Sunday, March 3, 2013

CONTOH KUMPULAN SKRIPSI BAHASA INGGRIS THE USE OF AUTHENTIC MATERIAL TOWARDS STUDENTS’ ABILITY IN COMPREHENDING OF TEXT PROCEDURE


THE USE OF AUTHENTIC MATERIAL TOWARDS STUDENTS’  ABILITY IN COMPREHENDING  OF TEXT PROCEDURE AN      EXPERIMENTAL FOR  THE THIRD GRADE OF SMP SALAFIYAH DARUL FALAH IN THE  SCHOOL YEAR 2012/2013




CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

This chapter presents and discusses about the background of the problem, statement of the problems, objectives of the study, scope and limitation of the study, significances of the study, hypothesis of the study, and definition of key-terms.
  
1.1     Background of study
English is one of the most urgent languages used by many people in all over the world and social life such as in economy, tourism, technology, and politic fields. It is also usually used when two or more people from different countries are involved in communication, for example in an international meeting, seminar, conference, workshop, etc. That’s why English ought to be taught from primary school up to university levels as one of compulsory subject.
In learning English, four skills should be mastered by the students those are listening, reading, speaking, and writing. These four skills must be considered as the dominant language aspects that need serious treatment mainly when they are faced by the reading text especially when they are asked to understand the procedure text.
When the students learn about English text, they are only given the text based on the text provided in the book. Then, they are asked to analyze and comprehend the text itself. However, in the authentic material, the teacher will give the texts without exercise book. It means that when the teacher comes to the classroom, she or he will not only give the material based on the book, but also it is taken from the life situation and it is called the authentic material. As stated by Chavez (1998: 277) that authentic materials enable learners to interact with the real thing. Learners feel that they are learning a target language that it is used outside of the classroom.
Furthermore, Chavez (1998: 279) notes that authentic materials are often contained of difficult language structure, vocabulary items and complex language structure, which make some problems for the teacher. Authentic materials also contain about the culture. On the other hand, Taylor (1994: 12) suggests that practical techniques and a wide range of sources in authentic learning for teaching culture in the EFL classroom use two different parameters, namely information sources, and activity types.
In the teaching and learning process, the teachers as a facilitator have to be able to give the students understanding about authentic materials. For instance, the teacher can divide the students into two groups. The first group will use authentic materials and the second group will not use authentic materials as a source of learning.
To understand the authentic materials, the students can be given a reading text such as procedure text to get some information. Gueriento and Morley (2001: 347) state that authentic materials is significance since it increases students’ motivation to learn, and makes them are exposed to the real thing. It means that many foreign language students consider that reading texts is one of the most important goals to increase their knowledge. By reading the text, the students will get new information, mainly when they are reading the authentic text that is related to the procedure text. They will get about how to make and how to do something. That is why they need to be provided the authentic material as resource of learning when the teaching and learning conducted.
Most of the teachers agree that authentic material is useful to the teaching and learning process, but what is less agreed when the authentic materials should be introduced and how they should be used in the classroom. Based on the above phenomena the writer tried to investigate about authentic material towards students’ ability in comprehending procedure text for the third grade students of SMP salafiyah darul falah mataram academic year 2012/2013

1.2       Statement of the Problems
Related to the background of the problem above, the writer formulates the research problems as follow:
1.        Is there any effect of authentic material towards students’ ability in comprehending text procedure for the eight grade of SMP salafiyah darul falah mataram in academic year 2012/2013?
2.        To what extent is the effect of authentic material towards students’ ability in comprehending of text procedure  for the eight grade of SMP salafiyah darul falah in academic year 2012/2013? 


1.3  Objectives of the Study
The objectives of study stated based on the above research problems as   follow:
1.        To know whether there is an effect or not of authentic materials towards students’ ability in comprehending  of  text procedure  for the eight grade of SMP salafiyah darul falah mataram in academic year 2012/2013
2.        To know the extent effect of authentic material towards students’ ability in comprehending of text procedure for the eight grade of SMP  salafiyah darul falah mataram in academic year 2012/2013.

1.4       Scope and Limitation of the Study
This study is limited to the following points:
1.      The research subject of this study is the eight grade of SMP salafiyah darul falah mataram in academic year 2012/2013.
2.      The research object of this study is authentic material towards students’ ability in comprehending of text procedure

1.5       Significances of the study
The significances of this study are expected to be able to help the teacher in understanding the effect of using authentic materials toward students’ ability in comprehending of text procedure and the results of this study are hoped theoretically and practically.


1.         Theoretically
Theoretically, the result of this study is expected to be able to add some concepts of teaching and learning English especially in teaching of text procedure
2.         Practically
The finding of this research is expected to be able to be applied in teaching English especially in teaching of text procedure

1.6       Assumptions  of the Study
To avoid any factor, which caused bias and misinterpretation in this study, the writer needs to present some assumptions as in the following.
1.         The students’ ability in understanding procedure text are similar, because they are taught by the same teacher, curriculum, and learning sources.
2.         There are some factors that may affect students’ ability in understanding procedure text.

1.7       Hypothesis of the Study
In this section, the researcher will use the alternative hypothesis (Ha) that can be formulated as follows: “there is an effect of authentic material towards students’ ability in comprehending of text procedure  for the eight grade of SMP salafiyah darul falah mataram  in academic year 2012/2013.  
  

1.8       Definition of Key- Terms
In order to have good concept of the terms used in this research, the writer provides some key-terms as follow:
1.         Authentic material is a material that enables learners to interact with the real things that learned in the classroom, and then they are able to apply it outside of the classroom (Chavez, 1998: 30). Based on this theory authentic material is an original material that can be found in our surrounding, such as a wrap of noodle, a wrap of medicine, etc.
2.         Procedure text is a kind of text that is aimed at describing how something is accomplished or done through the sequence of actions or stages (Zulkipli, 2009: 2). Referring to this opinion, procedure text is a kind of text that presents about how to make and do something through a certain steps or process.


CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter presents and discusses about the concept of authentic materials, types of authentic materials, important factors in choosing authentic materials, the use of authentic materials, application of authentic materials, aspects of using authentic materials in the classroom, reading as language skill, procedure text, teaching procedure text by using authentic material, relevant study, and theoretical framework.

2.1     The Concept of Authentic Materials
Authentic materials are one of the learning sources that are used by the teacher in the classroom in reading class, in which authentic materials mean that studying about the text that has been given to students without course book, but the materials are taken from magazine, articles or newspaper. Then, the students will implement them outside the classroom (Kodotchigova in Chavez, 1998: 21).
On the other hand, Hancock (1994: 19) states that language program is focused on alternative assessment are likely to instill the students to increase their skills related to critical thinking that build the feature of learning, and enable them to evaluate what they learn outside of the language class. In this case, the teachers will have a larger range of evidence to help the students to determine their knowledge and authentic assessment will involve the students in selecting and reflecting their learning.
Furthermore, the educators use the term of authentic assessment to define the practice of realistic student’s involvement in evaluating their achievements. Authentic assessments are performance-based, realistic, and an appropriate instructional (Chavez, 1998:280). Authentic learning needs instruction to develop students’ understanding in the classroom, where authentic instruction is incorporated with a classroom-isolated topic from the lessons that are connected to the real world that will be easier for the students to visualize and understand what they are learning. When authentic instruction is used successfully, students use their discipline of inquiry that is expected to construct and share meaning and produce knowledge. In addition, students work has a value beyond the school setting.
Authentic materials are materials that are taught by the English teacher to the students in which learning experience connected with the real life experience that is focused on the social and instrumental function of language. The teacher has increasingly recognized about the foreign language learners in English pedagogy.
The use of language is emphasized on communicative and integrative approach. Communicative approach in language teaching is started from a theory of language communication. The target of language teaching is to develop what Hymes (in Yule, 1984: 16) referred it as “communicative competence”.
Furthermore, Krashen and Terrel (1983: 17) state the communication as the main function of language, and since their approach focus on teaching communicative abilities, they refer to the Natural Approach as an example of a communicative approach. Communicative approach is an approach that emphasize learner in using language to interact with other people. Hymes (in Yule, 1984: 18) states that the purpose of language teaching is to get the communicative competence. In integrative approach, the materials with the other materials are integrated. Then, Weaver (in Yule, 1984: 14) states that integrative approach is the processes of learning that emphasizes student’s ability to correlate one lesson to the other lesson. The integrative approach consists of four skills. They are; listening, reading, speaking, and writing. In integrative approach, the learners are involved in the classroom or out side of classroom activity. Therefore, communicative integrative approach is approach in language teaching that emphasizes communicative integrative aspects.
To create a good communication among teacher and students, it is needed the functional materials. Eskey (1986: 12) states that the students who include in the lower-level cognitive skills need learning materials that emphasize the forms identification; while the students who are included in the higher-level cognitive skills need learning materials that emphasize the interpretation of meaning.
Furthermore, Taylor (1994: 3) defines authentic materials as the context, which gives validity of the texts. There are four types of authenticity that should be taken by the teacher in authentic learning that are authenticity of the text, authenticity of the interpretation of the text, authenticity of the objective, and authenticity of the class.
The first and the second part is the text directed given to the students. The texts have any means, which will enable the learner to interpret the texts into good sentences. The third types of authenticity are the authenticity of the objective. It is related to communication task and learning task. Taylor (1994: 7) draws a distinction between authentic communication and authentic learning task, where authentic communication task is the form of language that is used by the native speaker and is able to practice in the classroom or outside of the classroom. Moreover, authentic learning task is the activity in the classroom related to the materials that is directed in the classroom. Authenticity of the classroom is manifestation of communication task and learning task. Taylor (1994: 4) further concludes that the most authentic activity in the teaching and learning situation is that of meta-communication. Meta-communication is used beyond the context to describe of what is being communicated. This concept will lead us to affirm that authenticity is validated within the teaching and learning situation.

2.2     Types of Authentic Materials
This part discusses about the types of authentic materials that consist of authentic text and non-authentic text.



2.2.1 Authentic text
Authentic text is a text learned by the students to get information. Harmer (in Taylor, 1994: 6) defines authentic texts as materials that are designed for native speakers; they are real text and they are designed not for language learner, but for the speakers of the language.  Meanwhile, Chavez (1998: 276) refers authentic texts as texts that are not written for language teaching purposes. The real texts that are learned by the students embrace all real-life in daily life. Authentic texts have been defined as “…real-life texts, not written for pedagogic purpose.
Then, Swaffar (in Chavez, 1998: 12) states that the students as a foreign language learners should understand what the native speaker said, because it will influence teaching and learning activity in the classroom. As also stated by Chavez (1998: 274) that the texts that are brought into the classroom for pedagogic purposes they have, arguably, lost of their authenticity. It means that although in the form of the texts are authentic materials, but the materials are taken from the course book, it is not called authentic materials. Therefore, authentic texts are materials that are taken out of materials in the course book, such as newspaper, magazine, short story, etc. Authentic text is also taken from magazine articles, newspaper, cooking recipes, etc.
Authentic texts also give the reader’s chance to obtain the real information. Extracting real information from a real text in a new or different language can be extremely motivated. Therefore, the students have to be motivated and supported to learn by exposing them to the real language (Guariento & Morley 2001: 5). They also reflect the changes in language use, (again something that does not occur in textbooks, which become very dated) as well as give the learners the proof that the language is real and not only studied in the classroom:
“Authentic texts can be used as a tool of motivating the students because they are used to study the real-life purposes by the real people (Taylor, 1994: 5). When the teacher gives the real text to the students, they will be more interesting to learn it and by having much interesting, it will lead them to understand the text easier. For instance, a teacher will give the text about the real-life from someone or people’s culture. Here, the students will be more motivated in teaching and learning process.   
    
2.2.2 Non-Authentic text
Non-authentic text is the materials taken from course-book based on the curriculum. In choosing of material or text, it should be based on the students’ ability to know what they want.
The language in non-authentic texts is artificial and unvaried, concentrating on something that has to be thought and often contains a series of false-text indicators, which include:
§ Perfectly formed sentence.
§ A question using a grammatical structure gets a full answer.
§ Repetition of structure (Taylor, 1994: 6).

2.3   Important Factors in Choosing Authentic Materials.
There are some factors in choosing authentic reading materials. Taylor (1994: 7) gives four main criteria in choosing the texts used in the classroom. They are suitability of content, exploitability, readability, and presentation.

a.  Suitability of Content
Here, the texts have been learned by the students must be interesting, because it is very important to improve their knowledge. In choosing of material or texts it should be based on the students’ ability to know what they want, in this case is learning the real text. For instance, the students learn about “how to keep the healthy”.
The text above is relevant with the students’ need and of course, the students will be easier to know the authenticity of text learned in the classroom activity.
b.  Exploitability
Exploitability is how the students increase their competence as readers, how the texts are exploited for teaching purposes, what purpose should the text be exploited, and what skills used the texts or strategies can be developed by exploiting the text itself (Taylor, 1994: 8).
c.Readability
In this case, the texts that have been given to the students are categorized easy or difficult, it depends on the students’ understanding about the text. In this case, the teacher will choose the easiest materials, so that the students are able to read and understand the text. For example, “how to make a glass of coffee”. Then, the teacher gives some kinds of recipes to make it.
Then, the vocabularies used must be relevant with the students need. Because when they are given the difficult words, so they will have difficulty to understand the text, but if the vocabularies used are easy, so they will understand the text easier and the teaching and learning process will run better.     
Readability is used to describe the combination of structural and lexical difficulty of a text, as well as to find a new vocabulary and some new grammatical rules. It is important to increase their knowledge in English language as a foreign language.
d.           Presentation
In this case, authentic materials can be presented with variety of the texts, because the students will be bored when they are dealing with only one subject area. The authentic materials can be presented by using pictures, diagrams, photographs, etc. They will help the readers not only to understand the meaning of the texts but also how to use them. Of course, here, an attractive text will attract the readers to learn the text better.

2.4  The use of Authentic Materials
Guerinto & Morley (2001: 2) states that the use of authentic materials is available used in classroom at post-intermediate level. Students will understand the vocabulary in the target language and all of the structures used. Guerinto & Morley (2001: 21) also say that at lower level, the use of authentic materials may be interested because students feel motivated and less frustrated. Then, they state that the use of authentic materials is a burden of the instructors in teaching the beginners, they have to spend a lot of time to prepare authentic materials. One of the main ideas of using authentic materials in the classroom is to describe the learners as much as possible about the real language.  

2.5  Application of Using Authentic Materials
Genuineness, realness, and truthfulness are just some of the words that are used when we talk about authenticity of the texts. Taylor (1994: 14) summarizes some opinions about authentic materials, although his arguments are realized by the reviser, but it is benefit to be presented.
Taylor (1994: 2) also states, “In many discussions it is not clear whether we are dealing with authenticity of language, authentic of task, or authenticity of situation. Meanwhile, Chavez (1998: 276) deals the authenticity with the authenticity of text, authenticity of learners, authenticity of task and the authenticity of actual social situation.
 Based on the above elaboration, it can be drawn a conclusion about how to apply authentic materials in the classroom and outside of the classroom.  The teachers can give the materials to the students in the classroom in form of the texts. The texts are taken from the real-life, so that it can be applied outside the classroom. For instance, the teacher will give some texts about “The Sunshine” (Sunshine is very important for our body, because it can avoid the cancer of skin). Then, the teachers ask the students outside of the classroom to examine whether it is real or unreal. It means that the students will go outside of the classroom as learning application. Authentic task here is very important to apply the authentic learning.
Taylor (1994: 5) states that participants in the classroom will create a new situation outside of the classroom. Language classroom is a place used to learn language and they will get social interaction. Lee (in Taylor, 1994: 6) claims that learners’ authenticity is only possible if learners feel positive about the materials and react them as what was pedagogically intended.
We need to remember that learners need skill in doing activities. In skill getting activities. The learners will get the language outside the classroom. As an example, the students will get the language from their friends, listen to the radio or TV, and the others. Littlewood (in Taylor, 1994: 10) states that the learners need ’pre-communicative’ activities before they can successfully do a communicative activities.       

2.6     Aspects of Using Authentic Reading Materials in the Classroom.
The aspects of using authentic reading materials in the classroom consist of advantages and disadvantages to the learners.

2.6.1                    Advantages of Authentic Materials
Authentic materials are materials that are given to the students from the native speaker and they can be applied outside of the classroom. When the students are studying about authentic materials, they will find some problems especially language structure, and vocabulary items. Although in the authentic materials they will be faced by some problems, but they will get the advantages of using authentic materials in the classroom. According to Philips (in Chavez, 1998: 270). The main advantages of using authentic materials are as follows:
a.    It has a positive effect on students’ motivation
b.    It gives authentic cultural information
c.    It exposes students to the real language
d.   It relates more closely to students need
e.    It supports a more creative approach to teach.
One of the aims of the authentic materials is to help the students react in target language learning. Learners who live in the target language environment, once outside of the classroom will encounter a variety of situations in which different reading skills are required. Therefore, we can claims that learners are being exposed to the real language and they feel that they are learning the real language.
Then, culture is very important in authentic materials learning, because in this case, the students will be easier to know west culture, like how they speak, how they meet with the other people and how they do interaction. Westerhuis (in Taylor, 1994: 11) defines ‘culture’ as the customs, values, laws, technology, artifacts, and art of particular time of people. There is a culture that can be followed and a culture that cannot be followed as well, it depends on how we face that culture and how to overcome the difficulties we face.
 Cullen and Sato (2000: 12) suggest practical techniques and wide range of sources of teaching culture in the EFL classroom by using two different ways, namely, information sources, and activity-types.
a.  Information sources
The advantages of authentic materials are teaching media to get information. The information will improve students’ knowledge, especially for culture. They will recognize not only their culture but also western culture. For instance, by using role-play in teaching and learning in the classroom or outside of the classroom. Kodotchigova (in Cullen & Sato, 2000: 62) discusses the role-play in teaching culture from classroom by suggesting quick steps from classroom implementation. Meanwhile, Jordan (in Taylor, 1994; 12) lists sources of cultural information as follows:
1.      Newspapers: these are the good source of the cultural information
2.      Video: a number of published ELT video tapes are the good visual sources of cultural information. (Today, we have CD or DVD versions of these video tapes, which provide us with better quality.)  
3.      Talk or discussion: some topics may be suitable for giving information to the students in a plenary session.
4.      Role-play or dramatizations: these can be used to initiate discussion and introspection.
5.       Cultural quizzes or tests.
b.    Activity- types
Activity-types have a function to get new information about world government with information tools like radio or radio cassette. The learners listen what the native speaker said, like their pronunciation (how the word expressed), and grammar used. In this case, the learners will give a conversation or statements from radio cassette then the students will listen to the information and do it in daily activity. We may conclude that learners feel better with authentic materials that can help them to involve in the real language.

2.6.2                    Disadvantages of Authentic Materials

Taylor (1994: 18) states that the disadvantages in using authentic materials are difficulty of language, unneeded vocabulary items, and complex language structures, because it comes from the native speaker.
a.   Difficulty language
The learners get difficulty in authentic learning, because the language was taken from the real magazine, articles, newspaper, etc that are written by the native speaker. Here, the learners will use dictionary to understand the text and to get the new vocabulary.
Authentic materials are categorized as the difficult language because the students do not know the target language as the foreign language.
b.    Unneeded vocabulary items
In this case, authentic materials are making the list of vocabulary, in order that the students are not confused about the content of the text.
c.    Complex language structure
From the example above, we can get the difference of  authentic text and non-authentic text, in which the language structure used are not perfect so that it is difficult to understand, while non-authentic text will be easier to be understood because the structure used are perfect.

2.7    Reading as a Language skill
In this part, the writer discusses about reading as one of the language skills in order to get the detail information of the topic above. Reading is a process done by the readers to get the messages expressed by the writer through the written language (Hogden in Karyani, 2000: 20). But reading is not a simple process as what Harris and Sipay (in Kariani,2000: 21) note that:
“Reading is a very complex process in which the recognition and comprehension written symbols are influenced by the perceptual skills, the decoding skills, the experience, the language background, the mind sets, and as reasoning   ability of the readers, and the basis what they read”.

While, Burn et al.(in Karyani, 2000: 23) state that reading is thinking process. In this case, the readers must be able to use the information to make reinforcement and read critically and creatively to understand the figurative language, determine the author’s purposes, evaluate the idea presented and apply the ideas to the actual situation.
Related to the definitions above, we can get some definitions about reading as language skill, they are;
a.    Reading is responding;
b.    Reading is reaction;
c.    Reading is complex;
d.   Reading is a tool of communication;
e.    Reading is native language process    (Logan et al., in Karyani, 2000: 23).
Furthermore, Logan et al (1973: 121) states that reading is substances of phenomenon, in which firstly the experiences already posed by the reader, and he will determine his understanding about the meaning influenced by author. Secondly, reading is a reaction to the graphic representation. Thirdly, in the reading process the teacher begins with the popular materials taught to the students.
On the other hand, Lardo (in Karyani, 2000: 21) adds foreign language as the grasping of the full linguistic meaning of what is read in subject within the common expanse of the culture in which language is central parts.  

2.7.1                    Reading text
Reading is a mean that involves between the readers and the writers transaction, reading without comprehending is an empty action. Therefore, reading is very important to us. Reading text can be used as a guide to help the readers in getting the meaning.
To get the meaning of the text, it depends on how to use the brain to process the information from the text and it is supported by the existing knowledge of readers. As stated by Goodman (in Karyani, 2000: 26) the brain decides what tasks must be handled, what information is available and what strategies must be employed. The brain seeks the way on how to maximize information. It acquires and minimizes effort and energy used to acquire it.
Reading is bringing meaning and getting the information from printed of written materials (Carrol in Karyani, 2000: 27). This statement identifies that one draws cohesion that is ready to be transmitted in written information and pointed out in reading instruction, which involves primarily sense of written materials, and reading is not only reading the lines but also reading between the lines beyond the lines.

2.7.2                    Types of reading skill
Before talking about the types of reading skill, let us view at reading from its aspect. Here, we find out two aspects namely mechanical and comprehension skills. In order to achieve those aspect ,Tarigan (in Karyani, 2000: 29) points out that mechanical skill can be done through oral reading or reading a loud, while comprehension skill can be also achieved through silent reading.
Tarigan (in Karyani, 2000: 28) also states that silent reading skill is a key for getting all of science and knowledge. This case will not disturb the teaching and learning process in the classroom. It is one of the manners to organize the classroom when the students do not focus toward what they read.
In accordance with silent reading, Tarigan (in Karyani, 2000: 29) further classifies it into intensive and extensive reading. In order to get the detail information about them the writer wants to describe them separately.

a.    Intensive Reading
The development of reading skill mostly occurs in this stage. To be affective reader, the students should be able to (1) scan; (2) skim; (3) read between the lines; (4) read intensively; (5) deduce meaning from the context. Scan means that the students glance rapidly through the text to get specific information. Skim means that the students glance to read the text quickly to get the general information. Read between the lines means that the students get the meaning or obtain the information of the text from line to line. Read intensively means that the students play their concentration in reading to get detail information. Deduce meaning from context means that the students take a conclusion or the meaning of the text from the context William (in Karyani, 2000: 25).
Marry (in Karyani, 2000: 26), notes that intensive reading items is explaining and making the students are active in language pronunciation, intonation, and stress.
b.    Extensive Reading
Extensive reading means reading widely. This type of reading is usually done out of the class. In this case, the teachers will give assignments to their students as homework, and sometimes the teacher will check whether the students have understood the assignments given or not.
Another reason why this type of reading is conducted out of the class is caused by the limited time provided in the formal school. Then, Nuttal (1996: 168) points out that the students who always read a lot will become fluent, especially in their progressing or increasing speed and reading habit. In order to get more information of extensive reading, Broghton (in Karyani, 2000: 24) divides it into two categories namely skimming and scanning.
     
2.8    Procedure Text
This sub point describes about the concept of procedure text, social function of procedure text, generic structure of procedure text, language feature of procedure text, and samples of procedure text.
                                                        
2.8.1 Concept of Procedure Text
Procedure text is a text that is designed to describe how something is achieved through a sequence of actions or steps. It explains how people perform different processes in a sequence of steps. This text uses simple present tense, often imperative sentences. It also uses the temporal conjunction such as first, second, then, next, finally, etc.
by Nurlia enda (2009:2:23)  Furthermore, Widda at al (2009:35) state that a procedural text is a text used to describe how something is conducted through a sequence of action or steps, which applies simple present tense and often imperative sentences. It also uses temporal conjunctions. On the other hand Priyanto , 2009: 1) states that procedural text is a kinds of text that can be found around us which involves how thing is done through a set of steps or actions. In various kinds of contexts we can find and often communicate by using procedural text, for example, when we watch TV program about how to cook, read how to switch on the radio manually, and do practicum in the laboratory.

2.8.2  Social function of Procedure text.
The social function of procedure text is to give direction of what the readers should do to accomplish a mission. In other word, procedure text guides the readers to do something to operate something, to make something, or to reach certain objectives (Priyanto in http://www/article/procedure, 2009:  2). Based on this theory, therefore the generic structure of procedure text is always started by the objective. After objective is clearly mentioned, a procedure text will continue with a series of steps. Along with the nature of procedure text, the grammar is dominated with imperative.
Furthermore, he states that in systemic functional linguistics tradition, procedure text is much dominated with material process, because it gives directions on what the readers should do. A procedure text does not merely show what things are in which more relation process is more dominant.


2.8.3 Generic structure of Procedure text.
The generic structure of procedure text can be divided into three as follows:
1.    Title or goal
2.    List of material (and)
3.    Steps,  methods,  or procedures.
4.    Title or goal
This part states the goal to be achieved or shows the purpose of text. The generic structure of the procedure text which deals with the goal can demonstrate about command, instruction, or remind how to do things or how to ask other people to do something (Yusira in Sabarudin, (2009: 18).
a.    List of materials
In this part, it is listed the materials needed, it also often gives detail on the size, color, numbers, shapes, quantity etc. Yusra (in Sabarudin, 2009: 19) states that the material of procedure text can be various, but the most important one is the materials should be conditioned with the real life, for example, how to make fried rice, how to make a cup of tea etc.
b.    Steps or procedures
Mukarto at al (2006: 36) states that in this part of procedure text it is described about the steps in logical order to achieve the goal. The steps are often marked with the numbers (1, 2, 3 …), letters (a, b, c …), and sometimes the steps included cautions or warnings, even there are also drawings or pictures to make the steps clearer.
On the other hand, Yusra (in Sabarudin, 2009 : 19) states that the steps of procedure text must be sequenced procedurally by giving steps such as first, second, third, next, then and finally.



2.8.4  Language Features of Procedure Text
In this point, it is common for the procedure text to involve about the significant lexicogrammatical features, which are related to the following grammar as follows:
1.      The procedure text uses the temporal conjunction such as first, second, then, next, finally etc.
2.      It applies the simple present tense. It means that it describes something happens in present time.
3.      It uses the imperative sentence. Imperative sentence is a sentence that asks someone to do something.
4.      It uses action verbs in the steps such as, slice, boil, cut etc.
5.      It is focused on generalized humans agent, (and)
6.      It uses mainly the material processes (Mukarto, at al, 2006:37).

2.8.5  Samples of Procedure Text.
The following are the examples of procedure texts that are related with the authentic materials and they can be found in the daily life or in our environment.
1.       Making Fried Rice
Ingredients:
A plate of rice
2 tablespoons oil
1 tablespoons soybean sauce
1 egg
5 shallots
2 cloves of garlic
Some salt and pepper
Equipments:
A knife
A frying pan
A spatula
A plate
Steps:
1.    Slice the shallots and garlic.
2.    Pour the oil into the pan and heat it.
3.    Cook the shallot and garlic until it smells nice.
4.    Put the rice in to the pan.
5.    Season with some salt and pepper.
6.    Stir the rice until all the ingredients are mixed well.
7.    Put the rice on a plate.


2.      Using a Cell phone to make a phone call
Things you need:
1.       A cell phone
2.       A phone number
Steps:
1.      Turn the phone on
2.      Dial the number you want to call
3.      Press the Call or the Sent button
4.      Wait for the ringing sound. Let the person to say, “hello”
5.      Speak normally
6.      When you are finished, press the End key (it’s usually red) to hang up.

3.       Making Sunrise Salad
You will need:
½ cup of strawberries
½ cup of grapes
1 banana
1 small bottle of plain yoghurt
A small bundle of mint leaves for garnish
Equipments:
A knife large bowl
A small bowl
Steps:
1.      First, wash the fruit and let it dry on paper towels.
2.      Then, using your knife, trim the green off the strawberries and cut them in half or into slices if they are very large.
3.      Next, slice the banana into chunks.
4.      After that, combine all the fruit in an individual bowl and mix.
5.      Add a bit of yoghurt on top of the fruit salad.
6.      Finally, place a small bundle of mint leaves on the yoghurt for garnish.

2.9 Teaching Procedure Text by Using Authentic Materials
Derewianka (in Sabarudin, 2009:14) states that the teaching of procedure text can be taught by using the authentic materials that can be found around us and it can be done through four cycles of teaching such as follow:
1.        Building knowledge of the field
2.        Modeling of the text
3.        Join construction of the text (and)
4.        Independent construction of the text

2.9.1 Building Knowledge of the Field
Facilitator or teacher who will read the procedural texts should pay attention about the feature of linguistic used in each speech act. Then, pay attention on socio- cultural value of the utterances. How to ask other people do something. The function of socio- cultural procedural texts is to give instruction, warning, and state the sequence of temporal for instruction and reminding. Meanwhile the feature of grammatical that is often used is imperative verb; the sequences of temporal are used sequencers like first, second, third, next, then, finally. Sometimes procedural text is completed by using diagram; flow chart, or illustration.
Here are the examples of procedural texts;
1.       How to make a pencil box. What you need:
a.      An-empty plastic bottle of mineral water
b.      A sort cutter
c.      A piece of white or colorful paper
d.     Some paint
e.      Some glue
2.       How to make it?
a.      Wash the plastic bottle, make sure it is clean you us it.
b.      Cut the bottle into two halves
c.      Wrap the bottle with a piece of colorful paper
d.     If you use plan paper, use the paint to make a drawing on it.
e.      Now your pencil box is ready to use

2.9.2  Modeling of Text
After we have known and studied about the sentence pattern and feature of procedural texts, let us observe about the text found in daily activity around social context. It is the samples of procedural text in daily life.
“The tailor bird Indian simply does a bit of sewing to make its nest! Firstly, the bird pokes holes through some lave. Then, using its book as a sewing needle, it threads vines through holes to sew the leaves together.

2.93  Joint Construction of the Text
After observing various linguistic features and sentence pattern in procedural text, it can be developed alone in a unit of text, in this case, the activity is focused in a group or learning community and give instruction to member of group to do things, for instance.
“To make iced lemon tea, you need a glass of tea, two teaspoonfuls of sugar, ice cubes, and a slice of lemon. Make the tea is ready “squeeze the lemon according to your own taste, add some ice cubes, and you your iced lemon is ready.
Making pisang goreng or fried banana, is very easy. First, you need some good bananas and some frying oil. You can slice the bananas into thin slices, then, fry them in very hot oil until they turn brown. If you like, you can sprinkle some sugar on top. Then, roll the bananas in flour before you fry them.
Furthermore, in giving instruction, pay attention on the use of proper structure and vocabulary items; besides that endeavor to perform by using language-accompanying action. Then, every group must get turn to give instruction, and other groups do the instruction.

2.9.4         Independent Construction of the Text
             The last phase of this cycle is independent construction, of which must demonstrate the capability to talk about procedural texts. The aim of this phase is to give opportunity for the learners to apply their knowledge and skill in communicating procedural texts, and to gain input about the learners’ capability to understand and comprehended. Thus, the writer concludes that independent construction engages the students to work personally or individually, and produce a product “written text” of a good procedural text. This phase must be committed by consulting with a teacher or facilitator to get a good result (Anugerahwati in Sabarudin, 2009 : 15-18).
2.10    Previous Study
This study is relevant to the study that was done by Sabarudin (2009) entitled “the effect of GTM toward learning procedural text for the eight grade year students of  MTs. NW Lendang Nangka  in the school year 2008/2009.
The problems of his study were: (1) Is there any effect of GTM towards learning procedure text for the eight year of MTs. NW Lendang Nangka in the school year 2008/2009? and (2) To what extent is the achievement level of students in learning procedure text by using GTM for the eight year of  MTs. NW Lendang Nangka in the school year 2008/2009 ? The target population of his study was all the eight year students of MTs. NW Lendang Nangka in the school year 2008/2009, which consisted of two classes. The population of his study was 44 students and all of the population was taken as the sample of his study.
His research was categorized as an experimental research, where he used pre and post test as the design of his study. To obtain the data he used an objective instrument or multiple-choice test. In analyzing his data, he used a descriptive statistic.
The result of his study showed that the mean score of experimental group in post- test was higher than control group, in which the experimental group got 21.56 while control group got 18.00. It is also proved that the result of hypothesis testing showed that the t-test was higher than t-table (t-test =2.77 > t-table = 2.00). Based on the data it indicated that there was an effect of GTM towards learning procedure text for the eight year students of MTs. NW Lendang Nangka in the school year 2008/2009.
The sameness of these studies can be seen on the main problem investigated. Both the writer and his study investigate about procedure text. Meanwhile, the difference of these studies can be seen on the independent variable investigated. Sabarudin study tried to investigate about GTM while the writer will investigate about authentic material.

2.10 Theoretical Framework
Authentic materials are very important to students in learning reading comprehension, because authentic materials itself will enable the learners to interact with the real language and the content rather than the form. The learners feel that they are learning target language as it is used out side of the classroom. To understand authentic learning, the learner use magazine articles, newspaper, etc. Nevertheless, in here, the learners will focus to the outside of the classroom about how to apply of the texts.
  Then the use of authentic materials in the classroom has been discussed, with the students benefiting from the exposure to real language being used in real context. Others aspects that proved positive when using authentic materials were that they are highly motivating, giving a sense of achievement.
 The authenticity of materials can be seen from the materials itself. If the materials are taken from the real magazine article, newspaper, radio, TV, real advertisements, cooking recipes, book, document etc, they are called authentic materials.


                                                                    CHAPTER III
RESEARCH  METHODOLOGY

This chapter discusses about research design, population and sample, research instrument, technique of data collection, and technique of data analysis, and hypothesis testing.

3.1   Research Design
Related to the title above, the researcher examined about the effect of using authentic material towards students’ ability in comprehending procedure text. This research needed a method to be easier to do investigation. Hornby (1985:780) states that method is the way of doing something. Therefore, in conducting this research, the writer used experimental research design. For this purpose, the writer divided the students into two groups. They are experimental and control groups. To be clearer, it is listed in the following table.
Table 3.1: Formula of research design for pre and post- test design.    
Note:
E   = Experimental group
C   = Control group
Y1 = Pre-test
Y2 = Post-test
X   = The experimental group treated by using authentic material.
-     = The control group treated without using authentic material (Sukarmadinata, 2005: 207).
                                                          
3.2   Population and Sample
This part presents and discusses about population and sample of the study.
3.2.1 Population of the Study
The population of this study was the whole classes of the eight grade students of SMPN Salafiyah Darul Falah  in the school year 2012/2013
Arikunto (2002: 108) states that the population is all entities subjects of the research. Furthermore, she states that the population is a set of all element of one and more attributes. Based on the definition above, it can be concluded that the subjects of this study were all of the eight grade students, which had the same characteristics, and they were investigated through this research. Furthermore, she states that the population is number of people that have at least the same characteristics. Based on the above elaboration the population involved in this research were all of the eight grade students of SMP Salafiyah Darul Falah in the school year 2012/2013, which devided of two class consist of 70 students

3.2.2 Sample of the study
Sampel is shares or proxy from accurate population ( Arikunto, 2006 : 87). While in big dictionary of Indonesian, sampel is an used by example of from the lion's share. While according to Sugiyono ( 2003 : 56) sampel is " some of amount and characteristic owned by population, As for becoming sampel of at this research is all student of eighth grade class in SMP Salafiyah Darul Falah. In this research the writer using random samples as sampling technique.
            Suharsimi (2006) stated that if the subject is less than one hundred it is better to take the entire subject. Furthermore, if the subject is more than one hundred it can be taken between 10-15% or 20-25% or more that it.in this research the writer take 40 students as the sample. 20 students is students who join who experimental group and 20 students as a control group.
 
3.3  Research Instrument
        According to Heaton (in Karyani, 2000:30) Instrument is a tool that is used by a researcher in collecting the data in order that he or she works easier, the result is better, accurate, complete, and systematic, so that the data are easy to be processed.
In collecting the data of this study, the writer used a test namely objective test in the form of multiple choices. In which each items consisted of four options (a, b, c, and d). There were 30 items of the test provided. This kind of test were given to the both experimental and control groups.
The materials given were related to the authentic materials. They were taken from the real magazine article, newspaper, and the other sources. Then, the students were prepared 90 minutes to do all the tests.
 In scoring the students’ work, the writer coded the data from the worksheet provided by giving a new number in order to guarantee the objectivity of the scoring and the writer refered to the following criteria;
1.      The 0 score was assigned if the students was incorrect.
2.      The 1 score was assigned if the answer was correct.
3.      The total raw scores were 30, because the numbers of the items were 30.

3.4  Technique of Data Collection
In collecting the data of this study, the writer took the data from pre-test and post-test. Pre-test was given to the subjects before doing teaching and learning process. Meanwhile, post-test was given after applying teaching and learning process.
In this study, the writer applied three steps as follow:
1.        Pre-test
The test was done before the researcher taught the students by using authentic materials in the classroom. It was aimed at knowing the students’ basic ability in understanding procedure text taken from the authentic materials.



2.        Treatment
In this step, the writer taught the students about the procedure text by using authentic materials. The treatment was done twice a week in a month.
3.        Post-test
In post-test, the test was given after the treatment. This was aimed at knowing the students’ ability in understanding procedure text taught by using the authentic materials.

3.5   Technique of  Data Analysis
This section discusses about data description and hypothesis testing.

       3.5.1  Hypothesis Testing
 Before testing the hypothesis, the writer took the score of pre-test and post-test of experimental group and control group. Then, the writer calculated the mean score of experimental group by using the following formula:
Where:
Mx     :  the mean score of experimental group
X      :  the deviation of pre-test and post-test score
N      :  the number of sample
Σ      :  the sum of sigma  (Arikunto, 2002: 124). 

While, the formula applied for control group was as follows:
Where:
My     :  the mean score of control group
Y      :  the deviation of pre-test and post-test score
N      :  the number of sample
Σ      :  the sum of sigma (Arikunto, 2002: 124).                                
Finally, the writer comes to the computation of the two mean scores to measure and test whether the deviation of mean score is significant or not, it is aimed at knowing whether the Ho is accepted or not. For the sake of computation, the writer used the following formula:
t =
Where:
N    = The sum of subject
M   = The mean score of each group
X    = The deviation of each value X2 and X1
Y    = The deviation of each value Y2 and Y1 (Arikunto, 2002: 280).
                       
Then, the criterions used were as follows:
1. If t-test (tt) > t-table (to) in significant rank of 0.05, Ha (Alternative Hypothesis) is accepted. It means that the rates of mean score of the experimental group are higher than the control group.
2. If t-test (tt) < t-table (to) in significant rank of 0.25, Ha (Nul Hypothesis) is rejected. It means that the rates of mean score of the experimental group are lower than the control group.


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THE USE OF AUTHENTIC MATERIAL TOWARDS STUDENTS’ ABILITY IN COMPREHENDING OF TEXT PROCEDURE AN EXPERIMENTAL FOR THE THIRD GRADE OF SMP SALAFIYAH DARUL FALAH IN THE SCHOOL YEAR 2012/2013

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