Wednesday, May 29, 2013

CONTOH MAKALAH BAHASA INGGRIS TENTANG TEKNOLOGI KOMUNIKASI



IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION



CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION


1.1. Background
        Technological developments have made many remarkable progress. Many things from life sector that has used the existence of the technology itself. Presence has a considerable impact on the lives of human beings in various aspects and dimensions. Likewise with the communication technology is hardware equipment in the organizational structure that contains social value that enables individuals to collect, process and exchange information (in Rogers, 1986). Such a situation, in which a technology capable of changing something that may not be possible to be a reality. For example, if the first person can not talk to other people who are in a place that is far away, then after the phone people can talk without limits of time and distance. From here, beginning with the discovery of a variety of simple devices, ranging from phones, analog-based, developed and developing countries continue to emerge many other electronic devices. Until finally this technology integrate with one another. Existing communication technology is an answer from any of the times. This occurs because of growing human civilization developed a technology that will continue to experience growth pattern to align civilization itself.
         The term information technology became popular in the late 70s. In the past the term information technology or computer technology called electronic data processing (electronic data processing). Information technology is defined as technology processing and dissemination of data using hardware (hardware) and software (software), computer, communications, and digital electronics. Information and communication technology is an important element in the life of the nation. The role of information technology in human activity at this time was so great. Information technology has become the main facility for the activities of the various sectors of life which contributed greatly to the change - a fundamental change in the operation and management of organizational structure, education, transportation, health and research. Therefore it is very important to increase the ability of the human resources (HR) ICT, ranging from skills and knowledge, planning, operation, maintenance and supervision, as well as increasing the ability of ICT leaders in government, education, corporate, SME (small and medium enterprises) and NGOs. So that in the end will produce output that is useful to humans as individuals themselves and for all sectors of life.

1.2. Problem Formulation

1. What is the information and communication technology?
2. What are the implications of IT and the internet?
3. How information and communication technology in education?
4. What is the impact in the field of education?

1.3. Destination
The formulation of the problem that can be drawn from this discussion is:
1. Outlines what is meant by information and communication technology
2. Describe the implications of IT and the Internet
3. Describes how information and communication technologies in education
4. Describe the impact in the field of education



CHAPTER II
DISCUSSION



2.1. Information and Communication Technology


Judging from the wording, information and communication technology is composed of 3 (three) each word has its own meaning. The first word, technology, means the development and application of tools, machines, materials and processes that help people complete the problem. The term technology is often portray discovery of new tools using the principles and processes of scientific discovery. Said second and third, information and communication, closely related to the data.
      Means of information processing results, manipulation and organizing a group of data that gives the value of knowledge (knowledge) for its users. Communication is a process of delivering information (messages, ideas, ideas) from one party to another to enable the interplay between the two. In general, communication is done by using the words (verbal) that can be understood by both parties. If no verbal language that can be understood by both, communication can still be done non-verbally using body movements or showing certain attitudes, such as smiling, shaking his head, or a shrugged.
      Many opinions which defines information and communication technologies with different languages. Australian National Training Authority (ANTA) defines information technology as technology development and application of computer and communications-based technologies for processing, presenting, managing data, and information. This definition includes the manufacture of hardware and computer components, computer software development and various computer-related services, along with communication equipment as well as manufacturing of components and services. According to the Oxford English Dictionary 2nd edition, is the definition of information technology hardware (hardware) and software (software), including networks and telecommunications are typically included in the context of a business or enterprise. The term information technology become a part of the operations of the electronic device that utilizes computer.


2.2 Development of Communication Technology

            Current technology needs, both information technology and telecommunications are very high from the start of middle class and upper middle class. All individuals desperately need technology to accelerate the development or increase the development of both individual and group development. Technological development today is very fast communication technology, which presents a selection of forms of technology and sophistication. The development of the communication itself is actually in line with the life and existence of man himself. There are four major defining point in the history of human communication. According Nordenstreng and Varis (1973) are:

1. Acquisition (aquisition) language that is at the same time with the birth of man.
2. alongside the development of the art of writing based on speech communication. reproduction of the written word (written words) by using alt printer, so
3. enable the realization of the actual mass communication.
4. the advent of electronic communication, starting from the telegraph, telephone, radio, television, to satellite.

     (Quoted from the Perspective of Communication Technology Background & Progress, Zulkarimein Nasution. 1989: page 15). Meanwhile, according to Alvin Toffler, there are three civilizations in the development of the technology itself, the agricultural age, the industrial age and the last time information (quoted from the Perspective of Communication Technology Background & Progress, Zulkarimein Nasution.1989: case 2). Previously just look back, that fact itself communication technologies have emerged since the Age Pre-History. Where at that time people have been able to use a form of communication. But its form, is still very simple. For example, limited forms of organ motion, the images as a language, the sounds of bones and so on. But even so, it has been considered as an appropriate form of communication at the time.
     Subsequent developments have progressed a step a little better, for example, in a letter pictograf form of communication used by the Sumerians, hierogliph by the Ancient Egyptians. At that time both types of letters are also often used when a king gives a kind of regulatory rules for the people who will put in the middle of the city where the shape is like building the monument, known as Act-shaped memorial. Advancement of communication technology felt better after the invention of paper by the Chinese people made from Papyrus leaf fibers. This development even today is still used and very useful for mankind. Such as the paper used in printing newspapers or newspapers, magazines, books and so forth.
      Furthermore the development of human knowledge, the communication technology is getting better. Starting with the invention of the steam engine by James Watt who is opening the Industrial Revolution, causing a variety of effects that trigger other technologies. One step that is truly extraordinary, which led to the discovery of one thing the emergence of various other things. Invention of the telephone which was found in 1876, is the development of communications technology with the application of the concept of using analog. This lasted until about the 1960s. And only then leads to a digital concept.
      Then the subsequent development of the discovery of which is the use of facsimile communication by giving the data that can be passed through a media phone. So it is with the development of computers. The first computer ENIAC II is introduced. Used in 1946, after the second world war. This computer is an electronic circuit that has a tube light weight of 20 tons. With the beginning of this computer in the context of digital communications technologies evolved by leaps and bounds. Digital era itself came after the satellite was found and in the kinds of discoveries that have aktifkan.berbagai there is a little much to change the life style of the people themselves.

2.3. Implications of IT and Internet Education

       IT and Internet history can not be separated from education. Internet in the United States began to grow from the academic environment (NSFNET), as told in the book "Nerds 2.0.1". Similarly, the Internet in Indonesia began to grow within the academic (in the UI and ITB), although it appears the exciting stories in the field of business. May need to be propagated stories about the benefits of the Internet for education. The existence of open Internet resources that had been inaccessible. Access to resources not being again.
      Library is one of expensive resources. (How many libraries in Indonesia, and how the quality is?.) The Internet allows a person in Indonesia to access the library in the United States. Mechanisms library access can be done by using a special program (typically using Z39.50 standard, such WAIS5), telnet application (such as the application hytelnet6) or via a web browser (Netscape and Internet Explorer). There have been many stories about the help the Internet in research, thesis. Exchange of information or the frequently asked questions by experts can be done via the Internet. Without the Internet many final project and thesis which may require more time to be resolved. Cooperation between experts and also with students who are physically far apart can be done more easily. Previously, a person had to wander or run away to see a specialist to discuss a problem. Currently this can be done from home by sending an email.
       Papers and research can be done with the exchange of data over the Internet, via email, or by using a mechanism Sharring file. Imagine if a student in Irian can discuss medical issues with a experts at leading universities in Java. students anywhere in Indonesia or lecturer can access the best experts in Indonesia and even in the world. Geographic boundaries is not an issue anymore. Sharring information is also needed in the field of research that studies are not repeated (reinvent the wheel). The results of research in universities and research institutes can be used together to speed up the process of development of science and technology.
Distance learning and the virtual university is a new application for the Internet. In fact no less than economists Peter Drucker said that "Triggered by the internet, continuing adult education may wll Become our greatest growth industry". (See Forbes magazine article May 15, 2000.) Virtual university scalable characteristics, which can provide education accessible to many people. If education is only done in a regular classroom, how many people can participate in a class? The number of participants may only be charged 50 people. Virtual university can be accessed by anyone, from anywhere. For Indonesia, the benefits already mentioned above can be a good reason to make the Internet as an educational infrastructure. To summarize the benefits of the Internet for education in Indonesia.

2.4. Communication Technology in Education
            Of the many new discoveries that turned out very broad impact for a human civilization in the  various areas of life, one of which is education. Development of technology and communication in the fields of education, development of technology and communication in education, According to Rosenberg (2001), with this development there are five shifts in the learning process, namely: (1) from training to performance, (2) from the classroom to the place where and at any time, (3) of the paper to "on line" or channel, (4) physical facilities to network facilities, (5) from time to time  cycle shifts the learning process changes from paper to "On -Line "to date has been its presence can be felt or seen as an educational institution to implement a computerized system. Many things as well as the benefits of its existence.
             Such as education  all activities are easily accessible via a computer network or the internet that is certainly the case thanks to the satellite which is operated, the student, student, teacher, lecturer or all citizens in the sphere of education are able to obtain all the information to be obtained . most recent example is the development of "Cyber ​​Teaching" or virtual teaching, the teaching process is carried out by using the internet.
Another term poluper today is e-learning is a model of learning by using media communication technology (internet). According to Rosenberg (2001: 28), e-learning is the use of Internet technology in the delivery of learning in a wide range with a foundation based on three criteria such as:
(1) E-learning is networked with the ability to update, store, distribute, and share materials or information,
2) Delivery up to the end users through a computer using standard Internet technology,
(3) Focusing on the most expansive view of learning behind traditional learning paradigms. Nowadays e-learning has evolved in a variety of ICT-based learning model as: CBT (Computer Based Training), CBI (Computer Based Instruction), Distance Learning, Distance Education, CLE (Cybernetic Learning Environment), Desktop Videoconferencing and so on. (Quoted from http :/ / puskom.man3malang.com/index.php? Com_conte option = t & task = view & id = 21 & Itemid = 26, Prof.. Dr.. H. Mohamad Surya).
         Another term that is more popular than the development of communication technology is the virtual system. In this case, the activity involving virtual community can be a thing that is more widely used in academic environments. It certainly can facilitate the effectiveness of a learning system, where the student or students can access educational materials in more detail rather than through direct interaction (face to face) with a teacher, tutor or lecturer concerned. For now, many other examples as above but beyond the scope of the school or college, for example, there is a kind of educational institution or course guidance tutoring using computer media (internet) to access the materials and exams as well as the test via the Internet. Surely this is a step forward in the context of education. In addition to the development of communication technology in education has touched the scope of learning systems in the academic field, actually have been encroaching on other aspects (although still within the scope of education). For example, with a computer, telephone, internet, photocopiers and all the devices of a communication technology itself can help work the administration or other parts. With a library of digital libraries in educational institutions, people can access books or literature quickly.

2.4. The impact on education
2.4.1. Positive Impact
1. Changing role of the teacher or lecturer (teacher) and the student or students (learners) in learning. Changes in the role include:
a. A position that was once as a transmitter of knowledge, the main source of information, expert material, and the source of all answers, and then only as a learning facilitator, coach, collaborator, knowledge navigator, and learning partners.
b. Of controlling and directing all aspects of learning, be providing more alternatives and responsibility to each student in the learning process.
2. While the role of the student in learning has changed as follows:
a. From passive recipients of information to active participants in the learning process
b. Of revealed knowledge back to produce a variety of knowledge
c. Of learning as a learning individual with other students.
3. Accelerate a job
4. Students are able to access information, anywhere, anytime, and to anyone or

2.4.2. Negative Impact
1. Students become addicted to the virtual world of the existence of the excess.
This can happen when the students do not have skepticism and critical of something new. Especially in the context of the virtual world (internet). When they are struggling with internet aksik, actually indirectly they have entered in the free world over. Thus it is important to have both a vital attitude as a fortress and filter of all the available resources. Moreover, the attitude of attention from parents also play an important role in instilling values ​​and norms of a religion as a foundation.

2. Criminal acts (Cyber ​​Crime)
In the world of education, this can happen for example theft of important documents or assets of an undisclosed real educational settings (documents about the final exam or state) by using the internet. term, there is a person who breaks it. Technology can cause human power has no role in either the development of communication technology is increasingly rampant till this moment, a little more will ultimately impact on the reduction of human labor. This happens because human labor is no longer tremendously effective and efficient in producing something in a lot of capacity. When human labor is no longer used, it will automatically lead to many levels of unemployment. After that of course will increase the level of poverty. Of the poverty problem will then appear again unfavorable stability, because a lot of crime going on. It can be concluded that, the one thing that appears in one area will have an impact also on other areas. Interconnections between each other. Similarly, in the field of education.


3. Lead to apathy on each individual, both for students and teachers. This can be seen for example in the learning system and the virtual nature of e-learning. Where learning system that does not meet with the student teacher. Students who are less active in the learning system will be  indifferent to the task or the material, because they are not being watched by people (teachers) but they are only dealing with a computer.

CHAPTER III
CLOSING


3.1. CONCLUSION

Technology is now increasingly experiencing rapid growth in all aspects of human life. As well, when we talk about communication technology, it has also experienced growth. Whereas communication technology itself according to Rogers, 1986 is a hardware equipment in the organizational structure that contains social value that enables individuals to collect, process and exchange information. Of the former in the days primif still very simple form of communication, then growing and growing until finally comes the digital era as it is today. Of it is also explained that there are three kinds of civilizations according to Alvin Toffler namely, agricultural age, the industrial age and the last time information (quoted from the Perspective of Communication Technology Background & Progress, Zulkarimein Nasution). Communication technologies in education itself is now also experiencing extraordinary change where the presence of sophisticated communication technology has brought a lot of significant impact for the development of education itself. Can be seen in the development of such a nature that the learning system of e-learning, as well as other matters of a technical nature ie with the computer, then the education offices provide convenience in data collection and so forth.
Over it all, the development of communication technology itself remains essentially carry a very wide range of effects, both positive and negative impacts. When the positive impact a bigger role, it will be very beneficial in life. Makes them a very easy job. Conversely, when the development of the communication technology more display negative impact, it will appear new problems such as cyber crime and so forth. For every user that has the technology to be critical and skeptical attitude toward communication technologies ..

3.2. Suggestion

Information technology is a technology that is very easy for us in terms i including in education. The more the technology is getting more and moret so our work becomes easier to do. positive side, technology has a negative side as well. Once we know the impact caused by the development of information and communication technology in we should take advantage of every available technology is good technology a maximum and can also avoid the negative effects that can harm us.


IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION

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