Wednesday, March 27, 2013

KUMPULAN CONTOH ARTIKEL BAHASA INGGRIS



TOOLS FOR COMMUNICATION

Yet another definition see language as a system of communication that enables humans to cooperate.
This definition stresses the social functions of language and the fact that humans use it to express themselves and to manipulate objects in their environment. Functional theories of grammar explain grammatical structures by their communicative function, and understand the grammatical structure of the language as a result of an adaptive process in which grammar was "tailored" to serve the communication needs of users. This view of language is associated with the study of pragmatic language, cognitive and interactional framework, as well as socio-linguistics and linguistic anthropology. Functionalist theories tend to study grammar as a dynamic phenomenon, as the structure is always in the process of change as they are employed by their speakers. This view led to the study of linguistic typology is important, because it can be shown that the process of grammaticalization tend to follow the path that is partly dependent on typology. In the philosophy of language these views are often associated with Wittgenstein's later works and with ordinary language philosophers such as GE Moore, Paul Grice, John Searle and JL Austin.
Tool for communication
Yet another definition sees language as a system of communication that Enables humans to cooperate. This definition stresses the social functions of language and the fact that humans use it to express Themselves and to Manipulate objects in their environment. Functional theories of grammar explain grammatical structures by their communicative functions, and understands the grammatical structures of language to be the result of an adaptive process by roomates grammar was "tailored" to serve communicative needs of its users. This view of language is associated with the study of language in pragmatic, cognitive and interactional frameworks, as well as in socio-linguistics and linguistic anthropology. Functionalist theories growing niche to study grammar as a dynamic phenomenon, as structures that are always in the process of changing as they are employed by their speakers. This view leads to the study of linguistic Typology being of importance, as it can be shown that processes of grammaticalization growing niche to follow trajectories that are partly dependent on Typology. In the philosophy of language these views are Often associated with Wittgenstein's later works and with ordinary language philosophers such as G. E. Moore, Paul Grice, John Searle and J. L. Austin.




BUILD VOCABULARY TEACHER TIPS

1. Keep the instructional goals in mind.
Building Vocabulary has two major objectives: 1) enhance students' knowledge of words,
particular words that they need to be successful in school and, 2) to deepen their knowledge
about words so that students have a strategy to figure out the meaning of new words in
their own.
2. Be sure to read the "Teacher Notes" for each new lesson.
This section provides background information that you need to teach a lesson. At Level One
and two lists of words for each family or root word provided. At the rate of three to eight,
information given to help teach Greek and Latin roots. Teachers notes section provides
lots of interesting information and ideas for you to use with students. Every week, there are
also suggestions to differentiate instruction to meet the needs of all learners. It is important for
children to feel successful, so use the suggestions and feel free to customize it to meet your
students' needs.
3. Developing a regular routine with activities that scaffold learning more and more independent.
Although the program provides day-to-day routines are fast and regular, you should feel
free to modify or customize the program to meet your own specific instructional. The key is
instructions to make your regular routine which makes students to think deeply about the words
family or roots. Plan to spend 10-15 minutes every day vocabulary.
4. Find time for students to explore words with others.
Many activities in Building Vocabulary can be completed with a partner or in small groups.
Some special invite students to work together. When students complete the task
others, they have the opportunity to try out new words and talk about how they remember that "works."
games like "Wordo" and "spokes Word" is not just fun - they are a good instruction!
5. Keep learning outcomes in mind.
At the end of the program, students must have 1) studied the meaning of some
The most common root words in the English language, 2) to understand how to apply meaning to
"Divide and conquer" foreign words, 3) deepen their word consciousness. Above all, we hope
Your students will become independent word detective and lifelong lovers of words!
6. Stay focused on thinking about word roots or family, not on memorizing
particular words.
Students need to be sure that they have the knowledge and processes to find
meanings of words. Roots can help here as prefixes and bases are familiar concepts
(Un-= 'no'; pre-= "before"; graph = "write"). Word families help students see spelling
patterns for many words. As students discover the meaning of new words, ask them "What
You think? Why "no"? What is the correct answer? "Remember that the most effective
not to teach vocabulary through repetition without thinking or memorization.
 

Build Vocabulary Teacher Tips
(Continued)
7. Helping students become "the unconscious" by weaving roots weeks or a family said to be
other activities.
Consider the Word Wall where you and / or students can post words that show the roots of weeks or
Root or word family. Word Families Week invites students to write the words that they run
all who use the word family roots or weeks on chart paper. They put their initials after
said. On Friday, the students volunteer to share their words, say what they mean, and how they
find them. Students also enjoy the Word Root Word Day or Family Day. Start
every day by choosing different words containing the root word or a family week. Choose
words that are very interesting or useful. Every student you hear or see the word
day, tell them to enhance two-finger "V" for "Vocabulary"!
8. For levels 3-8, using teacher-led discussion when introducing new roots.
Follow Day One "Meet the Root" activity "Activate Background Knowledge" and "Teach
New Concept "activity. (With overhead) has been designed to make students aware of
the presence of a new root words daily they already know. "Enable Background
Knowledge "to help students learn the meaning of a new root by connecting it to familiar words.
"Teach New Concepts" provides additional practice with more difficult words. It is also possible
introduce or reinforce important linguistic concepts (ex., the meaning of a word may literally
or figuratively). Day One might take a little extra time (especially in the first week), but will
pay dividends this weekend.
9. For Level 3-8, guide students through the task of "Divide and Conquer".
The "Meet the Root" ends the lesson by inviting students to "dissect" 10 words using the new
root. Get them into the mindset of "if ... then" ("If the geo means" earth "and-ology 'study' means
Geological then have to 'learn the earth'. ") As you guide them, making sure everyone has a
understand what it means and how to apply root meaning to help them figure out new
words.
10. For Level 3-8, consider making a "Rocking the Roots" learning center.
Day Two and Four includes a variety of familiar "brain-stretching" activities students enjoy,
including the types of words, creating and writing words, crossword puzzles, word searches, word
ladder, magic box, and much more! On the third day, students read a variety of short texts (eg,
poems, stories, advice columns) and answer questions. Students can complete this workbook
and / or activity bonus CD in the learning centers. They can make "Rocking the Roots"
notebook to keep their jobs. Adapt the materials to fit the structure of your learning centers.
Before students can work independently at learning centers, you may have to spend a few weeks
give them guided practice with every type of activities.

TeachingVocabulary: Research and Practice
Is vocabulary? In simple terms, vocabulary is knowledge of the meaning of the word. We use our mouths
vocabulary for listening and speaking, and our print vocabulary for reading and writing. Each of us also has a unique
said scheme consisting of active and passive vocabulary. Active vocabulary includes words we can
quickly produce when we speak or write as we know them well. Passive vocabulary includes
words we can recognize but do not regularly use. We only know them well enough to find them
out when we face them.
The words themselves are built from smaller units of sounds (phonemes) unit forms of meaning
(Morphemes). We use letters and letter patterns (graphemes) spell or represent them in the sense
print. But very often there is no one-to-one between the simple sound (or spelling) of
words and their meanings. Consider this example:
Words can have the same sound and spelling but multiple meanings. Defining words exist in every
of these sentences:
I'm running a marathon.
My neighbor is running for city council.
I walked in the kitchen refrigerator.
Everyone agreed that the extensive vocabulary helps us share our thoughts and feelings with others
more effective. An extensive vocabulary is also central to reading comprehension: The greater the
reader vocabulary, the easier it is for him to understand the meaning of a text (National
Reading Panel 2000). Young readers who do not have sufficient knowledge of vocabulary can not apply the word
efficient recognition strategy. Confused, they become frustrated and quickly left behind by their
readers who have adequate knowledge of the word. The result is a cycle of increasing reading failure to
too many children. It only makes sense! In fact, decades of research have consistently found in
relationship between vocabulary knowledge, reading comprehension, and academic success (Baumann
and Kame'enui 2002).
Until now, most of the formal vocabulary instruction was limited to the introduction of key
words before reading a new text. But the National Reading Panel (2000) found that vocabulary is
studied both indirectly and directly, and that reliance on only one instructional method is not
not produce optimal vocabulary growth. We must do more. In this section, we define the concept of
vocabulary and highlight the key findings of research-based evidence to clarify an important role in
reading comprehension instruction.
Words can also have the same sound but different spellings and meanings. Define the word bears and
naked in each sentence:
Hiking through the woods, John and Mary grew afraid of the bears. They can not stand the cold and
blowing snow, so they look for a place to stay to protect their bare hands and face. Finding an empty room,
Mary asked John to take with when he lit the fire.
It is a fusion of sound / meaning / spelling makes learning English words interesting and complex.
Why IsVocabulary Important?
Early reading instruction focused on phonological aspects of word learning. Children learn
manipulate phonemes and recognize patterns of letters and use this information strategically to
decode unfamiliar words. It's easy to forget that many children do not automatically understand
what the words mean after they have been translated them. Learning to read new words too often means
learn new concepts or new labels for familiar concepts.
A strong bank of conceptual knowledge is critical to initiate the reader. That is not
automatically following successful decoding if the concept associated with the word decoded is not part of a
child's vocabulary. Knowledge of a broad conceptual support decoding. Hiebert and Kamil (2005) views
vocabulary as a bridge linking process-level phonics and word cognitive wider
process of understanding. This is a useful way to visualize the importance of vocabulary to young
readers.
An extensive vocabulary is also important for success in school beyond the initial reading. As students move
from class to class, become more complex literacy tasks. Most researchers believe that children
naturally add between 2,000 and 3,000 new words each year, but by fifth grade they will meet 10,000
new words in their own reading (Nagy and Anderson 1984). Many of these words will represent
content area concepts and unfamiliar challenge. An extensive vocabulary helps students read fluently,
understand, discuss what they have read, and learn. Unfortunately, we know that students who start school
with a smaller vocabulary is at most academic weakness was never overcome (Hart and Risley
1995, 2003).
bear
naked
How ShouldVocabulary BeTaught?
Learning new words is directly and indirectly (National Reading Panel 2000). Direct teaching of key
words can be useful, but research says that children can only learn eight to ten new words
learning through direct instruction (Stahl and Fairbanks 1986) because learning requires repetition and
multiple exposures. Students will need frequent opportunities to use new words in oral and print
context for their learning at a deep level (Blachowicz and Fisher 2002).
Students also have to study the structural and semantic properties of words. They had to use
surrounding context and / or parts of words (prefixes, suffixes, base) to unlock the meaning. Learning keywords
section will enable students to master new words are semantically connected.
In other words, the definition of looking up words in the dictionary and learn is not enough to guarantee
word learning. However, dictionaries and other reference works to increase the interest in vocabulary
programs. Most students learn word analysis strategies (phonics, context) in the primary classroom. They
also began to learn about reference tool. For example, they may know how to use a dictionary, but
they may not know a wide variety of electronic and print dictionaries are now available. They may be
knows the concept of synonyms and antonyms, but they may not know how to use a thesaurus. (Some
of which are available electronically really fun to use!) Explicit practice with all strategies for
unlocking the meaning of the word will help students learn to use it automatically. So the program vocabulary
should focus on strengthening and expanding the strategies students have learned. In addition,
teachers will encourage students to become detectives said, a habit that they may carry
them all (and beyond) their school years.
Most of the vocabulary studied indirectly or spontaneously through discussion, reading, or listening. So
Other important principles of teaching vocabulary is by reading aloud to students. Choose books with
beautiful words and strong language. For your own favorites. Encourage students to do so as
better. If students will tackle new or difficult concepts in the content area, started by reading them
some picture books that discuss the topic. In addition to their many other benefits, read-alouds help
improve children's oral vocabulary, which is an important stepping stone to reading comprehension.
Related to this is another principle: encourage extensive reading. The more students read, the better. Set
different purposes for reading - including pure enjoyment - and urged the students to select text in a variety of
level of difficulty. Research tells us that students learn more new words incidentally, when they appear
while reading or listening to, than they do through direct instruction (Lehr, Osborn, and Hiebert 2004).
Share your own love of words and invite students to share them. Each of us has our favorite text
switch to because the words make us laugh or cry. Read aloud to your students and talk
about the power of words. Ask them to do so as well. Generating their appetites by sharing interesting
word history and then showed them how to explore the origins of many words alone. Focus
the "interesting words" and "Did You Know" feature Building Vocabulary from Word Roots. Post
list of websites or print resources for students to investigate their own. Encourage them to share
what they find with the class.
In other words, make word learning and word play in your class priority. Provide regular
opportunities for students to practice and find their own words and in the company of others.
This is one of the key ideas behind Building Vocabulary from Word Roots. As they progress through the lessons
during the week, students have the opportunity to work with dozens of parts of the new words in a variety of ways.
Some other words learning activities are described below.
Remember that words alone just plain interesting, and our main goal is to create a lifetime
word lovers. Build Vocabulary from Word Roots gives students time to do crossword puzzles and word
randomize or to create puzzles and tongue twisters. Not only is this a good instruction-it's fun. Make
time for students to play and explore word games on their own or with others. There are countless
said activities accessible available for students to do on the Internet. Check the power source in the
Teacher Resources section.
Differentiating Instruction
Over the last few years, classrooms have evolved into diverse pool. Gifted students, English
learners, learning disabled students, high achievers, low achievers and average students all come
together to learn from one teacher in one classroom. Teachers are expected to meet all of their various
needs. It brings back memories of the one-room school for early American history. No
too long ago, the lessons are designed to be one size fits all. People assume that students in the same
level classes share the same classes learn the same way. Today, it is clear that this view is wrong.
Students have different learning styles, come from different cultures, experience a variety of emotions,
and have varied interests. For each subject, they differ in their academic readiness. Teachers have realized
that they must differentiate their instruction to better meet the needs of their students.
Differentiation includes what is taught, how it is taught, and the students created a product to show
what they have learned. The third category is often referred to as content, process, and product.
Teachers must differentiate content, process, and product according to the characteristics of the students.
These characteristics include student readiness, learning styles, and interests. If the learning experience
closely match the skills and understanding of a topic (readiness), they will learn better. Create
tasks that allow students to complete the work according to their preferences (learning styles)
will help the learning experience more meaningful. If the topic sparked excitement in students
(Interest), then the students will be involved in learning and better recall what was taught.
To make the events in the series are the most effective, teachers must try to distinguish some
lesson. Not all students need to engage in exactly the same activities at the same time. Below are
some general suggestions for how to distinguish five parts of the activity.
Part A
(Addressing Root)-this is the core knowledge of the subject this week. All
students must have a solid foundation in information.
Above grade level-even the highest student you will not know most of this information
before you start the lesson. (Greek and Latin roots do not tend to come naturally to
students.) However, keep in mind that students do not need to practice as much as
examples as other students. Two ways to distinguish this activity is to shorten the amount of
example students must complete and / or they just completed the most difficult examples.
English Language Learner (ELL)-Adding context to the language is one of the most important
key to the success of the ELL population. ELL students may have acquired social language skills, but
types of language skills learned in this lesson very academic in nature. It will take them longer
to acquire skills and abilities. They may not see the words in the same way that teachers and
non-ELL students perform. To distinguish the first step with them, trying to instill the words in context.
Rather than just a list of ten words, providing them with five sentences. Underlining or bolding key words
and ask them to focus on those who are in the context of the sentence. Try to reduce the number of words
10-5 also. ELL students will need more time to work through this activity. It is also good
idea to read sentences or words aloud to the students. Hearing these words will help them improve
their verbal interaction and connect sounds with the written word. Finally, provide a copy of the
the words that students can cut apart and manipulate as they search for prefixes, suffixes and base words.
Below grade level-Making concepts more concrete for students. You may want to do some
examples with them. Show them prefixes, bases, and / or suffix. Having a dictionary is available
so that they can look up the words if they have a problem. Giving students some extra support would help
they feel safer and more successful.
 (Mix and Make)-This activity asks students to write English
words from the root. Typically, in the lesson, students should analyze
something and record words in the English language as the answer.
Above-grade level to distinguish, above grade level students can make their
own example. So, instead of simply writing answers to the puzzle, they create their
puzzles themselves. Then, they can be paired with in class or below grade level students to share their
puzzles and give students more practice.
-ELL students will also benefit from a word bank to answer. If possible, start the session
sitting with students in small groups and work through the examples together. Use expressions and
body language to help share the meaning. Then, students can refer to the bank to decide the best word
choice. When they begin to feel more comfortable, leave the group to work together. Check back in
with them soon to make sure they are still on duty, and they do not worry about the task.
Below-grade level students will benefit from working in pairs on this activity. Work
together to help them share the strengths and support each other when it gets more difficult examples.
Each of them will still be responsible for completing the task, but they can gather their knowledge as
they work. Consider providing students with a word bank to answer.

(Read and Reason)-Students read short paragraphs and poems because they
find parts in the context of the word.
Above grade level-After they complete this task, challenging the students (and
at grade level) to find more examples of words in their textbooks,
resource books, reading books, etc. Students can begin a list on paper bulletin board
all the examples they find. Have them write the words in full sentences so
that the lower-level students can see the words in some contexts. Additional challenges such as these must be
always more fun than work. It's never fair to punish the students to be above average
give them busy work.
ELL-This is an excellent activity for ELL students. The words in this context would mean much more
to them than their own words. In fact, consider turning it slightly for this group. Do this
activities as Part A and move the rest of the lesson back one day. If you started with this activity, the students
will have a context in which to put the words to the rest of the week. Would be smart to read
poem or the first paragraph together. Then, allow students to work in pairs to complete the activity
sheet. Be sure to be available to help them and have them accessible dictionary. If possible, provide
dictionary with translation between their primary language and English.
Below grade level-Seeing words in context would be very beneficial for the students. However,
depending on their reading level, teachers may need to read a poem or a paragraph together.
Through your modeling fluent reading, many of the students will learn the meaning of the over
writing section. Provide dictionaries for their use when they complete the activity. Teachers may also want to
to enable them to work with partners or in small groups.
Part D
(Extend and Explore)-Students work individually and in groups to make
applications for new vocabulary.
Above grade-level activity is suitable for students. Usually creative
in nature and allows some flexibility in the resulting product.
ELL-Applying their learning may be very difficult for the students. It may be difficult for them to
think of the new context in which they can apply what they have learned. For example, writing sketches
or draw a picture of the parts of words may not make sense for students who are trying to keep the words
in context. Partner is the students with on-grade level. With the partnership, on-
grade level students can be a peer-ELL teachers and help students succeed.
Below grade-level activities at levels slightly higher than the previous three days
activity. Hopefully, with the activities that they have completed earlier this week, the students will
application prepared for this event. If students seem anxious, try to provide examples and support.
You may want to work with some of the students as they begin their job to ensure their
understand what they are doing. Complete sample some practice with them to get them started.
Supports every success they have with the task and encourage them to try harder
problems. If necessary, reduce the number of instances they are expected to complete.
Section E
(Go for the Gold!)-Students enjoy the play on words as they review the words
and concepts for the week. This activity may not need to be distinguished.
Ensure that heterogeneous teams for this activity and supports all
learners. If there is a necessary preparation for the game, make sure that the teacher
or students helping students below grade level and ELL group should be prepared.
Finally, make sure the competition aspect of this activity does not make low-level students too
anxious. If students are stressed, you should ask them to help run the game or act as spectators.
Is English Language Learners SpecialVocabulary Have Needs?
Have you ever studied a foreign language in school? If so, you probably remember feeling both excited and confused
as you explore new ways of speaking, reading, and thinking.
This is how students
learning English as a second language in English-only classrooms feel. Given the cultural and language
diversity of our population, your class may have children from several countries. How do you plan
vocabulary instruction that reaches each participant individually?
Students who are learning English at school has unique advantages and challenges.
They bring a rich background
experience that can be used to enhance learning everyone. They know how to move between the two
languages, integrating new sounds and meanings into words and grammatical structures. As they learn
English, their natural manipulation of two languages ​​promotes higher-level thinking. Yet ELL students
sometimes feel lost in the unfamiliar linguistic and academic world in roomates they find Themselves.
Fortunately, everything we know about how to teach vocabulary applies to both first-and second-
language learners: ELL students need to focus on meaning, using research-based strategies to learn new
said kata.They need frequent opportunities to try out new words in varied learning contexts.
Primary
difference is that ELL students generally require more distinctive and frequent support.
The kind of word study in this book helps English learners actively seek elements of words.
It helps
them develop strategies for breaking words into smaller components and more Understandable, rather
than feeling overwhelmed by strings of letters that form words incomprehensible.
It will be helpful if,
prior to each lesson, you the make certain that ELL students understand the prefix and at least a few of the
root words. Then, class discussion will further support comprehension and word learning.
The first day of eachBuilding Vocabulary from Word Rootslesson features teacher-led discussions, and many
activities throughout the lessons either direct students to work with partners or can be adapted for
small-group work.


TOOLS FOR COMMUNICATION

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