Wednesday, March 13, 2013



1.1.      Background
The human beings are the perfect creation of God. They are distinguished from other creation because of language. Hornsby (1987) defines language as the system of sound, word used by human to communicate thought and feeling. Right then, Blair, (1990:3) state that to understand our humanity we must understand the language that makes us human. However, language has become indispensable vehicle of social life. It used as the only nie'ans of verbal communication among human being. Actually, there are many regional languages in Indonesia one of them is Sasak Language that is use in (Lombok Island).
Mahyuni (2000:1-2) in Speech Style and Cultural Consciousness in Sasak Community states that Sasak (which is manifested in a rage of regional and social varieties) is spoken primarily by about two million dengan Sasak (Sasak speaker). In addition he added that Sasak traditionally has been classified to have five dialects ngeno-ngene (central west coast), meno-mene (around Praya, central Lombok) ngeto-ngete (around Suralaga and Sembalun). Kuto-kete (around Bayan north parts of the island), meriak-meriku (south ceirtral area around Bonjeruk, Sengkol and Pujut). These indicate that the term Sasak commonly refers to regional variation.

This thesis is ground in the village of Muncan, central Lombok, where in this area; the community speaks mena-mene sasak dialect in their daily communication. Geographically, the village has been in the Kopang districts that is divided into six-sub villages they are: Muncan Lauq (south Muncan), Muncan Daye (north Muncan) Muncian Luah (east Muncan), Muncan Bat (west Muncan) Muncan Dalem (central side Muncan), and Muncan Tenggaq (central Muncan). However, most people from those villages use meno-mene dialect. Moreover it can be seen from the word that is used for communication in daily encounters like the word lito-lite' back and fourth' is commonly uttered by meno-mene sasak dialect. On the other hand, when we see those words more deeply, we might find there are different structure, especially in the internal words itself and that is calling reduplication with change the phoneme in term of reduplication morphology. Indeed, that is also one phenomenon found in the village.
Based on those phenomena above, the writer would like to investigate about the reduplication systems especiaily in meno-mene dialect used in Muncan Village and this study is entitled A STUDY ABOUT REDUPLICATION SYSTEMS IN SASAK MENO-MENE DIALECT "A Case Study at Muncan­ Central Lombok"
1.2.      Statement of Problem
Based on the background of rhis study the writer would 1ike to propose the problems in this study, the problems are elaborated into research question as follows:
1.      What is the particular affix on reduplication systems in meno-mene dialect at Muncan Village ?
2.      What is the particular function of affix on reduplication systems in meno­mene dialect at Muncan Village?
1.3.      The Purpose of Study
There are the several purposes that the writer wants to reach:
1.      To describe the particular affix on reduplication systems in meno-mene dialect at Muncan Village.
2.      To describe the particular function of affix on reduplication systems in meno­mene dialect. at Murican Village.
1.4.      The Scope of Study
To avoid the airy specuiation, it is vary important to determine the scope of this study.
1.      It is limited on reduplication with affix, which is use in meno-mene dialect at Muncan Village.
2.      It is limited and conducted at Muncan Lauq `south Muncan'


In this chapter, the writer would like to discuss briefly about the Essence of language, The Language and Culture and The Meaning of Morphology, The Types of Reduplication and The Function of Reduplication.
2.1.    The Essence of Language
In this world, a language plays very important role especially for communication in our daily encounters. If there is no language, the word would be quit betause the human being can not express their felling, emotion, desire, and their idea. There, the existence of it has been making people around the word to communicate to each other. Blair (1990 : 3) assert, "This means you have the capacity to produce sounds that signify certain meaning and to understand or interpret the sound produce by others.
2.2.    The Language and Culture
When we are talking about a language, we cannot ignore the word 'culture' because both have close relationship. Language as the communication system is part of the cultural system: even it is constituent of culture. Furthermore. Language is involved in all aspect of culture, at least, by having name or term for the constituent of the whole aspect of the culture. More than that, the human culture would not exist without language. This can be understood since it is impossible to develop the component of culture such as dress, house governmental institution, and low and so forth without language.
2.3.    The Meaning of Morphology
Blair, (1990: 123) define that the study of the internal structure of words and the rules by which words are formed is called morphology. He added that just as knowledge of language implies knowledge of phonology. so it also iniplies knowledge of the morphology. Meahwhile, O'grady (1991:911 defines that Morphology is a set of rules with dual functions. First, the rule is responsible for word formation, the formation of new word. Second, they present the speakers "unconscious knowledge of internal structure of the existing word of their language.
In  meno-mene dialect used in Muncan village, word formation can be done through affixation (prefix, infix, sunffix, and circum-fix) and reduplication.
1.      Affixation
Hanafi (2006:31) defines that the affix is bound morpheme, which can only occur if attached to a word or a stem.
2.      Reduplication
Verhaan (2004: 152) states a follow
"Reduplikasi adalah proses morphemis yang mengraangi bentuk dasar atau sebagian dari hentuk dasar tersebut (reduplication is a morphemic process that repeated the based form itself).

Reduplication process can be derived from a) the base word, b) affix word, c) the. base compound word, and d) the affix compound word.
2.4.    The Types of Reduplication
Simatupang (1983:13-16) classifies reduplication into two groups, they morphemic and semantic reduplication. Morphemic reduplication can be divided into two types: full and partial reduplication.
Morphemic reduplication
A.    Full Reduplication
1)      Reduplication without affix (root red uplicatior,) for instance
§  Anak                   anak-anak
§  Root                                     reduplication
§  Child                        children
The example for this kind of affixation in Sasak can be like
§  Kanak                  kanak-kanak
§  Root                         reduplication
§  Child                        children
2)      Reduplication with affixes
a.       Reduplication with prefix
§  Pukul               me-mukul-mukul
§  Root                    prefix  reduplication
§  Strike                   strike repeatedly
The example for this kind of affixation in Sasak can be like
§  Empuk             ngempuk-empuk
§  Root                    prefix reduplication
§  Strike                   strike repeaiedy
b.      Reduplication with simul-fax
§  Hormat            hormat-menghormati
§  Root                    reduplication
§  Respect               respect each other
The example from this kind of affixation in Sasak can be like
§  Inget                inget-ingetan
§  Root                    reduplication
§  Remember           trv to remember
c.       Reduplication with suffix
§  Besar              besar-besaran
§  Root                    reduplication
§  Big                      thing that is bigger than the unusual one (intensifier)
The example for this kind in Sasak can be like
§  Beleq               beleq-beleqan
§  Root                    reduplication  
§  Big                      thing that is bigger than the unusual one (intensifier)
d.      Reduplication with infix
§  Gilang gemilang
§  Bright/shining
The example of this reduplication is quite hard to find in the Sasak language. Therefore, the mriter does not give the example.
3)      Reduplication with change the phoneme
a.       Reduplication with changing the consonant or vowel without affix
§  Bolak-balik
§  Come and go
The example for this kind of affixation in Sasak can be like
§  Lito-late
§  Back and forth
b.      Reduplication with changing of consonant with affix
§  Beramah-tamah
§  To be friendly
The example of this reduplication is quite hard to find in Sasak.
There for the writer does not give the example
c.       Reduplication with changing the consonant with sirnulfix
§  Keramah-tamahan
§  Hospitality
The example of this reduplication is also quite hard to find in Sasak.
Therefore the write not give the example.

B.     Partial Reduplication
1.      Partial Reduplication with affix
Dedaunan                    Many leaves
The example for this kind in Sasak can be like
Babadeqan                 Play a guess
Semantic Reduplication
Semantic reduplication proposes by Simatupang (1983:18), semantic reduplication can be divided into two types:
A.    Semantic reduplication without affix, for example
Sopan santun                    Politness
The example for this kind of affixation in Sasak can be like
Peteng-dindeng                Very dark
B.     Semantic reduplication with affix, for example
Menghancur-leburkan       To destroy
The example for this kind of affixation in Sasak can be like
Bebecat-becatan               Compete to be the faster
2.5.    The Function of Reduplication
The functions of reduplication depend on the types of reduplication and on the word categories that are reduplicated (Parera, 1994).
The variety of function can be seen in the following tndort?s;an exanriples, they ahe:
The exampie cf this full redupplication is piuraliry  In lndonesia, it can be seen as below:
Rumah             rumah-rumah
House                  houses
The example of this full redaplication is planality in Sasak it can be seen as below:
Bale                bale-bale
House                  houses
The example of this partial reduplication is resembled. In Indonesia, it can be seen as below:
Orang             orang-orangan
Man                     man                 suffix
The example for this partial reduplication is resmbled. In Sasak, it can be seen - as below:
Bale                 bale-balean
The example of this full reduplicatior is intensifier. In Indonesia, it can be seen as below:
Sunyi               sunyi-senyap
Quiet                   very quiet
The example of this full reduplication is intensifier. In Sasak, it can be seen as below:
Sepi                 sepi-mimit
Quiet                   very quiet


The way to do this research is very important. Therefore. this chapter discusses about, The Research Method. The Population and Sample. The Data Collection, and The Method of Data Analysis.
3.1.    The Research Method
In doing this research, the writer will use the descriptive analysis to describe and discover the word or phrases, which are supposed to have reduplication especially in freno-mene dialect uscd in Muncar. Village. wherc this study will analyze spoken language in daily encnunter of Sasak speakers at the area.
3.2.    The Population and Sample
1.      The Population
Sugiono (2002:57) said that population is generalization area which consists of object or subject that becomes quantits- and certain characters that are determined by researchers to be researched and taken conclusion on it. The people who involved in this research are the local people at Muncan Village, specially in Muncan Lauq and the population is more than 175 people.
2.      The Sumple
According to Sugiono sample is the small part of population that is taken as source of data and it can describe all the population as a whole More over Arikunto says that sample, can represent the population as a generai and taking sample must be based on the number that has been determined.
Based on the explanation above. the writer might be as a participant in order to give the language data along the observation. And the participant that the writer took just 10% from the population.
3.3.    The Data Collection
The writer would like to analyze the phenomena of the language fact in the society of Muncan Village. Kopang district. Then. the data attained in this linguistics study would be analyzed with qualitative analysis.
In order to obtain the data to be more valid, the writer would like to use the recorder for recording the data from the whole respondents by doing an interview and note taking recently in the society who used meno-mene dialect, it is in Muncan Village, Kopang district, Central Lombok. It is also xpected to recover the data on the surface in order to collect some words or phrases 'that have reduplication.
3.4.    The Method of Data Analysis
The data obtained in this research were analyzed in descriptive analysis in order to describe the linguistics phenomenon especially about affix of reduplication system in meno-mene sasak dialect used in Muncan village, Kopang district. These studies also describe the function of afix or. reduplication system in meno-mene sasak dialect at Muncan village.
To identify the data, the writer took the words or phrases altered by the native speakers of Muncan village, Kopang district. which are included as the reduplication then would be classified on the root words categories.

In this chapter the writer would like to present the result of the data analysis. The analysis was focused on the answer o1 flit research questions.
As the writer has identified, there is reduplication involved in Sasak especially in meno-mene dialect of Muncan village. There are Full reduplication and the Partial reduplication.
4.1.    Full Reduplication
The Full reduplication contains of two basic reduplication and complex reduplication shown in the table below:
4.2.    Affixation on Reduplication
There are four affixes on reduplication in meno-mene sasak dialect used by people in Muncan village. There are prefix, infixs, suffix. and simul-fix.
4.2.1.      The prefix of basic reduplication: he-, ke-, me-, nge-, Fe-, pen-, per-, se-, and te-.


5.1.      Coaclusion
Based on the discussion that presented in the chapter IV, the researcher coaclude this research as follows:
1.      There are two types of reduplication that can be found in Sasak language especially in meno-mene dialect of Muncan village, they are: full duplication and partial reduplication.     
2.      The function of reduplication meno-mene dialect of Muncan village can be runctioned as intensifier, plurality and singularity. Passive, to determine the active form, to determine and object of word, instrument, ccmparison, ageoti ve, causative.
3.      The process of reduplication in meno-mene dialect of Muncan village takes :wo ways: the first is full reduplication of the base form and partiai reduplication of the base form. The second is reduplication in affixation word completely and partially.
5.2.      Suggestion
There are tree suggestions that the researcher would like to say they are :
1.      Research on local language especially mother tongue must be continued in supporting the national language. Moreover the eaucation institution which crganize language education should make specialization about the local language.
2.      As human being, there are still many mistakes in part of the writer of this thesis especially for the wording and contents. Therefore, the writer hopes that the smdv can be continued and made perfect by everyone who has high care and attention to local language.
3.      This study is far from the perfect so suggestion and improvement critics are need to make it more perfect.

Akmajian, Adrian, etc. 1986 Linguistics: an Introduce to language and communication, second edition. Institute of Technology. Massachusetts. London England.
Arikunto, Suharsimi. 1998. Prosedur penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktik. Rineka Cipta Jakarta.
Arikunto, Suharsimi. 2005 Manajemen Penelitian, edisi ketujuh. PT. Rineka Cipta Jakarta.
Blair, Collins, Rodman, Fromkin, et,al. 1990 An Introduction to Language. Harcourt Brace. Javanovich Group Australia.




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