Monday, June 10, 2013

CONTOH MAKALAH BAHASA INGGRIS TENTANG BAHAYA PENCEMARAN LINGKUNGAN



ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION


Environmental pollution is a change in the environment that are not desired because it can affect the activities, health and safety of living beings. The changes are caused by a contaminant called pollutants. A substance can be considered as pollutants if foreign material or substance that exceeds the normal amount, are in place and should not be at the most inopportune times.

Polluted environment, the state of the ecosystem out of balance due to the entry of pollutants into the environment. While the natural environment has a balanced ecosystem. Just as an example, the air in the village feels fresh because many overgrown with green trees. This suggests that the village has not been polluted air. The city is densely populated, the air will feel warm and breathing becomes uncomfortable. This shows the air is polluted. The following are the types of environmental pollution:

1. AIR POLLUTION

Air pollution is the presence of one or more substances physics, chemistry, or biology in atmospheric quantities that could endanger human health, animals, and plants, interfere with the aesthetics and comfort, or property damage. Air pollution can be caused by natural sources and human activities. The nature of air pollution impacts may be direct and local, regional, and global levels.

a) Causes of Air Pollution
Many factors can cause air pollution such as pollution caused by natural sources and human activity or a combination of both. Air pollution can cause air pollution impact is direct and local, regional, and global or indirectly in a long time.

Air pollutants pollutants can be divided into primary and secondary pollutants. Primary pollutants are substances directly arising from pollutant sources of air pollution. Carbon monoxide is an example of primary air pollutants because it is the result of arson. Secondary pollutant is a pollutant substance formed from the reaction of primary pollutants in the atmosphere.
a. Human activities
- Transport
- Industry
- The power plant
- Burning (fireplaces, stoves, furnaces, incinerators with different types of fuels)
- Exhaust gas factory that produces harmful gases
- Secondhand smoke

b. Natural resources

- Volcanoes
- Swamps
- Wildfires
- Nitrification and denitrification biological

c. The types of pollutants

- Carbon monoxide
- Oxides of nitrogen
- Oxides of sulfur
- Hydrocarbons
- Ozone
- Volatile Organic Compounds
- Partikulatb

b) Impact of Air Pollution
1. Health impacts
Substances contained in air pollutants can enter the body through the respiratory system. Away penetration of contaminants into the body depending on the type of pollutant. Large particulates can be retained in the upper respiratory tract, whereas small-sized particulates and gases can reach the lungs. Of the lungs, pollutants are absorbed by the circulatory system and spread throughout the body. Health impact of the most common is the ARI (acute respiratory infection), including, asthma, bronchitis, and other respiratory disorders.

2. Acid rain
normal pH of rainwater is 5.6 due to the presence of CO2 in the atmosphere. Air pollutants such as SO2 and NO2 reacts with water to form acid rain and lower the pH of rain water. The impact of acid rain, among others:
a) Influence of surface water quality
b) Destructive plant
c) Dissolve the heavy metals present in the soil thus affecting the quality of ground water and surface water
d) As a damaging corrosive materials and building

3. The greenhouse effect
The greenhouse effect is caused by the presence of CO2, CFCs, methane, ozone, and N2O in the troposphere which absorbs solar radiation reflected by the Earth's surface. As a result, the heat trapped in the troposphere and cause global warming phenomenon.

4. Global Warming
The impact of global warming are:
- Melting ice in the polar
- Regional and global climate change
- Changes in the life cycle of flora and fauna

5. Damage to the ozone layer
The ozone layer is located in the stratosphere (20-35 km altitude) is a natural protective filter function earth ultraviolet B radiation from the sun. The formation and decomposition of ozone molecules (O3) occurs naturally in the stratosphere. Emissions of CFCs reach the stratosphere is very stable and causes the rate of decomposition of ozone molecules faster than its formation, thus forming the holes in the ozone layer. Damage to the ozone layer causing UV-B sun rays are not filtered and can cause skin cancer and disease in plants.

c) Efforts To Do
Prevention of air pollution can not be done without tackling the cause. Taking into account the transport sector as a major contributor to air pollution, then this sector should be central.
- Calling on the government to improve the transportation system that exists today, with a transport system that is more environmentally friendly and affordable to the public. The main priority should be given to the mass transit system and not based on personal vehicles.
- Also called on the government to fulfill its commitment to enforce the use of unleaded gasoline.
- In the industrial sector, law enforcement should be carried out for industrial polluters.

Solutions to address the city's air pollution is mainly aimed at the improvement of the transport sector, without ignoring other sectors. This case we need to learn from other major cities in the world, which has managed to reduce urban air pollution and morbidity and mortality caused by it.
1. Granting permission for a small public transport should be limited, while the mass transportation vehicles, such as buses and trains, reproduced.

2. Vehicle age restrictions, particularly for public transport, need to be considered as one solution. Therefore, the older the vehicle, especially the less well maintained, the greater the potential to contribute to air pollutants.

3. Greatest potential for pollution by motor vehicle is a traffic jam and climbs. Therefore, traffic control, signs, and crack down on violations of driving can help address traffic congestion and reduce air pollution.

4. Emissions test must be conducted regularly on public transport or private although test quotes (spot check). Should be considered and taken into account the additional authority for the traffic police to conduct emissions testing in addition to check the papers and the completeness of the other vehicle.

5. Planting trees in broadleaf roadsides, especially the heaviest traffic and at the corners of the city, also reducing air pollution.

2. AIR POLLUTION
Water pollution is a change of state in a water reservoirs such as lakes, rivers, oceans and groundwater caused by human activities. Lakes, rivers, oceans and groundwater is an important part in the human life cycle and is one part of the hydrologic cycle. In addition to also drain the drain water sediment and pollutants. Various kinds of functions very helpful human life. Utilization of the largest lakes, rivers, oceans and ground water is for agricultural irrigation, drinking water raw materials, as the drainage of rainwater and wastewater, even real potential as a tourist attraction.

The issue of water pollution
Millions of people depend on the polluted Ganges river. Water pollution is a major global problem that requires evaluation and revision of water resource policy at all levels (from the international level to private water sources and wells). It has been said that pousi water is the world's leading cause of death and disease, and recorded the deaths of more than 14,000 people every day. An estimated 700 million Indians have no access to a toilet, and 1,000 Indian children die of diarrheal sickness every day. Approximately 90% of China's cities suffer from water pollution to a certain extent, and nearly 500 million people lack access to safe drinking water. Plus the addition of water pollution is an acute problem in developing countries, industrialized countries / forward is still struggling with pollution problems as well. In the most recent national report on water quality in the United States, 45% of rivers, 47% of lakes, and 32% of the bays and estuaries are classified as polluted.

Usually referred to polluted water when disturbed by anthropogenic contaminants and when it can not support human life, such as drinking water, and / or a marked shift in its ability to support the constituent biotic communities, such as fish. Natural phenomena such as volcanoes, algae blooms, storms, and earthquakes also cause major changes in water quality and ecological status of water.

a) Causes of Water Pollution
Sources of water pollution such as industrial waste, agriculture and households. There are several types of pollutants that can enter the water: materials containing germs, substances that require a lot of oxygen to decoder, organic chemicals from industrial or agricultural fertilizer waste, materials that do not sediment (sediment), and materials containing radioactive and heat. Water pollution can also be caused by many things and have different characteristics, namely:
1. Increased nutrient content can lead to eutrophication.
2. Organic waste such as sewage causes an increase in oxygen demand on the receiving water leading to reduced oxygen that can have a serious impact on the entire ecosystem.
3. Industry to dispose of a variety of pollutants in waste water such as heavy metals, organic toxins, oils, nutrients and solids. The waste water has thermal effects, especially those issued by power plants, which can also reduce oxygen in the water.
4. Such as plant waste that flows into rivers like the Citarum River
5. water pollution by garbage

b) Impact of Air Pollution
Germs of various substances that are toxic and radioactive materials can harm humans. Various pollutants requires O2 to decoder. If O2 is less, imperfect decoder and cause water to change color and foul smelling. Material or hazardous metals such as arsenic, uradium, chromium, lead, mercury, Benzon, tetrachloride, carbon and others. Tesebut materials can damage human organs or may cause cancer.

A large number of waste streams will go overboard. These pollutants can damage aquatic life around the mouth of the river and some small marine estuary. Hazardous materials that enter the sea or ocean have long-term consequences are not known. Many types of shellfish that may contain substances that are dangerous to eat.

Sea can also tecemar by the original oil as possible from residential, factory, through the river or from the damaged tanker. Oil can be deadly, birds and other marine animals, for example, the effects of poisoning to be seen in Japan. Mercury dumped a plastic industry Minamata accumulate in body tissues and the people who consume fish suffer disability and death.

Consequences caused by water pollution:
1. Disruption of aquatic organisms due to the reduced oxygen content.
2. An explosion of algae and aquatic plants (eurotrofikasi)
3. Shallowing bottom waters.
4. Blockage of the filter reservoir, and causing ecological changes.
5. In the long run are cancer and birth defects.
6. Due to the excessive use of pesticides appropriate than killing pests and diseases, it also kills useful insects and creatures, especially predators.
7. Death of an ancient biota, such as plankton, fish, and even birds.
8. Cell mutation, cancer, and leukeumia.

c) Efforts To Do

Dilution and groundwater pollutant decomposition difficult because the water does not flow and does not contain the aerobic bacterial decomposition so, contaminated groundwater would remain contaminated in a very long time, even though there is no material contamination coming. Because of this a lot of effort to keep the ground clean for example:
1. Placing industrial areas or plants away from residential areas or residential.
2. Disposal of industrial waste that is not regulated environment or ecosystem.
3. Oversight of the use of the types of pesticides and other chemicals that can cause pollution.
4. Expanding green movement.
5. Action against environmental pollution behavior.
6. Provide awareness of the meaning of environmental t so much more loving human environment.
7. Agricultural intensification.

Many people say " better than on addressing", this also applies to flood inundation. Below are some steps you can take to prevent flood inundation:
1. In planning the neighborhood streets both government and non-government programs should choose the material that absorbs water, for example, the use of block paving materials (concrete blocks prepared with water absorbing cavities interrupted-he interrupted. Thing is no less important is the arrangement of channel / drainage environment must coincide with the road construction.

2. If in our yard yard there are still open spaces, make the wells rain water infiltration as much as possible. Function of the water catchment wells to accelerate the water seep into the ground. By making the rainwater catchment wells, in fact we can obtain the following benefits:
a. Water supply in the soil around our house pretty well and a lot.
b. Former quarry land wells can be used to hoard land or raising the lower floor of the house.
c. If the rain water can not be accommodated in a house gutters / gutter-gutter house, water can be streamed -infiltration wells. Do not throw trash or removing household waste water (used water from showers, laundry, etc.) into the rainwater catchment wells because it can pollute the soil water content. Specifically for domestic wastewater discharges, make its own catchment wells
d. If the incoming flood waters reached a height of 20-50 cm home the only way is to elevate us above the threshold of the house floor surface water flooding
e. Another way is to create a dike at the entrance of our house. This is a common way people are often less technically only planned in detail.

3. LAND POLLUTION
Soil is an important part in supporting life on earth. As we know the food chain begins with plants. Human, animal, plant life. Indeed, there are plants and animals that live in the sea, but most of our food comes from the ground. Therefore, it is our obligation to preserve the land so that it remains able to support life on earth. However, as well as air and water pollution, soil contamination was a result of human activity as well.

Soil contamination is a state in which man-made chemicals enter and modify the natural soil environment. This contamination usually occurs because: leakage of liquid waste or industrial chemicals or commercial facilities; pesticide use; influx of contaminated ground water into the sub-surface layer; accidents of vehicles carrying oil, chemicals, or waste, water waste from landfills and industrial wastes are directly discharged into the ground are not eligible (illegal dumping).

Contaminated soil
a famous Indonesian land. Up in the history of Indonesia ever. Fertility that has invited the foreign invaders to exploit. Another phenomenon now. Most Indonesian soil contaminated by pollution caused by public disorder. This makes the soil contamination is damaged and lost a, contain high acidity. Foul smelling, dry, containing heavy metals, and so on. If it were so then the ground will be difficult to be utilized.
From the above statement, it can be deduced that polluted soil characteristics are:
1. Infertile soil
2. pH below 6 (acidic soil) or pH above 8 (alkaline soils)
3. Stink
4. Dry
5. Contain heavy metals
6. Containing inorganic waste

Uncontaminated soil
Uncontaminated soil is that still meet the basic elements of the soil. It does not contain harmful substances. Uncontaminated soil is fertile, do not stink, normal acidity. The main thing is do not contain heavy metals. Uncontaminated soil great potential for the benefit of mankind tools. With good agricultural land can bring in profits doubled.
From the above statement, it can be concluded that the characteristics of the soil is not contaminated is:
1. The soil is fertile
2. Route minimal pH 6, maximum 8
3. Do not stink
4. Not dry, has a normal level of friability
5. Contains no heavy metals
6. Does not contain inorganic waste

a) Causes of Soil Pollution
Sources of soil pollution, soil pollution is not much different or can be said to have a close relationship with air pollution and water pollution, the sources of air pollutants and sources of water pollution in general are also a source of soil contaminants. For example, carbon oxide gases, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides into the air pollutants that dissolve in rain water and fell to the ground can cause acid rain causing pollution in the soil.

Surface soil containing pollutants such as contaminated radioactive substances, heavy metals in industrial waste, household waste, hospital waste, the remnants of fertilizers and pesticides from agricultural areas, waste detergent, eventually also can cause pollution in the area of ​​land where surface water ground or water surface area through which the contaminated soil. Then ground source pollutants can be grouped also be a source of pollutants coming from, household waste, market waste, hospital waste, erupting volcano / motor vehicle and industrial waste. In general, soil contamination can be caused by domestic waste, industrial waste, and agricultural waste.

1. Domestic waste
Domestic waste can come from areas: residential; perdagang-an/pasar/tempat hotel businesses and others; institutions such as government offices and private, and tourism, can be solid and liquid wastes.

a. Solid waste in the form of inorganic compounds that can not be destroyed or broken down by microorganisms such as plastics, fibers, ceramics, tins and used building materials, causing the soil becomes less fertile. The pollutants will remain intact up to 300 years to come. Wrap plastic waste to the environment that we will still be there and may be found by our children and grandchildren after hundreds of years later. Ter-inorganic waste is not biodegradable, causing soil layer can not be penetrated by plant roots and is impermeable to water so that the absorption of water and minerals to nourish the soil is lost and the number of microorganisms in the will be reduced consequently difficult plant to grow even die because they do not obtain food for developed.

b. Liquid waste such as inks, detergents, oil, paint, if absorbed into the ground will damage the soil water content can even kill micro-organisms in the soil.

2. Industrial waste
Industrial waste comes from the remnants of industrial production. Wastewater treatment is the result of a production process, such as industrial processing scraps of metal plating and other chemical industries. Copper, lead, silver, chromium, arsenic and boron are substances resulting from industrial processes such as metal plating Hg, Zn, Pb, Cd can contaminate the soil. A substance that is toxic to microorganisms. If soak into the ground will result in death for microorganisms which have a very important function of the soil fertility.

3. Agricultural waste
Agricultural waste may be the remnants of synthetic fertilizers to enrich the soil or plants, such as urea fertilizer and pesticides for pest eradication. Continuous use of fertilizers in agriculture will damage the soil structure, which led to reduced soil fertility and can not be planted with certain crops due to soil nutrient decreases. And the use of pesticides not only kill pests of plants but also useful microorganisms in the soil. Though soil fertility depends on the number of organisms in it. In addition the use of pesticides will result in continuous crop pests resistant to pesticides.

b) Impact of Soil Pollution
1. Impact On Health
The impact of pollution on health ground dependent, pathway into the body and the vulnerability of the affected population. Chromium, a wide range of pesticides and herbicides are carcinogenic materials for all populations. Lead is particularly dangerous in children, because it can cause brain damage, and kidney damage. Chronic exposure (continuous) to benzene at a certain concentration can increase the chances of developing leukemia.

Mercury (mercury) and siklodiena known to cause kidney damage, and may not be treated, PCB and related siklodiena on liver toxicity, Organophosphate and causes the neuromuscular disorder. There are several kinds of health effects such as headaches, dizziness, fatigue, eye irritation and skin rashes to exposure to chemicals mentioned above. What is clear, in large doses, can cause soil contamination Death ..

2. Or Environmental Impact On Ecosystems
Impacts on agriculture, especially plant metabolic changes that could eventually lead to declining crop yields. This can lead to further impacts on the conservation of plants where the plant is not able to hold the layers of soil erosion. Some of these pollutants has a long half-life and in other cases derivative chemicals are formed from the main soil pollutants.

Soil pollution can also have an impact on the ecosystem. Radical changes in soil chemical that can arise from the presence of toxic chemicals / hazardous even at low doses though. These changes can lead to changes in the metabolism of endemic microorganisms and arthropods that live in the soil environment. As a result, it can even destroy some of the primary species food chain, which can give a great result against predators or other levels of the food chain.

Impacts on agriculture, especially plant metabolic changes that could eventually lead to declining crop yields. This can lead to further impacts on the conservation of plants where the plant is not able to hold the layers of soil erosion. Some of these pollutants has a long half-life and in other cases derivative chemicals are formed from the main soil pollutants.

c) Efforts To Do
Domestic waste so much waste reduction this is by separating organic waste or garbage can or easily decomposed by soil, and inorganic waste or garbage that will break down the soil but it takes a very long time to decompose by land. Organic waste are easily decomposed by soil, for example be used as backfill, all we then cover with soil so that the soil surface there that we can use again, and special composted manure and biogas can be made other, while inorganic waste that can not be decomposed by microorganisms. The best way of handling the waste recycling into items that may be used or can also be used as wall hangings. Industrial waste, ways to overcome that is by treating the wastewater before discharge to the river or sea.

Agricultural waste that is by reducing the use of synthetic fertilizers and other chemicals such as pesticides for pest control is replaced with the use of compost. As for the handling of land clearing, namely:
1. Remediation
Remediation is an activity to clean up contaminated soil surface. There are two types of soil remediation, ie in-situ (or on-site) and ex-situ (or off-site). Cleaning is a cleaning on-site at the location. This cleaning is cheaper and easier, consisting of cleaning, venting (injection), and bioremediation.

Cleaning off-site includes excavation of contaminated soil and then taken to a safe area. After it in a safe area, the land was cleared of contaminants. The trick is, the land is kept in the tub / watertight tank, then pumped into a tub of cleaning agents / the tank. Furthermore pollutants pumped out of the basin which is then processed by the wastewater treatment facility. Off-site cleaning is far more expensive and complicated.

2. Bioremediation
Bioremediation is the process of cleaning the soil contamination using microorganisms (fungi, bacteria). Bioremediation aims to break down or degrade contaminants into less toxic materials or non-toxic (carbon dioxide and water).

Precautions and countermeasures against pollution can be done in various ways according to the kinds of contaminants that need to be tackled. Preventive measures and countermeasures against pollution, among others, can be done as follows:
Preventive measures
In general, prevention is, in principle, is trying not to cause pollution, for example to prevent / reduce the occurrence of pollutants, among others:
a) The organic waste that can rot / described by micro-organisms, among others, can be done by measuring the waste in closed and open land, then can be processed as compost / fertilizer.

b) Waste organic compounds or inorganic compounds that can not be destroyed by micro-organisms can be done by burning the rubbish that can burn such as plastics and fibers, both individually and collected in a place far from home, so it does not pollute the air settlements
. Waste that can not be burned to ground / cut into small particles, and then buried.

c) Treatment of the industrial waste containing heavy metals that contaminate the soil, before being discharged into the river or into exile in order to do the process of purification.

d) The use of fertilizers, pesticides are not used arbitrarily, but in accordance with the rules and not to excess.

e) Try to get rid of and put detergent in the form of organic compounds that can be destroyed / broken down by microorganisms.


REFERENCES
Bachri, Moch. 1995. Geologi Lingkungan. CV. Aksara, Malang. 112

Santiyono, 1994. Biologi I untuk Sekolah Menengah Umum, penerbit Erlangga

Soekarto. S. T. 1985. Penelitian Organoleptik Untuk Industri Pangan dan Hasil Pertanian. Bhatara Karya Aksara, Jakarta.


CONTOH MAKALAH BAHASA INGGRIS TENTANG BAHAYA PENCEMARAN LINGKUNGAN

0 comments:

Post a Comment


Get this widget!