Sunday, March 17, 2013

KUMPULAN CONTOH KARYA ILMIAH BIOLOGI ORGANIC FERTILIZER

CONTOH KARYA ILMIAH BIOLOGI SIMPLE EXAMPLE OF SCIENTIFIC WORK ON ORGANIC FERTILIZER


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A. Background Issues

Organic fertilizers have long known the farmers, long before the Green Revolution took place in Indonesia in the 1960s. While the known biological fertilizers the farmers since the intensification of soybean project in the 1980s. However, since the Green Revolution began many farmers use fertilizers because of practical use and most varieties do require macro nutrients (NPK) is high and should be quickly available. Raising awareness of most people these days will impact the use of artificial fertilizers on the environment and the decline in soil fertility encourages and requires the use of organic fertilizers.

This condition makes me interested in studying the use of organic fertilizers especially rice. Therefore, I will discuss the issue on the use of organic fertilizers in the community is very important pedesaan.Penggunaan fertilizer to increase yields. The use of fertilizer will still produce a good harvest.

B. Problem Formulation
1. Why need to use organic fertilizer?
2. What are the benefits of organic fertilizer in rice?
3. How is the development of organic fertilizer at this time?

C. Purpose

1. Describe the definition and the advantages of organic fertilizers.
2. Knowing the benefits of using organic fertilizers.
3. Knowing develop organic fertilizer at the present time.


CHAPTER II
THEORY STUDY


History of fertilizer use are part of history rather than the farm itself. The use of fertilizers is estimated to have started at the beginning of the man known farming> 5,000 years ago. Primitive form of fertilizer to improve soil fertility found in elderly human culture in lands located in the flow of the rivers Nile, Euphrates, Indus, China, Latin America, and so on (Honcamp, 1931).

In a book published by the Center for Research and Development of Agricultural Land Resources Organic Fertilizer is the collective name for all types of organic plant and animal origin can be reformed into nutrients available to plants.
            In Permentan No.2/pert/hk.060/2/2006, about organic fertilizers and soil, suggested that organic products are fertilizers, mostly or entirely composed of organic material derived from plants or animals that have been through preses engineering, may be solid or liquid that is used to supply organic matter to improve soil chemical and biological properties.
            So in general organic fertilizer is a material used to improve soil fertility by adding material to the soil to become fertile.

                                                                           CHAPTER III
                                                                            DISCUSSION

Sources of organic matter can be manure, green manure, compost, crop residues (straw, stover, corn cobs, sugarcane bagasse and coconut fiber), animal waste, industrial waste using agricultural materials, and municipal waste.
Type
Dung
Dung
Manure is a fertilizer derived from animal waste. Animals are often used for manure is animal manure that can be maintained by the community, such as goat dung, cow, sheep, and chickens. Besides for solid manure can also be a liquid derived from urine (urine) animals.
Manure contains macro and micro nutrients. Solid manure (macro) contains a lot of phosphorus, nitrogen, and potassium. Micro nutrients contained in manure include calcium, magnesium, sulfur, sodium, iron, copper, and molybdenum. The content of nitrogen in animal urine three times greater than the nitrogen content in the solids. Manure consists of two parts, namely:

    Cold Fertilizer is fertilizer derived from animal waste described by mikroorganime slowly so it does not generate heat, such as manure from cow dung, buffalo and pigs.
    Hot Fertilizer is fertilizer from manure quickly described microorganisms that cause heartburn, such as manure from dung goats, horses, and chickens. Manure useful to provide macro and micro nutrients and has a high holding capacity ion that will streamline materials - inorganic materials in soil, including inorganic fertilizers. In addition, manure can improve soil structure, so that the plant growth optomal bia. Manure that has been ready to apply characterized by cool, crumb, the original form is not visible, and the smell has diminished. If you do not have these characteristics, manure is not ready to use. Use fertilizer that will inhibit the growth of immature plants, even deadly plants. Use of manure in a way that is both embedded, so that the evaporation process is a result of chemical nutrients in the soil can be reduced. The use of liquid manure that most smell done after the plants grow, so that the nutrients contained in the liquid manure will be rapidly absorbed by plants.

Green manure
Green manure is an organic fertilizer derived from plants or in the form of crop residues. Plant material can be embedded in a still green or after composting. Green manure can be a source of plant residues (crop residues) or crops grown specifically as a green fertilizer, such as crop residues, beans, and water ferns (Azolla). Other plants are used as a source of green manure legume precedence of this type, because these plants contain relatively high nutrients, especially nitrogen compared to other crops. Legume crops are also relatively easy to decompose so that the provision  be faster. Useful green manure to increase the content of organic matter and nutrients in the soil, resulting in improved physical, chemical, and biological soil, which in turn have an impact on increasing the productivity of the soil and the soil resistance to erosion. Green manure is used in:

    The use of plant fence, by developing systems alley cropping, where the green manure crop is grown as a hedge plant alternate crops.
    The use of cover crops, by developing a home-grown crops, fallow land at the main plant or plants that are planted along with the principal when the staple crop plants such as perennials.
Compost
Compost
Compost is the residual organic material originating from plants, animals, and organic waste that has undergone a process of decomposition or fermentation. The species are commonly used for composting include straw, rice husk, banana plants, weeds, rotten vegetables, leftover corn, and coconut fiber. Material from cattle that are often used for composting include manure, urine, animal feed is wasted, and biogas fluid. Aquatic plants are often used for composting include blue algae, aquatic weed, water hyacinth, and Azola. Some uses of compost are:

    Improving soil structure.
    Strengthen the tie on aggregate (nutrients) sandy soil.
    Improved durability and water absorption.
    Improve drainage and pores - pores in the soil.
    Adding and activating nutrients.

Compost used by spreading around the plant. Proper use of compost is ripe, characterized by decreasing temperature compost (below 400 C).
Humus
Humus
Humus is organic material derived from the degradation or decay of leaves and branches of plants that rot (decompose), which eventually transform into humus (topsoil), and then into the ground. The raw material for humus is of the leaves or twigs of trees falling, agricultural waste and animal husbandry, food industry, agro-industry, bark, sawdust (wood ash), pieces of wood, sewage sludge, household waste, and municipal solid wastes . Humus is a food source for plants, as well as contribute to the formation and maintaining good soil structure. Humus compounds also play a role in the binding of toxic chemicals in the soil and water. In addition, the topsoil can improve the capacity of the soil water content, assist in retaining water-soluble inorganic fertilizers, to prevent erosion of the soil, increase soil aeration, and can also increase the photochemical decomposition of pesticides or toxic organic compounds. The main content of the compost is humus. Humus is the final determinant of the quality of the soil, so use humus as well as the use of compost.
Organic fertilizers are made
Organic fertilizers are made of organic fertilizer produced in factories using modern equipment. Some of the benefits of organic fertilizers made, namely:

    Increase the content of nutrients that plants need.
    Increasing crop productivity.
    Stimulate the growth of roots, stems, and leaves.
    Loosen and fertilize soil.

In general, use of organic fertilizers made by spreading around the plant, resulting in increased nutrient content in an effective and efficient for the plants treated with organic fertilizer.
Benefit
Various studies indicate that the majority of intensive agriculture has experienced declining productivity and land degradation, primarily associated with a very low content of organic carbon in the soil, which is 2%. Fact to obtain optimal productivity takes about 2.5% of organic carbon. Organic fertilizers are very useful for increasing rice production both in quality and quantity, reduce environmental pollution and improve the quality of the land in a sustainable manner. The use of organic fertilizers in the long term can increase the productivity of land and prevent land degradation. Source material for organic fertilizer is very diverse, with the physical characteristics and chemical content varies so that the effect of the use of organic fertilizers to the land and plants can vary.
In addition, the role big enough to repair physical, chemical and biological soil environment. Organic fertilizers added to the soil will undergo several phases of renovation by soil microorganisms to become humus. Organic materials also serve as a source of energy and food soil microbes that can increase the microbial activity in the supply of plant nutrients. The addition of organic material on the side as a source of nutrients for plants, as well as a source of energy and nutrients for microbes. The basic ingredients of organic fertilizer derived from crop residues few contain harmful. The use of manure, industrial waste and municipal waste as compost ingredients because many contain harmful heavy metals and organic acids that can pollute the environment. During the composting process, some of these harmful substances will be concentrated in the final fertilizer product. It is necessary for the selection of compost ingredients that contain hazardous materials and toxic (B3).
Organic fertilizers can serve as the primary grain binder into the soil in the formation of secondary granule fertilizer. This situation affects the storage, water supply, soil aeration, and soil temperature. Organic material with a lot of carbon and nitrogen, such as straw or husks greater influence on the improvement of soil physical properties compared with organic matter such as compost decomposes. Organic fertilizers have important chemical functions such as:

    Provision of macro nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulfur) and micronutrients such as zinc, copper, cobalt, barium, manganese, and iron, although the numbers are relatively small.
    
Increasing the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the soil.
    Forming complexes with metal ions are toxic to plants such as aluminum, iron, and manganese.

Protecting the environment
Cover crops (cover crop) can be used as organic fertilizer.
The use of organic fertilizers only, not to increase crop productivity and food security. Therefore, an integrated nutrient management system that combines organic fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer should be encouraged. Farming system known as LEISA (Low External Input and Sustainable Agriculture) using a combination of organic and inorganic fertilizers are based on the concept of good agricultural practices need to be done so that land degradation can be reduced in order to preserve the environment.
The use of organic fertilizers and inorganic fertilizers to increase land productivity and agricultural production should be promoted and encouraged. Agricultural development programs that integrate livestock and crop (crop-livestock) and the use of legume crops either aisle (alley cropping) and cover crops (cover crop) as green manure and compost needs to be intensified.






                                                                      CHAPTER IV

                                                                        CLOSING


A. Conclusion
based on of description - the description above, we can know that the use of organic fertilizer in rice plants may be able to improve the welfare of farmers due to the use of organic fertilizers to increase yields of rice and organic rice prices are also more expensive than non-organic rice. Course followed by the correct way of processing plants. And if the use of organic fertilizers will not harm the environment because organic fertilizer is environmentally friendly.
Therefore, it is time society switched to using organic fertilizers. By using organic fertilizers that would better provide more profits than if they use non-organic fertilizers. We have also been facilitated by the production of organic fertilizers by fertilizer producers in Indonesia that began vigorously to produce organic fertilizer. It certainly could be used as a reason to switch to organic fertilizers. 

REFERENCES
http://www.litbang.deptan.go.id http://www.agrisci.ugm.ac.id http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/pupuk_organik





CONTOH KARYA ILMIAH BIOLOGI SIMPLE EXAMPLE OF SCIENTIFIC WORK ON ORGANIC FERTILIZER

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