Saturday, March 30, 2013

CONTOH MAKALAH DAN ARTIKEL TENTANG PENGETAHUAN ILMIAH



SCIENCE AND RESEARCH PAPERS


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A. Background
 Research can not be separated from the developmental stages of human life, especially the development of science and technology. The importance of the research and its relationship to a variety of things so research  be implemented in earnest and ethical truth.
       When the study was associated with higher education, the knowledge, abilities and skills of the teaching staff (lecturers)  the cutting edge in university life should be improved. In addition to improving the ability of the faculty itself is expected to heighten the excitement of the students to examine. For that we need adequate knowledge and skills so that the research can be useful for universities (public and private) and national development of the nation.
      Meanwhile, when linked to national development, the research is fundamental (basic) for every decision and step-by-step implementation of development planning. In connection with that need funding / costs and human resources (personnel researchers) are great that research can take place well and have great benefits for the success of national development.
      Of the various things that must be understood in the implementation of the research was conducted themselves independently, efficiently, effectively, critical, and is based on the ethics of truth is an aspect that should always be a primary concern. Given the importance of research as it has been expressed on the explanation above, in this paper we will discuss about the group Science and Research.
B. Problem Formulation
1. Is the sense of knowledge, science, philosophy and technology?
2. How is the relationship between science with research?
3. What is known about the method of research?
4. How do I do research?
C. Destination
1. Knowing the sense of knowledge, science, philosophy and technology.
2. Understanding the relationship between science research.
3. Knowing the methods of research.
4. Understanding how to do research.

CHAPTER II
DISCUSSION

A. Understanding Knowledge, Science, Philosophy and Technology
1. Knowledge (Knowledge)
 In the opinion of Gordon (1994: 57) notion of knowledge is the knowledge of the organizational structure is usually a fact procedure which, if carried out will meet the performance possible. Nadler (1986: 62) found human knowledge is a process of learning about the truth or the right way is easy to know what to know to do. Meanwhile, according to Notoatmodjo (2007) knowledge is a result of out and do this after the sensing of the object. Sensing occurs through the five senses, the senses of sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch. In most human knowledge acquired through the eyes and ears.
       In another sense knowledge is something that is immediately apparent from the experience, based on the five senses, and processed by the mind spontaneously. In essence, the knowledge spontaneous, subjective and intuitive.
Knowledge is closely related to the truth of the correspondence between human knowledge with the reality on the object. Philosophers continue to debate the definition of knowledge, especially since Plato's formulation of knowledge by stating knowledge as "justified true belief (valid)" ("justified true belief").
      
Knowledge can be divided into non-scientific knowledge and pre-scientific knowledge. Non-scientific knowledge is the result of absorption of the senses to the experience of everyday life that are not necessary and may not verifiable. Non-scientific knowledge can not be developed into a science. For example, knowledge of a particular people about Jinn or spirits in certain places, the power of inheritance, and others. Pre-scientific knowledge is the result of absorption of the senses and rational thought are open to further testing using scientific methods. For example, the knowledge of people about the benefits of ginger plants to treat hepatitis B.
From the explanations above we can conclude that knowledge (knowledge) is something that is known or understood subjectively someone gained by experience of a fact or situation faced by the senses, and processed by the mind. This knowledge can be divided into two non-scientific knowledge and pre-scientific knowledge. Non-scientific knowledge does not need to be re-examined while the validity of pre-scientific knowledge needs to be tested further using scientific methods.
2. Science (Science)
According to Law No. 18 of 2002, is a series of science knowledge extracted, structured and developed systematically by using a specific approach that is based on scientific methodology, both quantitative, qualitative, as well as exploratory evidence to explain natural phenomena and / or symptoms  particular. While in the Big Indonesian Dictionary of science is knowledge about a field that compiled by applying certain methods, which can be used to explain certain symptoms in the field (knowledge) that.
     As for the definition of knowledge according to experts quoted by Bakhtiar in 2005 include:
• Mohamad Hatta, defining science is organized knowledge about causal laws work in a group of the same temperament problems, and according to position visible from the outside, nor according to the building from the inside.
• Ralph Ross and Ernest Van Den Haag, said the science is empirical, rational, common and systematic, and all four of them simultaneously.
• Karl Pearson, said science is a painting or a comprehensive and consistent information about the facts of experience with simple terms.
• Ashley Montagu, concluded that scientific knowledge is organized in a system derived from observation, study and experimentation to determine the nature of the principle of the thing being studied.
• Harsojo explained that science is  accumulation of knowledge and an approach or method empirical approach to the whole world the world is bound by a factor of time and space, the world is in principle observable by human senses. Furthermore, science is defined as a way of analyzing that allows the expert-expert to state a proposition of the form: "if .... then ".
• Afanasyef, said science is human nature, society and thought. It reflects the nature and concepts, categories and laws, that its provisions and validity tested by practical experience.
      In order for knowledge to be a science, then science had to be split (into a particular field of reality) and arranged methodically, systematically and consistently. The goal is that the experience had been able to return more clearly expressed, detailed and rigorous. The process of systematization of knowledge into science usually through the following stages:
a. Phase formulating questions as possible.
b. Designing a fundamental hypotheses and tested
c. Draw logical conclusions from assumptions.
d. Designing techniques download test assumptions.
e. Testing the technique itself is adequate and reliable.
f. The test itself is carried out and the results are interpreted.
g. Assessing the truth of claims filed by those assumptions and assess the strength of earlier techniques.
h. Establish broad field force and engineering assumptions and formulate new questions.
      So basically science (science) is the processing results back knowledge (knowledge) testing using the scientific method supported by a collection of evidence and methodically organized, systematic, consistent and coherent. So that knowledge into science scientific testing needs to be done first.
Science or scientific knowledge can be divided into:
a. Physical Science-Quantitative, often called empirical knowledge. This knowledge is obtained through a process of observation and analysis of data and empirical phenomena. Included in this is the science of geology, biology, anthropology, sociology, and others.
b. -Qualitative Formal Sciences, commonly referred to mathematical knowledge. This knowledge is obtained by analysis of reflection to look for relationships between concepts. Included in this group is the formal logic of science, mathematics, physics, chemistry, and others.
c. -Substantial metaphysical studies, often called the philosophy of knowledge. Philosophy of knowledge obtained by reflection analysis (understanding, interpretation, speculation, critical judgment, logical rational) to find the essence of the principle underlying the existence of the whole of reality.
3. Philosophy (Philosophy) Philosophy comes from the Greek, namely Phil and Sophy. Phil means Love = Love and Sophy means Wisdom = Wisdom = Wisdom = Wisdom. Understanding the philosophy according to the experts:
• Plato (427SM - 347SM) a Greek philosopher, student of Socrates and teacher of Aristotle, said: Philosophy is the knowledge of all that exists (science who are interested in reaching the truth of the original).
• Aristotle (384 BC - 322SM) says: Philosophy is the science of truth, that it contains sciences metaphysics, logic, rhetoric, ethics, economics, politics, and aesthetics (philosophy investigating the cause and principle of all things).
• Immanuel Kant (1724 -1804), often called the giant Western thought, saying: Philosophy and the base of all the basic science knowledge includes the four issues, namely:
- What can we know? (Answered by metaphysics)
- What can we do? (Answered by ethics)
- Up where is our hope? (Answered by religion)
- What is a human being (answered olh Anthropology)
\• Prof. Dr. Fuad Hasan, UI psychology professor, concluded: Philosophy is an effort to think radically, it means starting from a symptom, of the roots of a thing that was about to question. And with the exploration of the radical philosophy of trying to arrive at universal conclusions.
      From the definition of the above experts concluded philosophy of testing is critical and logical analysis by reason of the basic concepts used in expressing what is believed. So philosophy explaining the nature of all that exists, the cause, origin, and its laws.

4. Technology (Technology)
According to Law no. 18 of 2002, Technology is the means or methods and processes or products resulting from the adoption and utilization of various sciences that generate value for the fulfillment of needs, survival, and improving the quality of human life. Meanwhile, according to the Elias Prayitno (2001), technology is all the ideas, methods, techniques material objects used in a particular time and place and to meet human needs. Mardikanto (1993) found technology is a product of behavior, information and new practices are not yet widely known, accepted and used or applied by some members of the community in a particular location in order to foster change and individual or all members of the community concerned.
      Technology is the application of science, especially for commercial and Industrial. Technology very closely with the Science and Engineering (Engineering). Studies concerning the human understanding of the universe and its components, such as space, matter, energy, and the interaction among these elements. Engineering is the application of Sciences in the form of drafting / design tools to ease the human variety. Technology deals with tools and techniques to realize the design of tools that facilitate human life. Invention (Invention) various tools included in the study Engineering and Technology.
      From the above explanation it is understood that technology is an applied engineering science knowledge in the form of a tool or a means to provide goods that are necessary for survival, the ease and comfort of human life. So the technology affect the development of existing science.
B. Linkage Between Science By Research
I> 1. General Description of Research
The research is translated from the word "Research" (England) ie re (again) and search (search) or search again later translated as research experts. Hillway (1956) said that the study was not different from anything done by a person study method through careful investigation and perfect to a problem, to obtain the exact solution to the problem. Meanwhile, Whitney (1960) proposed definition of research is the search for something (inquiry) systematically with emphasis that the search was conducted on the problems that can be solved. Thus, besides being a process and method, the study is expected to find solutions for the problems examined (problem solving). By the very nature of research is an attempt to bridge the conceptual (conceptual world) with the empirical world (empirical world; Balian, Edward S, 1983).
From a variety of experts who are trying to make a precise definition of the research, the research is essentially a process of investigation or search something (facts and principles) is done in a systematic, careful, critical (critical thinking) and should be done in earnest with hoping to find the right solutions to the problems being studied. From this definition, it can be concluded that the study is a method for finding the truth of a problem arising, so research is a method of thinking critically and systematically.
2. Relevance Research and Science
\Science is a business that is multi-dimensional, so it can be defined in many ways and not raw. However science should be seen as a basic (basic) human thinking process in carrying out various studies. For science it may be associated with the method and the research process.
      Relevance of the research to science, humans evolved from efforts ri `Find Some answers to questions like" What now? ";" What? ";" Why this? ";" Why so? "And later evolved into the question of" how it happened? "and" how to solve it? '. With encouragement like to know the man has always wanted to gain knowledge about the problems that she did not know that in the end emerge new knowledge known as science (knowledgement) a systematic and organized. By using a reflective mind and thoughts, people were able to solve the problem at hand.
      The approach to scientific and non-scientific. Scientific approach can be studies while non-scientific approach may be common sense, prejudice, intuition, chance discovery or trial and error (trial and error) and got a scientific authority or critical thinking. Beside on  definition above, there is a close relationship between science and research. The experts say that it is impossible to separate science research and described as two sides of the same coin. Almack (1930) says that research and science are the result and process. Research is the process, while the result is a science. Whitney (1960) asserts that science and research is an ongoing process together. This means that science and research are the same process, while the result of the process is the truth (truth). Truth is meant is knowledge of the truth that is open to be tested by anyone who wants to test it.
 With relevance or relationship may be mentioned various aspects of the role of science and research so as to mention something that is done it is a scholarly work, such as:
a. Mencandra / Description. This function seeks to describe or explain things that are at issue.
b. Explain / explanation. This function seeks to explain the conditions that underlie the emergence of problems or events.
c. Preparation Theory. This function is trying to formulate theories / principles / rules of the relationship between the conditions / events with each other.
d. Forecasting / Prediction. This function is trying to hold the forecasts / predictions, estimates and projections of the issues / events and the impact it will have.
e. Control / Controling. This function is trying to take measures to control the problems / events / symptoms.
 Of all these explanations, it is clear that there is a link between the study of science. Doing research is needed in science and new knowledge will not appear if there is not an investigation. Can be seen that from the science that will emerge new problems to be solved through research, science research can also be done, and the results of the research problem solving can also be used as a new science.
3. Relevance Research In Higher Education And National Development
      Higher Education as an institution of higher education need to carry out research activities as the embodiment of the implementation of one of three responsibilities: education and university teaching, research, and community service. Lecturer (faculty) as an important tool in academic activities in universities have an obligation to carry three tasks.
In keeping with the development of science and technology, then the faculty is expected to enhance the capacity and skills through research, both social and economic-based techniques. In addition to increasing their own abilities and skills, to heighten the excitement of academic life, students also received significant attention in the research activities. Teachers share the responsibility in terms of increasing desire, attitude, and skills students in conducting research.
      One of the efforts that can be taken is to try to do your own research means research conducted independently and in accordance with the ethics of research both by the faculty or college or with the involvement of faculty and students. Research that can be done independently will be able to improve the quality of the faculty and university. In the framework of the effort, knowledge and skills of the faculty towards research is necessary, particularly Research Methodology. His association with increased fervor examining students is expected in all courses that are taught there is one particular course of Research Methodology. Through research, it is hoped will emerge new knowledge or breakthroughs useful for universities and development of a nation.
Especially for developing countries such as Indonesia, the role of research in the history of nation-building is not in doubt. Through the studies that have been done then any existing or potential problems during the development process takes place can be determined and the information / data can be obtained relatively complete.
 Development planning should always be based on the data / information obtained through research. The results of the tests, evaluations and reviews back development activities can only be known when the research is conducted. Similarly, research plays an important role in any decision-making or steps in all aspects of development.
 From the above it can be seen that the research can not be separated from the developmental stages of human life, especially the development of science and technology. Ranging from education to government entities is very important to do research. The importance of the research and its relationship to a variety of things, resulting in research must be carried out in earnest and ethical truth. Of the various instances cited, it turns itself on research conducted independently, efficiently, effectively, critical, and is based on the ethics of truth is an aspect that should always be a primary concern.
C. Picture of Research Methods in General
1. Understanding Research Methods
 In a statement today saying d `pat reliably when it is through the research phase. And that is a study by Mohammad Ali, is a way to understand something through investigation or effort to find evidence that emerged in relation to the matter conducted carefully in order to obtain the solution. Meanwhile, according to David H Penny, research is a systematic thinking about the different types of problems whose solution requires the collection and interpretation of facts. To be a valid research methods are needed. The method is derived from the Greek word "methodos" meaning the way up. So understanding of research methods is a means by which to solve the problem systematically by collecting evidence related to the matter under investigation to obtain the solution.
2. Characteristics of Research
Scientifically characteristics of scientific research is divided into three, namely:
a. Rational, the research activities are conducted in a way that makes sense, so affordable by human reasoning. So people who
reading research to understand
b. Empirically, the way in which it can be observed by human senses, so that other people can watch it.
c. Systematically, the processes are carried out in this study using the steps that are sequential and logical.
3. Criteria for Research
There are three main criteria in a study that research can be trusted, namely:
a. The validity, meaning that reflects the degree of accuracy of the data collected with the object studied by the researchers.
b. Reliability, that provision of the measurement results of the study to measure the problem of data already collected.
c. Objectivity, meaning that the research is independent, neutral and leaning on a view and may be subject to the investigation.
4. Types research
Research by destination:
• Pure research is research conducted or directed just to understand the problem in depth and the results of such research for the development of a science. For example, research on learning theory.
• Applied research is research that is directed to get information that can be used to solve the problem. example: research on learning difficulties that occur in students.
b. Research by the method:
• Research is a research survey conducted in large and small populations, but the data is studied data from samples taken from the population, so the events are found relative, distribution, and relationships between variables. For example, a study to determine how much the level of education affects people's income in Indonesia.
• Ex post facto research is a study conducted to examine the events that have occurred and then trace backward to * know the factors that can lead to the onset of the incident. Example: research on the Sunda Strait.
• The research experiment was a study that seeks the effect of certain variables on the other variables in strictly controlled conditions. There are four forms of the experimental method is pre-experimental, true experimental, factorial, and experimental quai. Example: research on the health benefits of aloe vera.
• naturalistic studies often called qualitative methods of research methods used to examine the condition of natural objects. Example: research to reveal the meaning of rituals specific community groups, research to discover the factors that cause corruption.
• Policy research (the study of wisdom) is a process to do research on, or analysis of social problems are fundamental, so that the findings can be recommended to policy-makers to act to solve the problem. Example: the study of the wisdom of BLT.
• Action research is research that aims for develop the most efficient methods of working, so that production costs can be reduced and productivity can be improved institutions. Example: research to improve procedures and working methods in community service, research looking for good teaching.
• evaluation research is research that serves to explain the phenomenon of an event, activities and products. Example: the study of the implementation process of kerosene to gas conversion.
• Historical research is research pertaining to the logical analysis of the events that took place in the past.
Example: research the G 30 S PKI.
c. Research by level explanasinya
• Descriptive research is research conducted to determine the value of an independent variable, whether one or more variables (independent) without making comparisons, or linking variables with each other. Example: the study of the structure of the soil in areas that frequently experience forest fires.
• comparative research is a study that is comparing. Example: a study comparing the developmental progress of SBI-standard private schools with public schools are a national standard.
• associative research is research that aims to determine the relationship of two or more variables.
Example: research on the effects of students' interest in student success
d. Research by type of data and analysis
• Qualitative research is research that uses qualitative data (data in the form of data, sentence, schematics, and pictures)
• Quantitative research is research that uses quantitative data (data in the form of numbers or data)
5. Research Objectives
a. The discovery, the results obtained from the study it was something new, previously unknown by many people.
b. Proof, the data obtained is used to prove the cause and effect of the variable under study with data collected to information or knowledge.
c. Development, the research used to deepen and broaden existing knowledge so that it's easier to learn.
6. Benefits of Research
There are many benefits research for life, among is used to satisfy human curiosity because of limited knowledge. So it is useful to expand their knowledge and solve the problems that often arise.
D. How to Conduct Research
In general, the research can be broken down into eight stages each other interdependent and connected, in other words, each stage is influenced by each other and the other stages. Awareness of this situation makes a researcher wiser decisions at the research stage. The seven stages as follows:
a. Planning.
Planning involves setting goals to be achieved by a research and to plan common strategy to acquire and analyze the data for the study. This should start by giving special attention to the concepts and hypotheses that will direct research and review of relevant literature, including back to studies that have been done before the titles and issues related to the research question. This stage is the stage of preparation of the "terms of reference" (TOR).
b. Assessment careful review of the research plan.
This stage is the development of the planning stage. Here again presented the research background, problem, research objectives, hypotheses and methods or procedures for data collection and analysis. This stage involves the determination of the kind of data needed to  primary objectives of the study. This stage is the stage of preparation of the proposed project.
c. Sampling (sampling).
It is the process of selecting a number of elements / a specific part of the population to represent the population. In this stage researcher must carefully make the definition and the population to be studied. Sampling plan consists of the selection procedure and the population elements making procedures or modify data from the sample to estimate the properties of the whole population. Challenges to be faced in the preparation of this sampling plan is how we can follow the procedure in such a way that we have with local circumstances and with the resources available while maintaining face-to-goodness and benefits survey sample extracts.
d. Preparation of a list of questions.
This is the process of translating research into forms answer questions about which information is needed. Actually this is prose try (trial and error) that takes a long time. Things to consider is the number and kinds of questions and the order of each question. Do not miss all the effort how to make people interviewed (respondent) be happy to answer the questions posed and remain happy in giving answers.
e. Field work.
This phase includes the selection and training of interviewers, as well as implementation guidance in the interview. It can also include a variety of tasks related to the sample site selection and pretesting the questionnaire. Field work will not be required when we use the interview by phone or mail.
f. Editing and coding.
g. Analysis and reporting.
These include a variety of tasks that are interconnected and important in a research process that is not reported or reported in a manner that is not good there would be no point. The task is done at this stage is the presentation of the tables in the form of frequency distribution, cross tabulation or can also be a list that requires complex statistical methods later interpretation of the findings on the basis of the theory that we already know.
h. Conclusion
The conclusion is a generalization of the results of interpretation withdrawal research findings. Although a qualitative withdrawal is not generalizing, but generalizing the element is still there, that is to find things that are essential or principal of a description. To the conclusions that have been formulated, drafted implications and recommendations or suggestions. Implication is a logical result of the research findings contained in the conclusions. Recommendations are things that should be done by the parties involved in the use of research results
 Having described the stages in the research above, we can apply these stages in a study. Although in the literature there are some differences, but the outline stage we can not have much effect in this study because the goal is concluded. The stages described can be said to be raw. After doing research we are able to provide advice or suggestions in accordance with the conclusions drawn.
Although we can understand the stages of the research steps as described above but in reality it is not easy to conduct such research. This is caused by several things both from outside researchers or from within the researcher's own, such as a behavioral research often involves feelings, emotions, behavior and perception that elements of objectivity in researching disturbed. In conducting our study is expected to conclude in accordance with the facts and actual results and rule out the element of subjectivity.

CHAPTER III
CLOSING

A. Conclusion
1. Knowledge (science) is the processing of back knowledge (knowledge) testing using * the scientific method supported by a collection of evidence and methodically organized, systematic, consistent and coherent.
2. There is a link between the study of science. Doing research is needed in science and new knowledge will not appear if there is not an investigation.
3. The research method is a method used to solve a problem systematically gather evidence related to the matter under investigation to obtain the solution.
4. A study can be broken down into seven steps together are interdependent and interconnected, including planning, rigorous assessment of the research plan, sampling (sampling), preparation of questionnaires, field work, editing and coding, analysis and reports, conclusions.
B. Suggestion
1. In conducting the study is expected to conclude in accordance with the facts and actual results and rule out the element of subjectivity.
2. The importance of the research and its relationship to a variety of things, resulting in research must be carried out in earnest and ethical truth.
3. Expected to do their own research independently, efficiently, effectively, critical, and is based on the ethics of truth because it is an aspect that should always be a primary concern.

REFERENCES
Arikunto, Suharsimi. 2010. Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktik. Jakarta:
     PT. Rineka Cipta.
Rahardjo, Mudjia. Penelitian dan Pengembangan Ilmu Pengetahuan, (Online),
    (http://mudjiarahardjo.com/artikel/140-penelitian-dan-pengembangan-
    ilmupengetahuan.html), diakses 23 Januari 2012.
Salladien. 2011. Kaitan Penelitian dengan Ilmu Pengetahuan, (Online),  
    (http://elearning.unesa.ac.id/myblog/alim-sumarno/kaitan-penelitian-
    dengan-ilmu-pengetahuan), diakses tanggal 23 Januari 2012.
Sugiyono. 2010. Metode Penelitian Pendidikan. Bandung: Penerbit Alfabeta
Syaodih, Nana. 2010. Metode Penelitian Pendidikan. Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya.
________. 2011. Perkembangan dan Definisi ilmu pengetahuan, (Online),
    (http://www.peutuah.com/perkembangan-dan-definisi-ilmu-pengetahuan/), diakses 22 januari 2012.
________. 2011. Ilmu Pengetahuan, Metode Ilmih dan Penelitian Ilmiah,     (Online),
    (http://file2shared.wordpress.com/ilmu-pengetahuan-metode-
    ilmiah-dan-penelitian-ilmiah/), diakses tanggal 23 Januari 2012.
________. 2010. Hakekat masalah Penelitian, Bagaimana Cara Menemukan
     Permasalahan dan Membuat Rumusan Masalah, (Online),  
    (http://okizainalfahmi.wordpress.com/2010/04/14/hakekat-masalah-
    penelitian-bagaimana-cara-menemukan-permasalahan-dan-membuat-
    rumusan-masalah/), diakses tanggal 23 Januari 2012.
________. Pengantar Metodologi Penelitian, (Online), 


CONTOH MAKALAH DAN ARTIKEL TENTANG PENGETAHUAN ILMIAH

1 comment: