Friday, May 31, 2013

KUMPULAN KARYA TULIS ILMIAH BAHASA INGGRIS TENTANG MOTOR DAN MESIN

STARTER MOTOR ON PAPER MACHINE


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1. Background
Motor Starter is a tool that is used to start the engine or vehicle the first time, in the Motor Starter there are many components to run, and so did the system or how the starter, to the inside of the paper will discuss about the working system Motor Starter.
To drive the electro motors, the necessary ancillary equipment that is, or so-called starter motor starter. Known at this time there are several different types of starters. Among such as Direct On Line (DOL) Starter, Star Delta Starter, autotransformer Starter, Soft Starter, Frequency Drive
2. Destination
The purpose of discussing a system or way of working Motor Stater, is that we Understand the components - components and workings sisitem or the starter motor itself, and then the likelihood we can to take care of or fix it.
3. Problem Formulation
In this paper formulated it - the following:
• What is a Motor Starter?
• What is the function / usability Motor Starter?
• What kind of work  on Motor Starter?
• Part - what part are contained in the Motor Starter?
• What does the concept of assembly or installation Motor Starter?



CHAPTER II
DISCUSSION

A. Starter System

A machine can not begin to live (start) with , then the machine
require external power cranking and
helping to turn. Of some existing ways, cars on
generally use electric motors, coupled with a magnetic switch
move the pinion gear to the ring gear which spins are paired to the
the outside of the fly wheel, so that the ring gear rotates (and also the crankshaft).
Starter motor should be able to generate a large moment of force is small
available on the battery. Another thing to consider is that the motor
starter should be as small as possible. For this reason, the motor serie DC (direct current)
generally used

B. Motor Starter
Motor Starter is a tool that is used to start the engine or vehicle the first time, in the Motor Starter there are many components to run, and so did the system or how the starter, to the inside of the paper will discuss about the working system Motor Starter.
Starter motor used on automobile equipped with a magnetic
switches that move the gear that rotates (hereinafter referred to as tooth pinion)
relating to or off of the ring gear is attached around the fly wheel
(Flywheel) made on the shaft . Today we recognize two types of motors
starter used on a vehicle or small truck-truck, the starter motor
conventional and reduction. The cars are designed to be used on
colder areas use reduction type starter motor, which can be
produce greater torque needed for engine
in cold weather. This type of starter motor can produce more moments
greater than the conventional starter motor for the same size and weight.,
currently tend to use this type of car though for the area
heat. In general, the starter motor is classified (measured) based on output
nominal (in KW) output the greater the greater the ability of the starter

C. Component - component Motor Starter
1. Pole Yoke and Core

Yoke is made of a cylindrical metal and serves as a pole
cores are tied with sekrup.Pole core serves as the supportt field coil magnetic field generated by the field coil.
2. Field Coil
Field coil made from copper plates, with the intent to allow
the flow of electrical current strong enough / big. Field work for coil magnetic field.
On a starter is usually used four field coil, which means having empatcore.
3. Armature and Shaft
Armature consisting of a cylindrical piece of steel and given a slot-
slots, shafts, komulator and armature coils. And working to change
electrical energy into mechanical energy, in the form of rotary motion.
4. Brush
Brush is made of soft copper, and serves to continue the flow of electricity from
field coil to the armature coil directly to the masses through the commutator. Generally four brushes, which are grouped into two.
• Two pieces of so-called positive brush.
• Two pieces of so-called negative brush
5. Armature Brake
Serves as a brake armature armature braking lap after docking with wheels successor.
6. Drive Lever
Drive lever serves to push the pinion gear toward the related position
with wheels successor. And remove the pinion gear from docking docking wheel
successor.
7. Sarter Clutch
Sarter berfugsi clutch to transfer torque to the wheels punter saft
successor, so the clutch berputar.Sarter can also serve as a safety
of the armature coil when the wheel tends to rotate the pinion gear successor
8. Switch Magnet (Magnetic Switch)
Magnetic switches are used to connect and disconnect pinion gear
to / from the wheel successor, as well as a large electric current flow in the circuit
starter motor through the main terminals.

D. The workings of Motor starter
1. At the time of the motor Switch
 When the starter switch is turned ON, the battery drains in coil mass and on the other hand to pull-in coil, field coil and into mass At the moment in the hold and pull-in coil form with same magnetic force, due to the direction of current flowing in the two coils in the image above.
From this incident contact plate (plunger) will move toward closing the main
switch, so that drives the starter clutch shift lever moves toward the position
associated with the ring gear. To more clearly the current flow is as follows:
· Battery? terminal 50? hold in coil? mass
· Battery? terminal 50? pull-in coil? field coil? armature? mass
Therefore, the current flowing to the field coil at the time, relatively small and slow rotating e allow docking ring pinion with a soft On this vehicle contact plate has not closed the main switch.
2. At the moment Regarding Full Pinion
When the pinion gear is fully associated with the ring gear, the contact plate main switch, see the picture above, the current will flow following:
· Battery? Terminal 50? Hold in coil? Mass
· Battery? Main switch? Terminal c? Field coil? Armature? Mass
No current in terminal C, then from the pull-in coil current can not flow, as a result the contact plate being held by the hold-in coil magnetism alone. Together with the large current will flow from the battery to the field coil? armature? mass through the main switch. Consequently starter can produce
moment of great punter who used rotating ring gear. Fit in the machine has begun to live, ring gear will rotate through the armature avoid damage caused by such things then the starter clutch sarter will liberate and protect the armature from excessive rotation.
3. By the time the starter Switcf OFF.
After the starter switch is turned to the off position, and the main switch in the state
not opened (yet free from contact plate). then the current flow as follows:
· Battery? Terminal 30? Main switch? Terminal C
· Field coil? Armature? Mass
Therefore starter switch off then pull-in coil and hold coil does not get in the flow of the terminals 50 terminals C. instead of the current flow will be:
· Battery? Terminal 30? Main switch? Terminal C
· Pull-in coil? Hold-in coil? Mass
Because the current pull-in coil opposite the direction of the magnetic force generated is also contrary to both eliminate each other, it predicament involving about strength return spring to restore the contact plate to so interesting sarter drive clutch lever and pinion gear regardless of docking
E. Charging system (charging system)
Function of the automobile battery is to supply electricity to the electrical components such as the starter motor cars, big lights and windshield wiper. However, the battery capacity is very limited, so it will not be able to supply power continuously.
Thus, the battery must be fully charged in order to supply
electricity demand any time required by each of the components that the car needed siatem charging that will produce electricity so that the battery is always fully charged.
Charging system (charging system) will produce electricity for  back to the battery and supplies electrical components when the machine is turned
Most cars are equipped with an alternator that produces alternating current which is better than the dynamo that generates direct current in terms of power generated and durability.
Cars that use direct current (direct current), the alternating current produced by the alternator into direct current must before
issued.

F. The function of Alternator
Function of the alternator is to convert mechanical energy obtained from engine power. Mechanical energy from the engine is channeled an pulleys, wheels that rotate and produce alternating electric current in the stator. Alternating electric current is then converted into direct current by the diode-diode.
The main components of the alternator are: rotor that generates a magnetic field power, stator which produces an alternating electric current, and rectify some of the diode current.
Additional components are: brushes supplying electrical current to the rotor to generate magnetism (magnetic field), bearing-bearing
allows the rotor to rotate gently and a fan to cool the rotor, stator and diode.
Construction alternator parts consist of:
-. Pulleys (pulley) -. Startor coil
-. Fan (fan) -. Rectifiers (silicon diode)
-. Rotor coil
a. Pull (pully)
Puli serves to place the fan belt driving the rotor.
b. Fan (fan)
Function of the fan is to cool the diode and coils on the alternator.
c. Rotor
The rotor is the rotating part of the alternator, the rotor rotor are coils (rotor coil) which serves to generate magnetism. Nails were found in the rotor serves as a magnet poles, two slip ring found on alternator serves as a power supplier riveted by two bearings, pulleys are on the front and the fan, while at the rear there is a slip ring .
d. Stator
On construction and stator coil. stator is stationary part and consists of three coils on one of its ends into one theory of this construction is called the relationship a "Y" or three-star fhase. middle be a central part of this is called the terminal "N". At the other end of the cable will produce alternating current (AC) three PHAs
e. Rectifier (diode)
construction and the relationship between the stator coil with diode. The third end of the stator with both kinds of diodes.
In the old model, there are two separate parts between the diode positive (+) and negative diode (-). Part positive (+) has a bigger house than the negative (-). In addition to these differences there are more differences, namely the red stripe on the diode positive and negative black strip on the diode.
 Function of the diode is rectify an alternating current (AC) produced by the stator coil into direct current (DC). Diode also prevents reverse flow from the battery to the alternator.
Voltage from the alternator is not always constant results. Since the results depend alternator power than the motor rotation speed. rapid rotation greater results and vice versa.
Serves as a magnet rotor magnet.Adapun generated electricity is magnetic, then by adding or reducing the electrical current into the rotor coil will affect the magnetism that results in the stator alternator coilpun will results strongly influenced by the presence of an electric current into rotor coil.
Function of the regulator is to regulate the electric current into the rotor coil so that the voltage generated by the alternator remains constant (same) according to pre-determined prices, although the rotation changes. Other than that the regulator also serves to turn off the sign of the charging light, charging signal lights will automatically turn off when the alternator is producing an electric current.
If the alternator is not generating electricity, it is only from the battery alone to address the needs of electricity, if this happens then the regulator will work signaled to the driver (CHG lamp).
There are two types of regulators for point type (point type) and type without point (pointless type). Type without point also called IC regulator because it consists of intergrated circuit. The regulator IC characteristic made together with the alternator are as follows:
a) The small size and high output its
b) Do not need tuning voltage (voltage)
c) Having a razor blade to control the voltage temperature compensation held
for filling batteries and supplies to the lights.



Apikasi in Charging System (Charging System) Circuit / of regulator charging system that uses two contact points. Energy requirement to produce a magnetic field (magnetic flux) on the alternator rotor is supplied from terminal F.
This current is regulated in terms of increased or decreased by the regulator in accordance with the
voltage terminal B. Electricity generated by the alternator stator is supplied from
terminal B, and re-used to supply loads that occur in
great lights (head llights), wipers, radio, and others in
additions to recharge the battery. Charging light will turn on,
when the alternator is not sending the amount of electricity that
when the voltage from the alternator terminals N is less than the prescribed amount.
As has been shown by the picture above, when the IG fuse terminal end,
electricity will not flow to the alternator rotor and consequently do not generate
CHG broken alternator fuse will can be proved with the help of the charging circuit as follows.
When the ignition is ON and engine off kinci When contact is turned ON, current from the battery will flow to the rotor and the rotor stimulate the same time, the battery current is also flowing to the lamp filling (CHG) and consequently the lamp lit (ON ).
Overall flow of electric current as follows:
a. The current to the field coil
Terminal (+) battery? Fusible link? Ignition (IG switch)? Fuse? Terminal IG
regulator? point OT? point OT? terminal F regulator? terminal F
alternator? brush? slip ring? rotor coiil? slip ring? brush? terminal E
alternator? mass? bodies.
rotor magnetism arises were aroused and the subsequent flow
called araus field (field current).
b. Charge current to the lamp
Terminal (+) battery? Fusibler link? Sakjelar ignition IG (IG switch)
fuse? lights CHG? terminal L regulator? point of contact P? point of contact
P? Terminal E regulator? Mass of the body.
As a result, charge light will turn on.
Engine from low speed to medium speed.
After living and rotor spinning machines, voltage / voltage generated in
stator coil, and the neutral voltage used for voltage relay, because it's so light charge mati.Pada the same time, the voltage at the voltage regulator issued action. Flow field (field current) is controlled and adjusted to the rotor voltage issued by acting on the B terminal voltage regulator.
Thus, one of the field current will penetrate or not penetrate through resistor R, depending on the circumstances of the contact point of the PL.
Note:
When P movement from voltage relay, make contact with the contact point P, then the circuit before and after the charging light (charge) voltage equal. So that the hem will not flow to the lights and the lights eventually die. For details of current flow in each of the following events:
a. Neutral Voltage
N terminal alternator? Terminal N regulator? Magnet coil of the voltage
relay? terminal E reguilator? mass of the body.
As a result, the magnetic coil of the relay voltage will occur magnetism and can
Interesting point of contact P of P and then P will be united with P. With
Thus the charging light (charge) so mat.

b. Out voltage (output voltage)
Terminal B alternator? Trminal B regulator? Point of contact P? Point of contact P? Magnet
coil from the voltage regulator? terminal E regulator? mass body.
As a result, the coil voltage regulator that can arise magnetism
affect the position of the contact point (point) PL.
In this case of the Old Testament would be interested in that at moderate speeds OT will float (as shown in the picture above).
c. Currents to the field
Termional B alternator? IG switch? Fuse? Terminal IG regulator? Point PL? Point
PL? Reristor R? Terminal F regulator? Terminal F alternator? Rotor
coil? terminal E alternator? mass of the body.
In this case the amount of current / voltage into the rotor coil through two bias
channel. When magnetism in voltage regulator capable of attracting large and PL of PL, then the current to the rotor coil will be current through the resistor small and magnetization-induced rotor coil is small (reduced).
d. Put out current
Terminal B alternator? Battery and load? Mass of the body. Engines of Medium Speed ​​to High Speed ​​When the engine speed increases, the voltage generated by the coil stato up, and the pull of magnetism coil voltage regulators become more powerful.
With a more powerful appeal, which the rotor field current will flow
discontinuous (intermittently). In other words, the movement of the contact point of the PL
voltage regulators sometimes make contact with the contact point movement Bial PL PL on the regulator contact points associated with the contact point
PL, current field will be limited.
However the point of voltage relay will not separate from the point P, because the neutral voltage maintained in the rest of the rotor flux.

 Current flow is senagai following:
1. Neutral Voltage (Voltage Neutral)
N terminal alternator? Terminal N regulator? Magnet coil of the voltage
relay? terminal E regulator? mass of the body.
This flow is also commonly referred to neutral voltage.
2. Out Put Voltage
Terminal B alternator? Terminal B regulator? Point P? Point P? Magnet coil of Nregulatorterminal E regulator.Inilah called the output voltage.
3. no current to Current Field
Terminal B alternator? IG switch? Fuse? Terminal IG regulator? Reristor
R? Terminal F regulator? Terminal F alternator? Rotor coil? Or? Point OT? Point P? Ground (NO.FC)? Terminal E alternator? Mass (F Current).
When current resistor R? Flow teminal Fregulator? Rotor coil? Masses, consequently arua the rotor to exist, but if the PL-current flows to the masses so that the rotor coil no.
4. Out Put Current
Terminal B alternator? Battery / load? Mass.


CHAPTER III
CLOSING

A. Conclusion

After outlining some of the discussion above, we come to the conclusion stage. With all of the discussion, the authors can conclude that: Motor Starter, it is a kind of circuit that is very important in the process turn the vehicle engine, the various components of the circuit in the Motor Starter each - each have the performance of inter-related to each component - component vehicles.

B. Suggestion

In closing this paper to put forward some of the following: In the past, each of the different components of the engine is controlled by the controller, respectively. With such a simple this paper, the authors expect that the author made paper hopefully, able to motivate the young generation, especially the intellectuals to explore the science of electricity and electronics are increasingly. Authors apologize if there are words - words that are less pleasing in the paper that the author made, somehow the author is an ordinary person who has many omissions and deficiencies


KUMPULAN KARYA TULIS ILMIAH BAHASA INGGRIS TENTANG MOTOR DAN MESIN, STARTER MOTOR ON PAPER MACHINE

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