperative learning is a learning strategy where students learn in small groups with different levels of ability
2. Learning the skills approach in the process of STAD cooperative learning settings can change the center of learning from teacher to student centered.
3. At the core concepts of learning model STAD is present lessons teacher then students work in teams to ensure that all team members have mastered the lesson

B. Suggestion
1. Teachers are expected to introduce and process skills and specific to the skills of cooperative before or during learning so that students are able to discover and develop their own facts and concepts as well as to foster and develop attitudes and values ​​required.

2. For learning the skills approach oriented process STAD cooperative learning to walk, should teachers plan to teach the subject matter, and determine all of the concepts that will be developed, and for each concept defined methods or approaches to be used and process skills to be developed.

References

Ismail. (2003). Media Pembelajaran (Model-model Pembelajaran). Jakarta: Proyek Peningkatan Mutu SLTP.
Sri Wardhani. (2006). Contoh Silabus dan RPP Matematika SMP. Yogyakarta: PPPG Matematika.
Tim PPPG Matematika. (2003). Beberapa Teknik, Model dan Strategi Dalam
Pembelajaran Matematika. Bahan Ajar Diklat di PPPG Matematika, Yogyakarta: PPPG Matematika.
Widowati, Budijastuti. 2001 Pembelajaran Kooperatif. Surabaya : Universitas Negeri Surabaya.


KUMPULAN MAKALAH BAHASA INGGRIS TENTANG COOPERATIVE LEARNING

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