THE USE OF PICTURES EFFECTIVE TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ VOCABULARY FOR THE FOURTH GRADE STUDENTS OF MI AL-AMIN PEJERUK IN ACADEMIC YEAR 2011/2012
A. Background of the Study
Language may refer either to the specifically human capacity for acquiring and using complex systems of communication. Language as a communication system is thought to be fundamentally different from and of much higher complexity than those of other species as it is based on a complex system of rules relating symbols to their meanings, resulting in an indefinite number of possible innovative utterances from a finite number of elements. Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary (1981:225) “communication is a process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols, signs, or behavior”.
There are two forms of language those are spoken and written. Spoken language involved sounds that produced by our oral system and while written language is language in the form of text. Both, spoken and written language are used for communication and exchange information between speakers and listeners. Wardhaugh (1972: 3-8) stated that “the function of language is human’s tool for communication whether in the form of spoken or written”.
There are many languages in the world such as Bahasa Indonesia, French, Dutch English and etceteras. English particulary is the most dominant language that spoken around the world. British colonialism in the 19th century and American capitalism and technological progress in the 20th century were undoubtedly the main causes for the spread of English throughout the world. The domination of English language globally is undeniable. English is the language of diplomacy and international communications, business, tourism, education, science, computer technology, media and Internet. Because English was used to develop communication, technology, programming, software, etc, it dominates the web. 70% of all information stored e lectronically is in English. As abundantly clear English has now achieved global status (Crystal,1997).
Because English is so widely spoken, and while it is not an official language in most countries, it is currently the language most often taught as a foreign language. As foreign language in Indonesia, English officially taught since 1967 under decesion of Minister of Educational and Cultural. In the present time, English language has been introduced since the level of elementary school or even in play groups. It is also compulsary foreign language taught in junior high school and senoir high school.
Students of elementary school particularly, are young learner. As young learner, children are better than adults when tempting to learn foreign language. As in the common observation, memory ability of every young child seems to be unparalleled, in that they can absorb a phenomenal amount of data. It seems that children tend to rely more on memory. Therefore it is important to introduce and teach English skills as young as elementary school.
There are four skills in English, those are Listening, speaking, reading and writing. But before learning any further about the four skills, it neccesary to know the vocabulary. According to Suyanto (2007:118) said “ that the definition of vocabulary is collective word owned by one language and gives the meaning if we use the language”. Learning new words or vocabulary is important part of learning new language. Even children learning their native tongue ussualy learn isolated words or phrases before piecing them together into more complex utterance. Learning some words and phrases in a new language allows people to start communicating at once. As Wilkins wrote in 1972 (1972:111) “the fact is that while without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed”. So, as beginer of language learner, learning vocabulary is the first step on learning English language.
Knowing that young language learners seems to pick up another language very quickly just by exposure, media are needed to be used in the classroom. There are many medias can be used for teaching vocabulary, for example like ussing games, song lyrics, and even pictures. Pictures especially are believed very effective to improve students’ vocabulary. Picture is visual, it is very effective to stimulate the eagerness of students in learning language. Using pictures in teaching and learning will help students pay attention to things they have not seen which related to their subject. Teacher can use any picture like posters, paintings or any printed pictures as they are very easy to find. As a good teacher we can filter kind of pictures that appropriate and related to the topic choosen before bring them in the class room. Appropriate and interesting pictures are very effective for teaching vocabulary at the level of elementary school.
Therefore, based on the assumption that pictures are effective to improve students’ Vocabulary in the level of Elementary School, the rearcher implies a research at the fourth grade students of MI AL-AMIN Pejeruk in academic year 2011/2012.
B. Statement of the Problem
Based on the background above, the reseacher would like to answer the following question below:
“Is the use of pictures effective to improve English vocabulary for the the fourth grade students of MI AL-AMIN Pejeruk in academic year 2011/2012”?
C. Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to find out whether the use of pictures effective to improve students’ vocabulary for the fourth grade students of MI AL-AMIN Pejeruk in academic year 2011/2012.
D. Scope of the Study
The research is focused on the use of pictures in improving students’ vocabulary. The research is conducted at the fourth grade students of MI AL-AMIN Pejeruk in academic year 2011/2012.
E. Significance of The Study
This study is hoped to be useful to:
a. Encourage the English teachers to use many kinds of picture in teaching English vocabulary.
b. Help the young learner to learn English vocabulary easily through pictures.
c. Give more experience or input for readers that pictures can be used as a technique in teaching English vocabulary
F. Hypothesis of the Study
The hypothesis set for the recent study is as tentative answer of the research problem. It comprises alternate hypothesis (Ha) and null hypothesis (Ho). Alternate (Ha) as the hypothesis that states the relationship between experimental treatment that the writer expects to emerge.
On the other hand, the null hypothesis shows no relationship between the experimental treatments that the writer expects to emerge. So in this particular investigation, the hypothesis can easily be formulated as follows: The alternative hypothesis (Ha): “Picture is effective to improve students’ English vocabulary”. For statistical analysis the alternate hypothesis need to be changed into null hypothesis (Ho) which is read: “Pictures is not effective to improve students’ English vocabulary”.
G. Definition of Key Terms
To avoid the drawback or misunderstanding of some words in this research, it is important to give some explanations or definitions as follows:
Effectiveness is the capability of producing a desired result. When something is seemed effective, it means it has an intended or expected outcome, or produces a deep, vivid impression (Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)
Picture is a painting or drawing, etc. That shows scene, person or thing. (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary)
Improve is to become better than before ; to make something or somebody better than before. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary)
According to Hornby in Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary defines vocabulary as a total number of the words, which make up a language and that person, know or use. (Hornby in Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 1995: 1331-1506).
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
A. Nature of the Language
In our daily life we use language to express our self and share what we have in mind with other people. Using language in the social life, enable people to cooperate one with another. But, not all of us knew and understand the nature of languge it self. Halliday (1985) states that language structure and language function are systematically related.
According to Chomsky, language defines what it means to be human and the study of language is a way in to the study of the human mind. "Although having a language is not a prerequisite for having a mind, language is overwhelmingly our best evidence for the nature of mind" (Smith, 1999). With regard to learning language, Chomsky purports that some aspects of language are explicitly taught in school such the spelling conventions of the written representation of language and forms of technical vocabulary; however, the most fundamental aspects of language are universal.
In order to avoid missunderstood, here are some definitions of language according to linguists:
1. Langcher (1972: 55) defines language as a set of principles relating and meanings and phonetics sequences.
2. On the other hand, language is a structure system of arbitary vocal sound, which is used for interpersonal communication by which an aggregation of human being and which rather accusatively catalo things, events and procession human environment (Carol: 1963)
3. Language is a tool of systematic mean of communicating ideas, or feelings by the use of conventionalized signs, sounds, gestures, or marks having understood meanings. (Webster’s third new interaction dictionary of the English language, 1961: 1270).
4. Language as a system of arbitrary vocal symbols which permit all people in a given culture or other people who have learnt the system of that culture to communicate or interact. (Finiocchiaro, 1964: 8).
5. Language is highly organized system in which unit plays an important part, which related to each other. (Boey, 1982).
6. Wardhaugh (1972: 3-8) stated that “the function of language is human’s tool for communication whether in the form of spoken or written”.
7. Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary (1981: 225) communication is a process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols, signs, or behavior.
From the definitions that given by the linguists above, the researcher can underlay that language is functioned as tool of communication or as a tool of interaction that owned by human being. In every language communication, there two are sides that involved in exchanged information; they are the message sender and message receiver, it may consist of two or more people.
Brooks (1964: 30-31) in Tarigan (1986: 16-17) stated several common principles stand for speaking activity, namely, involved two people or more, use linguistic codes or symbol conventionalized, the exchange activities of the participants; connect the communicator with another (interculator) immediately; currently process, involved vocal and auditory apparatus, indiscriminate the fact and what is accepted as the rules
As we all knew, there are two kinds of communications, those are; one way communication and two way communication. In one way communication the message sender sends the message without receiving any respond from the receiver, for example like in speech. While, in two way communication the message sender sending message and receiving respond from the receiver in turned, for example like in debate or discussion. Meanwhile, an effective communication between the message sender and the receiver can be done when both side using such a clear and comprehensive language. A comprehensive language may be obtained by mastering the four skills of its language, including listening, speaking, reading and writing.
B. Language Skills
Regarding to language skill, we are remained to the four integrated components; they are listening, speaking, reading and writing (Nida, 1957: 19; Harris, 1977:9 in Tarigan, 1981: 1). The four skills can be divided into receptive and productive skills. The receptive skills are listening and reading, the receptive skills are so labeled because they are to do with receiving and decoding information. The productive skills are speaking and writing. Although these skills divided into receptive and productive but each of them correlated one to another, meanwhile all of the skills also cannot be separated from vocabulary.
English is a foreign language in our country Indonesia, for acquiring good English knowledge, it necessary for the students to learn English skills steps by step. The first step is learning English listening. Listening skill is the skill that student and lecturer need to understand and others are organized in oral presentation (Devine, 1987). Listening is one way to get the information about something new like vocabulary and difficult words. In the other side, having lack of vocabulary, the students could hardly understand the utterance that being listened. Listening is relatively difficult, but with good knowledge of vocabularies and lots of practice it believed will improve listening skill. Listening practice in the class room can be conducted by using tape recorder or video tape. After listening activity is being conducted, a respond is expected occurred. Respond from the listener is a proved that listener have followed the class or assumed that listener also have understood the topic given in the listening activity. During the activity is held, some new vocabularies may found, students can note them and practice them in speaking activity.
Learning speaking skill is the second step for mastering English. Speaking skill also cannot be separated from the use of vocabulary. When we look at vocabulary lesson we noted how important it was for learner to have oral practice. Therefore, we can infer that speaking is the ability to make use of words or a language to express oneself in an ordinary voice. In short, the speaking skill is the ability to perform the linguistics knowledge in actual communication.
Speaking is the ability on uttering articulated sound or expressing the words, phrases, sentences, stating the ideas, desire and willingness trough audible (sound uttered) or visible (body language) with a well arranged combined ideas, (Mulgrave in Tarigan 1986 : 13).
The third step for mastering English is learning reading skill. Reading is a complex cognitive process of decoding symbols in order to construct or derive meaning (reading comprehension). It is a means of language acquisition, of communication, and of sharing information and ideas. Like all language, it is a complex interaction between the text and the reader which is shaped by the reader’s prior knowledge, experiences, attitude, and language community which is culturally and socially situated. The reading process requires continuous practice, development, and refinement. Reading is the second approach in gathering new information. So, To enhance the student’s reading ability in teaching and learning process, students should know what will they do before reading, during the reading and after the completion of reading because we should also be concerned with the developing of student’s vocabulary.
In Junior, Senior or Vocational High School teachers can also take the following e actions to help their student’s reading, the content areas such as:
a. Pre-reading activities mean to activate period knowledge and help to motivate students to read.
b. During reading activities which are designed to help focus attention, and promote skills such as paraphrasing, summarizing, note taking, questioning, and relating the new.
c. Post reading activities are intended to encourage students to re-examine their reading perspective while providing opportunities to store the new material in memory.
d. Vocabulary development is markedly more effective than informal, unplanned growth.
e. Use the textbook will ease the students in improving their reading ability.
Besides, reading skill also involves qualitatively different processes from the development of oral language ability; both are under pinned by certain principles. We have suggested that programmers for both oral and written language development take as their point of departure the purposes and functions to which language is put, and which determine its realization as text.
The fourth skill that must be learnt is writing skill. Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium through the use of a set of signs or symbols (known as a writing system). From the four language skills, writing is different from face to face communication; it is a set of productive and expressive activities. Writing is one of the language skills that very different from other language skills because writing is commonly used as a three stage process: pre-writing, writing, and re-writing. They need to be shown how different text types are characterized by different generic structures in the case of narratives, the orientation-complication-resolution structure. They should also be given the opportunity to compare different version of a text and helped to see how the way in which information is organized within text will partly determine its effectiveness. Writing cannot be segregated from other language acts.
Halliday (1985b) suggests that writing has involved in societies because of cultural changes creating communicative needs that cannot be readily met by the spoken language. In the modern world, written language serves a range of functions in everyday life, including the following: (a) primarily for action, (b) primarily for information; newspapers news, editorials and current affairs magazines, (c) primarily for entertainments; light magazines, comic strips, fiction books, poetry and drama, newspaper features, film subtitles, gamers, and including computer games. (Halliday, 1985b:40-1).
Furthermore, Marry Pinnoochiro (1974: 234 in Alwasilah (1985) administrates that mastery the language skill such as stated above, the language users should practice and doing as much exercise as possible. Because when the language users are able to produce the four skills, intelligibility he/she must be better in thinking and acting. It is clear now how the skills are related to each other, as well as they cannot be apart from vocabulary.
C. The Teaching of Vocabulary
Learning new words is important part of learning a new language. It will be impossible to make sentences when speaking a language without knowing words/ vocabularies. Learning some words and phrases in a new language allows people to start communicating at once. Knowing vocabulary seems to be the basic things in learning language, even children learning their native tongue usually learn isolated words or phrases before piecing them together into more complex utterance. ”The fact is that while without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed” (Wilkins 1972: 111).
Students who learn English as foreign language surely will find difficulties in learning vocabularies without practice. Lots of practice and making the new words into habit definitely will help students expanding their list of vocabulary.
Anderson (1979) says “that language is habit formation, the students should be able to put the words without hesitation and almost without into incorrect sentence pattern”.
As well as lots of practice, in teaching vocabulary there things to be paid attention such as; types of vocabulary, technique in teaching vocabulary and Method for Teaching vocabulary.
1. Definition of Vocabulary
To understand vocabulary, below are the definitions:
a. Vocabulary is commonly defined as "all the words known and used by a particular person" (Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia).
b. Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of current English (1974:954) defines vocabulary as: (1) a list of word used in a book etc. Usually with definitions or translation and (2) range of words known or used by a person in a trade profession.
2. Types of Vocabulary
According to Nation in Rojali (2005:20) deals with vocabulary items consist of two types, receive vocabulary and productive vocabulary. Nation defines receptive vocabulary as word which can be recognized when it is heard (what is the sound like), when it is seen (what is it look like). In the other word, it knows all thing of that word. Meanwhile, productive vocabulary is word which is able to be pronounced, to be written, to be spelled, how to use grammatical pattern. However and whatever the terms are used by the language experts. It refers to recognition and production of word when the person does communication to the other; they usually refer to some meanings.
Another type of vocabulary items stated by Gorrel and Laird in Novalia (2007: 8) as almost everyone has at least four basic of vocabulary items” they are as follow;
a. Speaking vocabulary. Some vocabularies which are spoken as the result of their listening process but only consist of a view simple word.
b. Reading vocabulary. Types of vocabulary which allow to people to know and to use vocabulary little large speaking vocabulary.
c. Writing vocabulary, which includes the word in speaking vocabulary, pus other words that can call up. This stage is much larger than speaking and reading vocabulary.
d. Acquaintance vocabulary, the large vocabulary include speaking vocabulary, reading vocabulary and writing vocabulary it include also a considerable number of word which the owner has been seen or heard before but does not do know about his/her may remember about them so that he can usually guess heir meaning contextually.
3. Technique for Teaching Vocabulary
Harmer (1991: 154) states “one of the problems of vocabulary teaching is how to select what word to teach”.
Furthermore, Harmer (2001: 159) states “some which the language teacher can use to encourage the students to really learn a word, i.e. (1) active and passive, (2) interaction which word and (3) discovery techniques”.
a. Active and Passive Vocabulary
A distance frequently made between “active and passive” vocabulary active vocabulary refers to vocabulary that students have been taught or learn and which they are expected to be able to use, while passive vocabulary refers to word which the students will recognize when they meet them but which they will probably not able to produce. It is certainly a good idea to provide sets of vocabulary, which student can learn most of the early words will be constantly practiced and so can presumably be considered as active.
b. Interaction with Words
Experiment on vocabulary seems to suggest that students remember bet when they have actually done something with the words they are learning. However there is a define advantage in getting students to do more than just repeat them. Task such as changing them to means theirs opposites, making a noun, an adjective, putting word together etc. help to fix the word in the learner’s minds.
Then it seems that we should get students to interact with words. We should get them to “adopt” word that they like and want to use. We should get them to do thing with word so that they become properly acquainted with them.
c. Discovery Techniques
Discovery techniques use with vocabulary material allows students to activate previous knowledge and to share what they know (if they are working others). They also provoked the kinds of interaction with words which we have said desirable.
4. Method for Teaching Vocabulary
There are some methods used in teaching and learning such as Grammar Translation Method, The Audio Lingual Method, The Silent Way, Dessugestopedia, The Community Language Learning and The Direct Method. From all of the methods mentioned, there are some methods that emphasize, Vocabulary over other language skill, those methods are; The Direct Method and Dessugestopedia.
a. The Direct Method
The direct method has one very basic rule; No translation is allowed. In fact, the direct method receives its name from the fact that meaning is to be conveyed directly in the target language trough the use of demonstration and visual aids with no recourse to the students’ native language (Diller, 1978). Teacher who use the direct method believe students need to associate meaning and the target language directly. In order to do this when teacher introduce a new target language vocabulary or phrase, he demonstrate its meaning through the use of realia, picture, or pantomime, he never translate it into student’s native language. In this method students learn how to communicate in the target language and should think in the target language.
This method which Celce-Murcia (1991) calls an affective-humanistic approach, an approach in which there is respect for students’ feelings. The originator of this method is Georgi Lezanov and he believes that language learning can occur at a much faster rate than ordinarily transpires. There are some principles in this method for example; - learning is facilitated in cheerful environment, - singing, colourful class and art are used to freeing emotion and to activate par conscious part of the mind, just the below conscious mind, - the teacher should present and explain the grammar and vocabulary but not dwell on them. Vocabulary is emphasized; claims about the success of the method often focus on the large number of words that can be acquired.
Both of the methods mentioned above can be used for teaching vocabulary in the classroom as they emphasize vocabulary over other language skills.
The other similarity of these methods is the use of visual aid or art like picture in the classroom.
D. Instructional Educative Media
Teaching and learning basically is communication process. Communication process refers to message exchanged where it happen in the classroom between teachers and students. Through communication process, message or information which delivered by teacher can be absorbed finely by the students. To avoid miss lead during communication process in the classroom it requires media. Media that use for the purpose of pedagogic is called Instructional Educative Media. Instructional Educative Media is term to replace other terminologies such as educative media or teaching media where meaning and purpose is similar. Instructional educative media is a technical term used by the book writer (Rohani : 1997).
1. The Function of Instructional Educative Media
According to Derek Rowntree, educative media (Instructional Educative Media) functioned;
a. To rise learning motivation
b. To repeat what students have learnt
c. To provide learning stimulus
d. To activate students respond
e. To give immediate feedback
f. To improve learning practice
According to McKnown there are four functions of Instruktional Educative Media, as follow:
a. To change formal education (which based on instructional academic) to be education that based on student’s need.
b. Improving students’ motivation
c. It gives clarification and
2. The Classification of Instructional Teaching Media
According to Gerlach Classification of Instructional educative media is divided into five categories according to their character;
a. Real material and people
b. Visuals and projection
c. Audio materials
d. Printed material
e. Display material
Classification according to R. Murray Thomas based on three level of experiences, such as:
a. Relief experience, for example; train, ball.
b. Substitute of relief experience, for example picture, film, and model.
c. Experience trough words only, for example book, magazine, cassette, plate.
Knowing classification educative media is important because it enable us to find the perfect fit and suitable one for our student. For choosing media in the classroom, it needed attention to some considerations.
3. Choosing Instructional Educative Media
According to Hartono Kasmadi, there are four considerations for choosing instructional educative media, those are;
a. Production consideration consist of; material availability, cost, physical condition, accessibility to student and emotional impact.
b. Learner consideration consist of; student characteristic, student relevance and student involvement.
c. Content consideration, consist of; curricular-relevance, content-soundness and content presentation.
d. Teacher Consideration consist of; Teacher-utilization, Teacher peace of mind.
All of the media that used can solve problems and not causing problems, in order to do it, observation and review to the media is truly important before bring it to the classroom.
4. Pictures for Teaching Vocabulary
Picture is one of educative media. Picture is something that we can see, in other word picture is visual. Picture gives stimulation which enables the learner memorizes new vocabulary. Learning foreign language means learning new vocabulary which sometimes totally different than our native. Indonesian student who learn English as foreign language, must know and memorize thousands of English vocabulary. As we know the key for a successful of language learning is by memorizing list of words as many as we could. In fact, children of elementary tend to rely more on memory, but they also have sufficient maturity to meet the rigours of a formal learning environment, where concentration, attention and even the ability to seat still.
Picture is used by teacher to stimulate student memory and it is one of strategy to attract students’ attention in learning vocabulary. From experts opinion that written previously, the researcher can conclude that picture has fulfill its function as educative media for example; it can improve students’ motivation and it also provide stimulus that may upgrade student’s memory and attention. Picture can be classified into visual aid and picture also is material that easy to find.
E. The Advantage of Using Picture for Teaching Vocabulary
As Freud et al in Unesco (1958) says: “….the term audio-visual aids’ properly includes such widely diffused and general accepted paraphernalia was the blackboard, the text book and those miscellaneous object of foreign which a language teacher collect and display to arise the interest of the pupils and to which the somewhat pedantic term or really has been applied”. For vocational high school students, learning English as foreign language is not easy. English teacher should provide pleasant atmosphere to invite the motivation and interest of the students. It is done to take students’ ease in acquiring the language, not only get the prospect of what they have learnt but also they should get satisfactory from the learning. The advantages of picture for teaching vocabulary mentioned as follow;
1. The picture motivated the students to learn vocabulary. By seeing picture, it gives stimulation which enable the learner memorize new vocabularies.
2. Pictures are easy to understand by all age. The pictures are so simple and easy to use. Pictures can create relaxing atmosphere, so students can enjoy the class.
3. Pictures kept the students interested and made the students active in answering the questions.
4. Presenting the pictures to the vocabularies in the beginning of the lesson, it allow students to associate the pictures with meanings rather than meaningless memorization.
5. Using picture as class aid for teaching vocabulary can create long-term memorization. Instead of learning vocabulary trough word memorization only which may create short-term memory.
F. Teaching English for Elementary School Students
The young language learners formally learn the language in the classroom at the level of elementary school. Teaching English in elementary school needs various strategies and techniques to achieve the learning objective of certain materials. A teacher should be able to modify his/her class into an attractive class interaction. Therefore a good teacher should be aware of some terms relate to the language classroom activity.
Young language learner love to lay and learn best when they are enjoying themselves. But they also take them self seriously and like to think that what they are doing in their work. In this stage the language teacher is expected to guide those students in other two things that they are in real situation. Thus the teaching of English language mainly in case of vocabulary need and impression that the word is real and understandable. Therefore in teaching vocabulary, the spoken word must be accompanied by other clause such as movement, facial expression etc. convoy their meanings.
In teaching the young language learners, teachers do not rely on spoken words only. Most activities should include movement and involve the sense. Teacher need plenty of object and picture to work with and make full use of the school and its surrounding as teaching media.
1. Some Consideration of English to Elementary School Students
In applying English for elementary school or early stage there are some considerations that should be paid attention such as syllabus, material and teachers. According to Kassibullah in Cahyono ( in Rozali 2005: 9) there are some considerations of teaching English to elementary school i.e. syllabus teaching material and teacher.
Syllabus consist of content to be taught a course of study (Nunan in Rozalli 2005: 10)state or items that cannot be neglected in making syllabus such as ; (a) what are the targets that should be reached in teaching English for elementary school students? (b) What are the appropriate methods, techniques and approaches be applied for elementary school student to reach the wished target? (c) How to manage the classroom effectively and (d) how to know the students achievement is successful or not. Beside syllabus teaching material has a significant role in teaching English for the children. Selecting material is based on three points, e.i. teaching aims, learner needs and local situation.
Meanwhile a teacher is absolutely needed as a facilitator of the teaching and learning process. A good teacher is able to combine the serious study of English with the more entertaining activities that he/she thing his/her students something need. The idea characteristic of the teacher as the teacher should have deep knowledge in English and always has initiative to improve his /he capability; the teacher should have capability in managing the classroom activities, provides, material and be able to use various media perfectly (Kasibullah in Cahyono in Rozali, 2005: 10).
After all organizing syllabus, providing appropriate teaching materials and the capability of teacher are extremely needed in other to get successfulness in teaching and learning process.
2. Children’s Memory Ability
The memory ability of very young children seems to be unparalleled in that they can absorb a phenomenal amount of data. Many parents tell of the experience of reading a lengthy familiar bedtime story to their young child and, when the parent began nodding off to sleep, being sharply corrected by the child as to exactly which words had been skipped.
Which children at the age of 5 or 6 still display a phenomenal ability at rote memorization, it seems that older children do not, with some decline beginning around 8 years of age and more of a decline from about 12 years age. In this regard, it seems that children’s age can be usefully divided into at least two categories, under 7 years and 7 to 12 years. This is rough categorization which we shall use.
It seems that younger children tend to rely more on memory than older children. Harley and Doug (1997) investigated students who were in an immersion language education program (the teaching of subject matter trough a second language). Older children began to apply their cognitive abilities in analyzing the syntactic rules of the second language while younger children relied more heavily on their use of rote memory for language learning. One could interpret these data as indicating perhaps that the older children jumped to syntactic analysis sooner because they realized that they had difficulty in remembering all of the sentences which they heard.
G. Relevant Study
The first study was done by Rojalli (2005) of the effectiveness of using drawing board in developing English vocabulary. The subjects of the study were all of third grade students of MI AL-AMIN Pejeruk?. In the school year 2011/2012. The problem of the study” is color pictures effective in developing English vocabulary?” the study aimed at knowing the effect of using color pictures to developing the students English vocabulary development. The research was experimental study, where the samples were divided into two group, i.e. experimental group and control group. Both experimental group and control group were tested by using pre-test. Then, the result of study is the teaching English vocabulary for the Elementary School by using color picture products a much greater change in the students’ vocabulary development than by using the traditional techniques.
In the school year 2011/2012. The problem of the study is “what factor to promote the effectiveness of using color pictures in teaching English vocabulary and is color pictures effective in teaching English vocabulary”. Because the number population of this study was less than 100, the researcher took all members of the population as the samples of the research. Then, the samples were divided into two groups which are consisted of 10 students for control group and 10 students for experimental group. Then instrument of the study was essay type of test. Then, the result of the study is using color pictures a significant effect toward students English vocabulary mastery.
From the above research, the writer assumes that teaching vocabulary using pictures as media make better result. So, the researcher will observe the application of teaching vocabulary by using pictures as teaching media.
A. Research Method
The method that used by the researcher in this study is descriptive quantitative research. The researcher divided the students into two groups, they were experimental group and control group. Class IV A became experimental group who had been taught by using pictures and class IV B became control group, who had been taught in conventional way
B. Population and Sample
The population of this research is the fourth grade students of MI Al-Amin Pajeruk in academic year 2011/2012. There are two classes, those are IVA and IVB, which consist of 20 students at IVA and 20 students at IVB . So, the total number of the population is 40 students.
The research only focused on the fourth grade students of MI Al-Amin Pajeruk in academic year 2011/2012. Based on Arikunto (2002: 112) statement that “if the subject less than 100, it is better to take all of the population, but if the population is more than 100, it is suggested to take 10-15% or 20-25% or more of the population. Because the population is less than 100 students, the researcher took the whole population as the sample. There are 40 students as the sample which divided into 2 classes.
The instrument that used on pre-test and post-test was in the form of multiple choice and matching pictures. There were 15 item of multiple choices and 10 item of matching pictures. There were twenty five questions in total, each correct answer was scored 4, and 0 for incorrect one, so the total score was 100. The students had the same questions both in pre-test and post-test but the question number put randomly.
C. Data Collection Procedure
In obtaining the data, the researcher gave pre-test, treatment and post-test to the sample.
In the beginning the researcher gave the same pre-test to both groups. Pre-test was aimed to measure the students’ ability in vocabulary mastery before treatment. In this test, the researcher provided 25 items which consisted of 15 item of multiple choices and 10 item of matching pictures. Every correct answer was scored 4 and each wrong answer was scored 0.
The treatment refers to treat the sample with pictures. In this step the researcher gave different treatment to both groups. The researcher taught English vocabulary to the students in experimental group by using picture, while in the control group the researcher taught English vocabulary without picture or in conventional way.
The post-test given after treatment, it was aimed to know the students’ improvement in mastery English vocabulary after treatment. The same questions as in the pre-test had been given to the student but the question number was put randomly.
D. Method of Analyzing Data
After obtaining the score of the students, the researcher continued to the next step. First, the researcher calculated the students’ score. Researcher also calculated the mean of deviation score of the two groups, the standard deviation score of the two groups and testing the significance from the two deviations.
1. To find out the mean of deviation score of the two groups, the researcher applied the following formula:
X = the students’ final scores for experiment group score
Y = the students’ final score for control group
N = the number of sample
M = the mean score of the two groups
∑ = the sum of …….
(Arikunto, 2006: 312)
2. To find out the standard deviation of the two groups, the researcher applied The formula of standard deviations as follow :
a. Finding out the standard deviation of experimental group.
The formula is:
X = is the standard deviation for experiment group
N = is the number of sample
∑ = is the sum of ……
(Arikunto, 2006: 312)
b. Finding out the standard deviation of control group.
The formula is:
Y = is the standard deviation for control group
N = is the number of sample
∑ = is the sum of ……
3. Finally, the last step was to know the significance of the two variables that were investigated by comparing the two mean of deviation scores and each standard deviation by using the following formula :
M = is the mean of deviation score each group
N = is the number of sample
X = is the standard deviation for experimental group
Y = is the standard deviation score for control group
∑ = is the sum of ……
√ = is the root of …
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