Saturday, March 16, 2013



Teacher Competency
Actually, if a teacher is to be professional? In Article 35 paragraph (1) of the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia Number 20 of 2003 on National Education System stated that the national education standards consisting of content standards, process standards, competency standards, standards of education, infrastructure standards, management standards, financing standards and assessment standards of education must be improved in a planned and regular.
Law of the Republic of Indonesia number 14 year 2005 on Teachers and Lecturers, suggests that teachers are professional educators with the primary task of educating, teaching, guiding, directing, training, assess, and evaluate students on early childhood education, formal education, primary education education and secondary education. Professionalism in education needs to be understood that the teacher should be someone who has instincts as educators, learners understand and comprehend. Teacher must possess in depth at least one field of science. Teachers must have an attitude of professional integrity. The status of teachers as professionals as defined in Article 2 paragraph (1) serves to enhance the dignity and role of teachers as agents of learning functions to improve the quality of national education. What is meant by teachers as agents of learning (learning agent) is the teacher's role, among others as a facilitator, motivator, hyper, engineers learning, and inspiration learning for learners.
Teacher competence referred to in Article 8 of the Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 14 of 2005 includes pedagogical, personal competence, social competence, and professional competencies acquired through professional education. All four of these competencies can be described as follows:
1. A teacher's pedagogical skills in managing learning, at least include (1) understanding or insight into educational foundation, (2) an understanding of the learner, (3) development of curriculum / syllabus, (4) learning design, (5) the implementation of learning educate and dialogue, (6) the use of learning technology, (7) the evaluation process and learning outcomes, and (8) the development of a variety of learners to actualize its potential.
2. Competence personality at least include (1) morality, (2) wise and prudent, (3) stable, (4) authoritative, (5) stable, (6) adults, (7) honest, (8) were able to model for students and the community, (9) to objectively evaluate their own performance, and (10) develop themselves independently and sustainably.
3. Social competence is the ability of teachers as part of the community, at least the following (1) to communicate orally, in writing and / or cues, (2) use of information and communication technologies in functional terms, (3) interact effectively with students, fellow educators , staff, head of the education unit, the parents / guardians of students, (4) hang out in a dignified manner with the surrounding community to heed the norms and value systems that apply, and (5) apply the principles of brotherhood and the spirit of togetherness.
4. Professional competence is the ability to master the knowledge of teachers in science, technology, and / or artistic mastery of at least include (1) the subject matter is broad and deep standards of education unit program content, subjects, and / or a group of subjects who diampunya , and (2) the concepts and methods of the discipline of science, technology, or art that is conceptually relevant overshadow or coherent set of education programs, subjects, and / or the subject matter.
The four competencies mentioned above is holistic and integrative in teacher performance. Therefore, the full figure of the teacher competencies include (a) the introduction of learners in depth, (b) mastery of the field of study of both disciplines (diciplinary content) as well as teaching materials in the school curriculum (pedagogical content), (c) organization that educates learning which include planning and implementation of learning, evaluation processes and learning outcomes, and follow-up for improvement and enrichment, and (d) the development of a sustainable personality and professionalism.
Article 7 (1) of the Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 14 of 2005 states that the teaching profession and professional lecturers are specific areas of work undertaken by the following principles:
a. have talents, interests, vocation, and idealism;
b. is committed to improving the quality of education, faith, piety, and moral values;
c. have academic qualifications and educational background in accordance with its duties;
d. have the necessary competence in accordance with its duties;
e. has responsibility for the implementation of tasks professionalism;
f. earnings determined in accordance with work performance;
g. have the opportunity to develop in a sustainable manner with the professionalism of lifelong learning;
h. have legal protection guarantees professionalism in carrying out the task, and
i. have a professional organization that has the authority to regulate matters relating to the duty teacher professionalism.
Professional's work or activity performed by a person and a source of income that requires life skills, skills, or skills that meet certain quality standards or norms and require professional education. Teachers as professionals means that a teacher's job can only be done by someone who has the academic qualifications, competence, and educator certificate in accordance with the requirements for each type and level of education.
In carrying out the task of professionalism, teachers are required to:
a. Planning for learning, implementing quality learning process, and to assess and evaluate the learning outcomes;
b. Improving and developing the academic qualifications and competence on an ongoing basis in line with developments in science, technology, and art;
c. Objective and non-discriminatory acts on the basis of gender, religion, ethnicity, race, and certain physical conditions, or family background, and socioeconomic status of students in learning;
d. Uphold the laws and regulations, laws and codes of conduct of teachers, as well as religious values and ethics, and
e. Maintain and foster national unity.
Teacher Certification
Law No. 20 of 2003 on National Education System, Law No. 14 year 2005 on Teachers and Lecturers, and Government Regulation No. 19 of 2005 on National Education Standards mandated that teachers are professional educators. A teacher or professional educator must have a minimum academic qualification of bachelor degree (S1) or a diploma four (D4), master competencies (pedagogical, professional, social, and personality), certified educators, physical and spiritual health, as well as having the ability to realize the goal of education nationwide.
Teacher certification is one way to improve the quality and welfare of teachers, as well as serve to enhance the dignity and role of teachers as agents of learning. With the implementation of teacher certification, is expected to have an impact on increasing the quality of learning and the quality of education on an ongoing basis.
Target in-service teacher certification through portfolio assessment in 2008 set by the government some 200,000 teachers, civil servants and not include civil servants in public or private educational unit which includes kindergarten, elementary, junior high, high school, vocational and special schools.
Terms of participants certified teacher through portfolio assessment as follows.
1. It has a minimum academic qualification degree (S1) or a diploma four (D-IV) from an accredited program of study.
2. Teaching in public schools under the guidance of National Education Ministry.
3. PNS teachers who teach in the educational unit organized by the local government or teachers assigned to units held by public education.
4. Not a civil servant who is a teacher of teachers remains the foundation (GTY) or teacher appointed by the government to teach in the educational unit organized by the local government.
5. Have a service life of at least 5 years as a teacher at a school or a different school within the same foundation;
6. It has a unique number of teachers and (NUPTK). Terms and priority determination of teacher certification candidates for civil servants and non-civil service teachers apply the same, except for the rank and class.

Teacher portfolio consists of 10 components, namely: (1) academic qualifications, (2) education and training, (3) teaching experience, (4) planning and implementation of learning, (5) assessment of the supervisor and the supervisor, (6) academic achievement , (7) the work of professional development, (8) participation in scientific forums, (9) organizational experience in the field of education and social services, and (10) awards that are relevant to the field of education. Ten components of the portfolio is a reflection of the four competencies of teachers. Each component of the portfolio can give one or more competencies teacher certification participants, and the culmination of some or all of the four components of the portfolio reflects the competence of the teacher. Mapping the ten components of the portfolio in the context of teacher competence are presented in Table 1.

Table 1 Mapping component in the context of Teacher Competency Portfolio

(No game line. 18 Year 2007) COMPETENCE TEACHER
Pedg Kepri Sos Profe
1. Academic Qualifications 
2. Education and Training 
3. Teaching Experience 
4.  Learning Planning and Implementation 
5. Assessment of Bosses and Supervisors 
6. Academic Achievement 
7.  Professional Development
8. Participation in Scientific Forum 
9. Being Experiences in the Field of Education Management Organizations and Social 
10. Relevant to the Field Award  Education 

Portfolio is physical evidence (documents) that describe work experience / accomplishments achieved during professional duties as a teacher in a specific time interval. This document is related to the elements of experience, work and achievements during the teacher's role as an agent of learning runs. Teacher portfolios document contains data and information records the experience of teachers in promoting professionalism in teaching and learning. Document teacher portfolios rated by 2 (two) assessors based on the book Guidelines for Developing Portfolio (Book 3). Assessors were given the task to assess the portfolio set by the certification of teachers colleges based guidelines set by the Directorate General of Higher Education. The assessors who passed the selection given Assessors Identification Number (NIA). Based on the portfolio assessment certification participants were grouped into six (6) categories, namely:
1. Graduated Portfolio (L)
Participants who pass the portfolio assessment portfolio assessment when a score equal to or above the minimum passing score (850).
2. Completing Administration (MA)
Participants must complete an administrative portfolio assessment scores have reached the limit of graduation, but still there is a lack of administration. For example, a diploma has not been legalized, the statement was signed by participants in the portfolio without a stamp, and so on. Participants must complete lack documents are then sent back to LPTK.
3. Completing Substance (MS)
Participants with portfolio assessment has not reached the minimum passing score, which must meet a minimum score of 841-849 to conduct activities related to professional educators to complement the shortages that portfolio.
5. Following PLPG (MPLPG)
Participants who have not reached the portfolio assessment score a minimum score of graduation must follow PLPG which includes four competencies of teachers and ended with a competency test. Participants who pass the competency test obtaining Educator Certificate. Participants were given the opportunity to retest twice (for material that has not been passed). Participants who do not pass the exam the second week returned to the District Education Office / City. PLPG schedule set by LPTK.
6. Clarification (K)
Participants who attach some or all of the documents of questionable authenticity portfolio / her truth, the clarification given category. If the participant is found guilty of falsifying documents, the participant is disqualified.
7. Disqualification (D)
Participants certification will be disqualified if: not according to the criteria of participants, or proven to deliberately do business bribery. The document will be returned to participants Provincial Education Department and the Education Department District / City. Quotas were disqualified participant can not be replaced by other participants.

Education Unit Level Curriculum
In Article 12 paragraph (1) of the law on the National Education System explicitly stated that students have a right to be educated according to their talents, interests, and abilities. Curriculum 2006 or the so-called Unit Level Curriculum (SBC) is developed according to its relevance based on the content standards and competency standards and curriculum guides based on the following principles:
a. Centered on the potential, progress, needs and interests of learners and the environment.
b. Diverse and integrated
c. Responsive to the development of science, technology and art
d. Relevant to the needs of life
e. Comprehensive and sustainable
f. Lifelong learning
g. Balance between national interests and regional interests
Syllabus Development
The syllabus is an elaboration of standards of competence and basic competence in the subject matter, learning activities, and indicators for the assessment of competence achievement.
Syllabus Development Principles:
1. Scientific
Overall materials and activities related to the charge in the syllabus should be properly and scientifically justifiable.
2. Relevant
Scope, depth, and difficulty level of the order of presentation of the material in the syllabus according to the level of their physical, intellectual, social, emotional, and spiritual learners.
3. Systematic
The components of the syllabus are functionally interconnected in order to achieve competence.
4. Consistent
A consistent (steady, consistent) between basic competences, indicators, subject matter, learning experience, learning resources, and assessment.
5. Adequate
Coverage indicator, subject matter, learning experience, learning resources, and assessment system sufficient to support the achievement of basic competence.
6. Actual and Contextual
Coverage indicator, subject matter, learning experience, learning resources, and attention to the development of the scoring system of science, technology, and cutting-edge art in real life, and the events that occurred.
7. Flexible
The entire syllabus components to accommodate the diversity of learners, educators, and the dynamic changes that occur in the school and the demands of society.
8. Comprehensive
Component of the syllabus covers the entire realm of competence (cognitive, affective, psychomotor).
 Education Unit Level Curriculum developed based on the principle of complete learning (mastery learning). Complete learning requires all students can learn if given the right conditions and enough time studying. Learning model does not focus on material but rather on the process of achieving mastery. Allocation of time spent on learning should be set according to the ability of each student. According to the assumption of complete learning that every student has the potential and talent that is different, then the time required to learn is not the same.
Complete learning principles:
- Instructional learning should adjust the condition of each learner
- Pay attention and serve individual differences of learners. Thus, students are grouped by ability level and are taught according to their characteristics.
- Learning strategy based on the principle of sustainable progress (continuous progress).
- Learning is broken down into small units (cremental units).
- Students will not be allowed to learn the material if the material following prerequisites have not been completed.
- A unit of learners who study a particular subject can move to the next lesson if the unit concerned students have mastered at least 75% of the indicators (depending on the school).
- Assessment should use the reference criteria. This means that the learning achievement of the students are not compared to the other participants in the group, but with the capabilities of the previous and the benchmarks that have been set.
Development Assessment System
Implementation of Government Regulation Number 19 of 2005 on National Education Standards carry implications for the assessment system, including models and valuation techniques are implemented in the classroom. In the minister's decision 012/U/2002 numbers on January 28, 2002: Types and Forms of Assessment especially Chapter III Article 3 states that: (1) The type of assessment in schools consists of Class and Exam Assessment, (2) In addition to the types of assessments as referred to in paragraph 1 can be assessed Ability Test and the Basic Education Quality Assessment, (3) assessment is done through a written test, oral test, the test acts or practices, giving the task, and the collection of student work or the so-called portfolio, and (4) Assessment Class and Exam covers the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. This assessment confirmed the problem again with the minister's decision 047/U/2002 number dated 4 April 2002 on the SLC stated that the implementation of the curriculum requires that all teachers in the school to implement a Competency-Based Assessment. With the assessment system is expected to be implemented thoroughly and continuously. Assessment is not only focused on cognitive ability alone but also include psychomotor and affective domains.
Classroom assessment is carried out in an integrated assessment of the learning process, using multimetode, comprehensive, sustainable so as to encourage students to perform better. Rating class called authentic assessment, alternative assessment, or assessment be thorough performance that involves the whole realm of capabilities and continuous so as to encourage students to perform better. Understanding alternative assessment is the evaluation of non-traditional and assessments that do not simply rely on paper and pencil test.
Assessment of students achieving basic competencies is based on indicators. Assessment is carried out using tests and non-test in the form of written or oral, observation of performance, attitude, work assessment in the form of project or product, the use of portfolio and self-assessment.

Departemen Pendidikan Nasional. (2004). Penilaian Kelas. Jakarta: Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pusat Kurikulum.
Departemen Pendidikan Nasional. (2006). Panduan Penyusunan Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan. Jakarta: Pusat Kurikulum Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan.
Departemen Pendidikan Nasional (2008). Pedoman Penyusunan Portofolio. Jakarta: Direktorat Jenderal Pendidikan Tinggi.
Undang-undang Republik Indonesia nomor 14 tahun 2005 tentang Guru dan DosEN



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