Tuesday, June 11, 2013

CONTOH MAKALAH BAHASA INGGRIS TENTANG PENILAIAN PEMBELAJARAN



LEARNING ASSESSMENT



A. RATING DEFINITIONS
Any activity that takes place, in the end we want to know the results, as well as in learning. To find out the results of learning activities, measurement and assessment must be carried out. In regard to the assessment of learning success, some basic concepts you need to understand the measurement and assessment.

Measurement is an attempt to know the state of things as they are. In the implementation of learning, measurement of learning outcomes aimed to determine how much change in behavior following a student after completion of learning activities. Measurement activities are generally teachers use tests as a measuring tool. Measurement results that can be shaped figures give an idea of ​​the level of student mastery of subject matter. Numbers or score as a result of measurement has meaning when compared to the benchmark as the limit which states that the student has mastered the subject matter thoroughly.

Assessment is a business that aims to determine the success of mastery learning in competence. In addition to the assessment aims to determine the success or failure of the implementation of learning.

Basically the measurement and assessment have similarities and differences. Measurements focused on the action or process to determine the quantity of something, because it is usually necessary tools. The evaluation determines the quality or value of something.

Implementation of the first assessment should be based on measurements. Otherwise the measurement would be meaningless if it is not associated with the assessment. For example, the Agus obtain raw score of 70 (measurement), then based on the specified criteria Agus got a "B" (assessment).

B. OBJECTIVE ASSESSMENT
The first issue that must be done in the planning step is to formulate the assessment of learning objectives to be achieved. Assessment purposes is determined by the type of task that we face. Assessment objectives for education counselor will vary with the purpose of scoring for a selection committee and will be different with the aim of assessment for teachers who teach a particular subject.

Counselor education aims to obtain as complete information about the characteristics of students in order to provide the best possible guidance. A selection committee aims to determine the abilities, skills and attitudes that exist on the candidates to be able to select the right candidate for this type of education or certain types of positions. A teacher who teaches a particular eye aims to determine whether the learning materials are delivered to students already mastered or not.

Basically assessment in learning activities aim to:

a. Decisions about learning outcomes

b. Understanding of learners

c. Improvement and program development

C. ASSESSMENT TOOL
In general, there are two assessment tools that test and non test.

a. Test
The test is a way to conduct assessment in the form of a task or series of tasks that must be done by the learners, resulting in a value of the behavior or the student achievement that can be compared to the value achieved by other students established standards (Nurkancana, 1986).

If the formula iini received it will be found in the following elements:
1. That the test was in the form of a task
2. That the test was given to students to work
3. Responses that students need to be assessed

Based on the number of participants, the test results of learning can be divided into two types:
1. Individual test is a test which at the time gave us only faced one student
2. Test groups, if at that time we encounter a group of students awarded

In terms of preparation, the test results of learning can be divided into two types:
1. Teacher Made Tests
Teacher-made tests are tests that are prepared by the teachers who will use these tests. This test is usually given for a retrial Haria (formative), general (summative), or efflux (EBTA). Teacher-made test is intended to measure up where mastery of subject matter taught.

In making the matter, teachers need to be logical and rational things or points of what needs to be asked as an essential ingredient of knowledge that should be understood by the learner. Teacher-made tests are temporary means only applies at certain times and certain situations anyway, which on other occasions may change, both forms of matter and the capacity of students. The teacher-made tests that are purely rote and others are thinking.

A professional teacher who will draw up the ideal of impartial about the two properties mentioned above. Another result of the students who would seem to have established the ability to remember or memorize something and who have extensive and associative thinking power. The situation is the latter that should be created teacher.

2. Standard test
Standardized tests are tests that are valid and reliable (reliable) based on experiments on samples large enough and representative. Standardized test is a test that has been studied over and over again to the group. In addition to already researched and measured, questions which are relevant and which have a high distinguishing power, has also classified the types for age and class level. This test has been in the statistical analysis by experts and then declared valid or invalid for use in general. Statistical management is intended to look for distinguishing high validity of the other items. So it is a matter of right to be given and can be used as a measurement tool everyone in general intelligence.

Standardized tests aim to measure students in 3 aspects:
a. Position to learn
This test is intended to measure student learning position compared with classmates, and schoolmate level or equivalent from a school. This test is performed at a certain level and time.

b. Learning progress
This test to measure progress in a particular subject. When you have finished discussing something or some subject matter of a particular subject, the teacher usually gives daily tests in each semester. Sometimes these tests are given several times in order to see the progress or lack of success (setback) student learning through specific assessment.

c. Diagnostic
This test is intended to measure the weaknesses and strengths of students in mastering a particular subject matter extensively. It contained material which was compiled from the youngest to the and covers a wide field. Today the common diagnostic tests have been performed on all schools for all levels. Diagnostic tests are usually carried out simultaneously at several schools in the same time, the same test material. Diagnostic test results would show weakness or excess of a school.

There are some differences between the standard tests with artificial test, namely:
1. Standardized tests:
a) Based on the content and purpose of educational institutions in general.
b) Dealing with large parts of the knowledge or skills
c) Developed with the help of a professional writer
d) Using the items that have been in , analyzed and revised before it became part of the test.
e) Has the validity and constraints (reliabiliti) high
f) Have the measures for a variety of groups that broadly represent area.

2. Teacher-made tests
a) Based on the contents and specific goals for the classroom or the school in which the teacher teaches
b) Can particular topic or skill
c) Normally developed by a teacher without outside help
d) Using items which are rarely tested before it became part of the test
e) It has a low reliability
f) is usually limited to the classroom or the school as a group of users.

b. Non Tests
To assess the behavioral aspects, types of non-test is more appropriate is used as an assessment tool. Type of non-test assessment tools include:
1. Observation that the observation of behavior in certain situations

2. Interview that communicates directly between the that in the interview. To facilitate the implementation needs to be provided in the form of an interview guide that asked subjects

3. Case study that studied individuals in a given period continued to see progress

4. Grading scale is one tool use assessment scales that have been developed from the negative end to the positive end of the scale so that the checkmark assessment annotate live alone

5. Check list is actually almost like the grading scale, not only on the scale necessary to develop criteria from negative to positive. Enough with the possibilities of an answer that would be asked of the assessed

6. Inventory is "questioning" where is asked just choose alternative answers, if "agree" or "disagree". This is a form of non-test to determine the attitudes of the students after completing the program of study.

D. HOW TO ANSWER QUESTIONS
Basically there are two kinds of essay questions (description), namely:
a. Free form description
In this form of testi systematics and free to choose how to answer it. Each system has a testy and way different from each other. In the suggested answers, testi can review it from a different angle to each other. There is a focus on the political, economic or even just on the socio-cultural picture.

b. Limited forms
In answering this essay is limited, testi should bring certain things as its boundaries. Although the sound of this testi-sentence answer any diverse, important points that must be contained in the systematics answer according to the limits specified and required in because, to be present.

E. FORM TEST
In the form of learning known tests and examinations such as, written test, oral, and action (practice).
a. Forms of Written Test
The written test is given to a person or group of testy at times, places and specific questions. These tests exist that are informal and formal. Informal tests are meant to be done with a particular purpose, are limited environment, held by the party executing the semiofficial situation without going through formal institutional. While formal tests include sizable amount testy, which is organized by an official committee appointed by the state.

Form of a written exam that we know are:
1. Objective
2. Essay
3. Combination of both forms of the

b. Oral Test form
This form is a form of testing that requires a response from the child in the form of spoken language. Oral tests can be shaped as follows:
1) An examiner assessing a learner
2) A group of examiners assess student
3) Group examiners assess a student
4) A group of examiners assess a group of students.

c. Test forms Deeds
This is a test form that demands answers in child behavior or actions. So the boy acted in line with orders or questions posed. Tests can be shaped works with groups and individuals.

F. HOW TO INTERPRETING RESULTS ASSESSMENT
for interpreting assessment results can be taken two approaches, approaches the reference benchmark and reference norms approach.
a. Reference Benchmark Assessment (PAP)
This approach is more focused on what has been done by students or in other words the capability of what has been achieved after completing one small part of a whole program. Thus, PAP approach examines what can be done by the students and not compare a student with his classmates, but comparing it to a specific criterion. Criteria (benchmarks) in question is a learning experience that level is reached after the completion process of learning or a number of pre-defined learning objectives first before learning takes place. PAP goal is to measure the exact goals that have been set as a criterion of success.


To determine the limit pass (passing grade) with the PAP approach, then any score learners compared to the ideal maximum possible score achieved by learners. For example, in a test, ideally set score is 100, then the 85 learners who obtain a score equal to the value of 8.5 in a scale of T - 10, and so on.

Another way is to use the average and deviation of the ideal books. Remus used is:
PG = 0.25 SIDE X id + id
Description:
PG = Passing Grade (borderline pass)
X id = average ideal obtained from x 1h ideal score
Sdid = standard deviation of the ideal, which is obtained from the third x average ideal
Example:
Set an ideal score of 120 achievement tests
X id = 1h x 120 = 60 and SID id = 1/3 x 60 = 20
The border graduation = 60 = 0.25 x 20 = 65

b. Reference Assessment Norms (PAN)
In reference norms approach, meaning the numbers (score) a learner found by comparing the results of learning with other learners in the learning outcomes of the class. learners grouped by level learning outcomes, so that can know the relative position of a learner compared to her classmates.

PAN approaches aim is to differentiate groups of learners on the level of ability, from the lower to the higher. Ideally the spread of ability levels of learners in the group describe a normal curve. In general norm referenced test used for selection.

The test questions PAN approach developed from the material which is considered important by teachers as a sample of the material that has been delivered. Authorities to determine how the teacher is considered more important, and he should be able to limit the number of questions needed to remember that not all of the material that has been studied learners because questions can be raised completely.

In order for a matter which gained more diffuse and easily compare learners with each other, the questions must be made with varying levels of difficulty, from easy, moderate, to difficult, so give possible answers are varied as well.

Norma benchmark assessment is usually used when a study has been completed, to determine the level of learning outcomes learners. delimitation can pass with the following formula:
PG = X + 0.25 X sd akt AKT
Description:
PG = Passing Grade (Deadline passed)
X akt = average actual group
SD akt = deviation bake actual group

c. Use of Test Results
1) Test formative
Formative tests are intended to mernantau kernajuan learn learner during the learning process takes place, and to provide for even falsifies the teaching and learning program, as well as to identify the weaknesses - weaknesses that need improvement so that the learning outcomes for the better.

Formative test questions may be easy, but it might be too difficult, depending on the learning tasks for a small part of teaching is assessed. As already mentioned above, the main purpose is to repair the formative tests to learn, not the ability to create a level tintuk purposes. So, the real formative tests are criterion-referenced test. What is a formative test as was given at the end of the lesson unit actually not as formative tests because the data were obtained finally used to determine the level of learning outcomes learners.

It would be more appropriate tests at the end of the lesson unit was seen as a sub summative tests. If intended for the improvement of the learning process, the intent was barn done on the long term, ie at the time of the preparation of the program next year.

Formative test results beneficial to both teachers and learners:
Benefits for teachers:
a) the teacher will know how far learning materials mastered by learners. By knowing the success rate of the group of learners in the teaching materials, teachers can make the decision whether a substance that lesson be repeated or not.

b) the teacher can predict the results of summative tests. Summative tests are achievement tests of small entities subject material. Summative tests are achievement tests of a number of test units earlier. Thus, some formative test results can be used as an ingredient to predict summative tests. In the 1975 curriculum guide assessment determined that the value of formative tests were weighted satay while summative test scores is weighted two. Average results included in the progress report of the student book.

Benefits for learners:
a) in continuous learning (learning matery) the student must know the composition of the level of learning materials. With formative tests the students will know whether they are aware of it or not,

b) the formative test the learner will know those items which they really have mastered and those items which they are not experts. This is a very useful feedback to them, which parts they have to learn again individually.

2) Test summative
Summative tests given at the time the unit is considered to have completed the learning experience. Summative tests are given with a view to establish whether a learner successfully achieve a set of learning objectives or not.

Summative tests aim was to determine the numbers based on the learner's level of learning outcomes used as a sports figure. General tests and final exams at the end of the semester including summative tests. Summative results can also be utilized for the improvement of learning process. More extensive coverage of the material, and matter-soatnya include levels easy, medium, and hard.

The main function of summative tests are:
a) to determine the final value within a certain period, for example, the end of the semester, or the end of the year. This value is usually reported dalciin book report Education or Graduate Certificate in Learning (STTB). Thus, we will know the position of a learner in comparison with other learners in terms of academic achievement.

b) to provide information about a learner's skill or skills in a particular period.

c) to predict whether or not a learner will succeed in the next higher learning. In order to predict the function can work well, to consider the following matters:
a) The following subjects have a relationship with a trip that has been gone through,
b) The next lesson was still in the methods and characteristics of the learners
c) can be used to determine the next lesson materials
d) as consideration for sequence and the number of teaching materials and methods used in a series of learning activities.

Besides testing formative and summative tests, there is also a test called the placement tests and diagnostic tests.
1) Test placement
In general, the placement test is made as achievement tests, the aim is to find out:
a) whether learners have the skills necessary to follow a course of study
b) the extent to which the learner has achieved the learning objectives, as programmed in units of their lessons.

In relation to the first objective, the problem is related to the learner's readiness to face the barn program, while the second relates to the suitability of the learning program to learners.

More extensive pretest materials is limited and because the relatively low level of difficulty. It is based on the fact that the pretest is used to determine whether learners have memiiiki minimum ability to learn a lesson or unit material not at all.

Pretest function is mainly to identify the presence or absence of prerequisite skills. Pretest were made to determine the extent to which the learner has achieved the learning objectives or gain a learning experience as listed in the program. In such thing as a pretest made norm-referenced test.

2) A diagnostic test
Diagnostic test intended to determine the learning difficulties experienced by learners based on previous formative test result. The test requires a number of questions for the field that is thought to be difficult for learners. The questions are varied and focused on the difficulty, and is usually carried out before the lesson goes. He was held to explore the knowledge and skills. learners who have been under their control, whether the. learners (or prospective learners) already have the specific knowledge and skills necessary to be able to follow the lesson material. Therefore, such a diagnostic test called a test of entering behavior.

G. AND ASSESS HOW MENSKOR
1. Tests True - False (true - false)
In using numbers (scores) to test this form of B-S we can use two ways:
1) without penalty or no penalty and
2) the penalty or fine.

Without penalty is if the figures obtained many learners as answer key match. While the sentence (due to doubt the existence of an element of guesswork), use two kinds of formulas, but the result is the same.

First, with the formula:
S = R - W
S = Score R = Right W = Wrong

Scores obtained as a matter of the correct amount is reduced by any amount
Example:

- The number of questions = 10 pieces (T)
- The number of correct = 8 pieces (R)
- The number of wrong = 2 pieces (W)
The numbers are: 8-2 = 6

Secondly, with the formula:
S = T - 2W
T stands for the total, meaning that the number of questions in the test
The above example is calculated.

- The number of questions = 10 pieces (T)
- The number of correct = 8 pieces (R)
- The number of wrong = 2 pieces (W)
The figure is 10 - (2x2) = 10-4 = 6

2. In the form of Multiple Choice (multiple choice)
In determining the number of multiple choice tests, there are two kinds of ways that anyway without penalty and with penalty. Tanga-figure penalty if a lot is calculated from the number of answers that match the answer key.

With the sentence using the formula:
S = R - W / (n - 1)
Where:
S = Score (Score)
R = Right (Correct)
W = Wrong (False)
n = number of answer choices (generally in Indonesia 3,4, or 5)
Example:
- The number of questions = 10 pieces (T)

- The number of correct = 8 pieces (R)

- The number of wrong = 2 pieces (W)

- Many options = 4 pieces (n)

So the score is: 8 - {2 / (4-1)} = 8 - (2/3) = 7.33


3. Short Answer Test Forms (short answer test)
By considering the answers of which only one sense alone, the number of points for each question is predictable. Effort expended by a few students, but it is more difficult than one test form - the form of multiple choice or true. Each question should be number 2 (two). That figure we can also match the numbers on the correct form of one or multiple choice answers are expected if light or easy. But conversely if variable once complete, complete or incomplete, then the figure may be varied as well as 2, 1.5, and 1.

4. Tests Shape Matching (matching)
Basically test match form is multiple choice tests, where the answers into one, anyway questions. With dernikian, then the answer would be a lot more options. One further difficulty is that the answers are chosen are such that the answer is not needed for any other questions.

Answer key test form can be shaped to match the answer key row or row number followed by the letters contained in the alternative answers.

It has been explained that the test match is a form of multiple choice tests are more complex. Then the figures given in return for more as well. As with approximate figures can be determined that for each number is two.

5. Test Description Form (essay test)
There are two methods that can be used to give a score on a test outline, the method of analysis and methods sorter. The method of analysis is a way of setting up a judge with model answers where answers are analyzed into several steps or elements provided certain score. Once the models are composed answers, answers each child compared with the model answers and given scores according to the level of truth.

Metodi sorting is used to give a score to the answers that are not divided into elements. The scoring is done the analysis and the analysis and sorting a few suggestions to consider to maintain the reliability of the test essay:

1. Before starting the scoring, first prepare a model answer. Determine a total score which will be given to each item. If the method of analysis, assign a score to be given for every step or element of the correct answer. If the method of sorting, which specify a score will be given for each classification.

2. Each answer, regardless of their credentials should be checked first. If the teacher knows the identity of the answers are being checked, then this will affect the objectivity.

3. Check the children's answers are an item by item. After the first item has been checked for all children then proceed to examine the second and subsequent items. In this way the reliability scores can be maintained.

H. TEST TYPES OF LEARNING
a. Test Description (essay)
1. Description of the test free answers
A general description of the test questions containing the problem, a description or explanation in reply. A unique feature of this test is that students are free to answer, students are free to choose the approach that is appropriate in solving the problems that asked students rearrange and organize their own answers, and giving emphasis to the aspect answers.

2. Limited description of the test answers
Content of the answer is limited scope premises, while the response is limited by the questions listed on the test item.

b. Objective Test Forms
1. Short answer test
The suggestions in preparing the short answer questions:
- Any problems or questions should be very special
- Problems are simply stating an idea
- Do not take any questions from the textbook or model
- Make lots of short answer questions so it covers the subject matter

2. Complete the test form
This test can reveal the back and use the memory of the facts. The suggestions in preparing the stuffing test:
- It must be understood that we can not plan more than one answer that seems logical
- Arrange a matter of stating the idea
- Do not copy statements from the textbook or modules
- All the answers should fill the same length
- Do not have more than one blank space of each statement / question.
- Do not start with a blank
- Need to have a basic idea of ​​which is equipped with the keywords.

3. Problem was wrong
The suggestions in preparing the matter:
- Arrange a matter of stating the idea
- Do not use the footage straight from the text book / module
- Avoid using words that are not relevant clues
- Each question must contain only one meaning only.
- The number of test questions of right and wrong should be balanced.
- The statement must be unequivocal, stating right or wrong do not doubt.

4. Type of match
Suggestions to formulate questions about the match:
- Limit 3-5 questions in one column and as many answers on the other column with a plus 3 answers that contain truths that are similar to the correct answers for each task.
- Explain clearly the basics of doing pairing
- Give me just one homogeneous material only in each task.
- It should be maintained of style and grammar are steady (consistent)
- Make a list of answers to the more limited response but truly homogeneous material.
- Each each answer in a column must be an answer that may be accepted or believed to each question or questions on the other column.
- The questions are rather long should the left column, while the answer list in the right column.

5. Type of multiple-choice tests
Preparation of multiple-choice tests:
- Stem which formulate the problem should be clear
- Formulation of stem and alternative answers should be a statement of the required course
- For every problem there is only one correct answer
- Avoid stem the negative formulation
- Option and rapscallion should logically serve
- There should be no clue to the correct answer
- Try to keep that option homogenous
- If option-shaped figures, arrange the numbers sequentially starting from the smallest to the largest.
- Avoid using the phrase
- Try to answer the items that do not depend on the answer to the other items.
- In try to answer key questions balanced between a, b, c, d and lying scattered.

Kinds of kinds of multiple-choice objective test:
a. Completing choice
b. Relationships between things / matter
c. Review case
d. Association of multiple choice.



CONTOH MAKALAH BAHASA INGGRIS TENTANG PENILAIAN PEMBELAJARAN

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