Sunday, February 17, 2013

Kumpulan Contoh Karya Ilmiah Tentang Pendidikan


KUMPULAN CONTOH KARYA ILMIAH TENTANG PENDIDIKAN  THEMATIC LEARNING TO IMPROVE STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT LEARN MATH CLASS I SD


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A. Background Issues

Learning approach is a unit level education curriculum demands have not been implemented to the fullest. Teachers are often implement learning activities in a pure mathematics subjects and separate from other subjects. Mathematics learning activities only learn the standard and basic competencies related to Mathematics without associating it with other subjects. This resulted in student learning as stuck in a boring routine so that learning becomes less attractive and student motivation was low. Students also have not been actively involved in finding the concepts that are learned, because learning more centered on teachers. In addition, the present study subjects less separately to think holistically develop students because students are not informed about the relationship concept of some subjects, so that the experience gained as a result of learning to be less meaningful. In the end implies a low student achievement.
In connection with efforts to improve the quality of education and as the passing of the curriculum unit level of education, learning is packaged and designed to optimize the achievement of teacher standards and basic competencies outlined. To achieve this, the teacher should be able to apply the learning model to cater to the psychological development of students' Grade I. In this period, the student still sees the world as a unified and concrete, so the learning approach used in this class should be a thematic and integrative. With thematic and integrative learning is expected to provide a more meaningful experience for students and the whole, and can develop the full potential optimally. And ultimately expected to improve student achievement, especially in mathematics achievement.
Learning approaches implemented at the beginning of the second semester there is a gap when compared with the demands of learning ideally suited to the unit level education curriculum that emphasizes mastery of standards of competence and basic competences. Gaps include: learning that have been conducted so far have not been able to generate high motivation to learn, not to show students actively involved in finding the concepts are studied, and less able to provide a meaningful and integral to the students.
Based on the above, it is encouraging writers to eliminate these gaps, the problem with thematic learning approach to learning mathematics. Therefore, at this writing scientific papers about "Math Achievement Through Thematic Learning on Student Class I SD".
B. Problem Formulation
Based on the background of the above problems, it is specifically the problem can be formulated as follows: "Whether through thematic learning can improve student mathematics achievement grade I SD"
C. Research Objectives
Generally, this study aims to improve mathematics achievement. While this study specifically aims to determine the thematic learning can improve student mathematics achievement grade I school
D. Benefits of Research
1. Theoretical Benefits
Getting a new theory on improving mathematics achievement through thematic learning in class I as well as a basis for further research.
2. Practical Benefits
a. For Teachers
Provide input to improve the quality of teaching elementary school mathematics classroom I thematic learning model.
b. For Related Agencies
An input in their policy to support improved quality and effectiveness of learning mathematics in school.

CHAPTER II
THEORETICAL

1. The nature of Mathematics Learning Achievement
a. Understanding Learning Achievement
Learning achievement by Sutratinah Tirtonegoro (1988: 43) is "The assessment results of operations and learning activities stated in the form of symbols, numbers, letters or words that can reflect the results that have been achieved by each child within a certain period."
Meanwhile, according to Winkel (1991: 60) is the learning achievement is "proof that business success can be achieved one after obtaining a learning experience or learn something".
In line with the opinion of two experts, Anton Sukarno (1994:16) states that "learning achievement is the result obtained with the maximum efforts in order to actualize and themselves through learning."
Of the three opinions on the above, it is achievement of business outcomes assessment activities are expressed in the form of symbols, numbers, letters or words in order to actualize and themselves through learning.
In this research achievement is a number that is achieved by each student within a specific time period as a result of the study, which is a manifestation of his or her potential.
b. Understanding Mathematics
According Djauzak Ahmad (1994: 13) "Mathematics is one of the basic science in everyday life that are useful to understand the basics of science and technology is developing today".
Meanwhile, according to Johnson and Myklebust told Mulyono Abdurrahman (1999: 252), "Mathematics is the language of symbolic function expresion practical for quantitative relations and spatial, while the theoretical function is to facilitate thinking".
In line with this opinion, Kline in Mulyono Abdurrahman (1999: 252) argues that "Mathematics is the language of symbolic and its main characteristic is the use of deductive reasoning method, but also not forgetting how inductive reasoning".
From the opinions of the above, meaning that Mathematics is one of the basic science in everyday life, which is a symbolic language to enable people to think by using deductive and inductive ways of reasoning.In this study is a Mathematics is one of the basic science that is useful for understanding the basics of science and technology, which enable people to think and solve problems in everyday life.
c. Factors Influencing Learning Achievement
Student achievement is influenced by many different factors, both from himself (internal) or from outside (external). Achievement of learning achieved by students is essentially the result of interaction between the various factors. Therefore, the introduction of teachers for factors that can affect student achievement essential means in order to help students achieve optimum learning according to individual ability (Mohammad Usman & Lilis Setiawati Uzer, 1993: 9). The factors may include the following:
1) factors derived from self (internal)
a) physical factors (physiology) both innate and acquired. Which includes this factor is five senses are not working properly, such as an illness, disability or developmental imperfect functioning of the body that brings behavioral abnormalities.
b) psychological factors, both innate and acquired, consisting of:
(1) Factors intelektif covering potential factors, namely intelligence and talent and real skill factor, which is owned achievements.
(2) non intelektif Factors that certain personality elements such as attitudes, habits, have needs, motivations, emotions, and self-adjustment.
c) physical and psychological maturity factor.
2) factors originating outside the self from the outside (external)
a) Social factors comprising:
(1) family environment.
(2) The school environment.
(3) Environment community.
(4) Environment group.
b) Cultural factors, such as customs, science, technology, and art.
c) physical environmental factors, such as the facilities and learning facilities.
d) the spiritual and religious factors.
Similarly, several internal and external factors that interact either directly or indirectly affect student achievement.
d. Learning Mathematics
Learning Mathematics in Elementary Schools can choose the material that is able to develop the students' abilities and personal form, so as to follow the development of science and technology. Learning Mathematics in Elementary School can not be separated from mathematics itself is characteristic properties and patterned abstract deductive and consistent.
Thus teaching and learning of Mathematics should also not be equated with other sciences, because students who learn math and even then different abilities, the teaching and learning activities must consider the individual differences and characteristics of students. (Djauzak Ahmad, 1994: 13)
Furthermore, Djauzak Ahmad (1994: 17) states that "The purpose of learning mathematics in general is to prepare students to be able to face the changing circumstances of life through exercise and basic logical thinking, rational, critical, careful and effective". In addition, the student should be able to use mathematics in their daily lives and learning of science.
In Curriculum 2004 (2003: 6) also mentioned "The purpose of learning is to train and foster Mathematics way of thinking systematically, logically, critically, creatively and consistently. And develop attitudes appropriate persistent and confident in solving problems. "
While Ichsan Moch (2003: 4) formulate learning objectives Mathematics, as follows:
1) Grow and develop numeracy skills (using numbers) as a tool in their daily lives.
2) Fostering students' abilities to through Mathematics.
3) Develop a basic knowledge of mathematics as a preparation to study further.
4) Establish a logical stance, critical, meticulous, creative and disciplined.
The purpose shall be deemed to have been met if the student already has a number of capabilities in the field of Mathematics. In order for the purpose of learning mathematics can be achieved optimally, teachers should be able to apply the right approach to learning mathematics.
Ichsan Moch (2003: 8-9) suggests four different learning approaches Mathematics, namely:
1) active learning approach (Student Active Learning = SAL)
SAL is an activity that emphasizes learning students physically, intellectually, and emotionally in order to obtain maximum learning outcomes, whether cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. To enable students to learn, then the teacher should be able to create an exciting learning activities, such as by presenting learning materials is impressive and stimulating creativity, so that learning becomes more meaningful and memorable.
2) An integrated approach
That is an approach that links the subjects Mathematics with other subjects. By knowing the linkage concept of some subjects, it will be able to give the sense of meaningfulness, so that students are more confident in understanding a concept.
3) constructivist approach
That is a series of learning activities in the classroom through three phases, namely: exploration phase, the phase of the introduction of the concept and application of the concept to reach the significance of understanding.
4) a realistic approach (Realistic Mathematics Education = RME)
That is a learning approach that starts from the things real for students, emphasizing skills "process of doing mathematics". In this approach the teacher's role is nothing more than a facilitator, moderator, or evaluator, while the students are thinking, communicating the "reasoning" it, practicing the nuances of democracy by respecting the opinions of others.
2. Thematic Learning
a. Understanding Learning Thematic
Thematic learning as a new approach is considered essential. Hadi Mulyono (2000: 13) provide an understanding of thematic learning can be seen as:
1) Learning to move from one particular theme as the focus (center of interest) that are used to understand the symptoms and other concepts derived from the field of study concerned and from other subject areas.
2) A learning approach that connects a variety of fields of study that reflects the real world around and within the range of capabilities and development.
3) A way to develop the knowledge and skills of children simultaneously.
4) Assemble or combine a number of concepts in several different subject areas, in the hope children will learn better and meaningful.
According Ujang Sukandi (2003: 108) "was intended as a thematic learning management learning activities planned by creating coherence in the subject matter of the theme".
While Ichsan Moch (2003: 9) states that "Learning Mathematical models Webbed or thematic learning is a learning approach that links multiple subjects with a particular theme."
b. Thematic Learning Characteristics
Based on the nature of thematic learning, PGSD Development Team (2001: 58-59) suggests some traits or characteristics of the study as follows:
1) Holistic
A symptom or event that becomes the center of attention in thematic learning observed and studied from several fields of study as well, not from the point of view fragmented. Integrated learning allows students to understand the phenomenon from all sides. In turn, this will make students become more discerning and wise in facing or dealing with events that are before them.
2) Meaningful
An assessment of various aspects of the phenomenon as described above, allows the formation of such a network among the student schemata.
3) Authentic
Thematic learning also allows students to understand the concepts and principles directly who want to learn. This is because they are in direct learning activities. Their own understanding of the learning outcomes, results and interactions with facts and events, not just the results of the teacher notices.
4) Active
Thematic learning is essentially the basis of the approach developed diskoveri inquiry. Students need to be actively involved in the learning process, from planning, implementation to evaluation process. Thematic learning basically put into account the desires, interests and abilities of students.
Therefore, thematic learning is not merely designing the activities of each field of study that are related. Although it could have been done, it can not comply with a philosophical foundation, psychological and practical thematic learning. Thematic learning could be developed from a theme agreed upon with the glancing aspects of the curriculum that can be learned through the development of the theme.

CHAPTER III
DISCUSSION

A. Description of Initial Conditions
Teachers are often implement learning activities in a pure mathematics subjects and separate from other subjects. Mathematics learning activities only learn the standard and basic competencies related to Mathematics without associating it with other subjects. This resulted in student learning as stuck in a boring routine so that learning becomes less attractive and student motivation was low. Students also have not been actively involved in finding the concepts that are learned, because learning more centered on teachers. In addition, the present study subjects less separately to think holistically develop students because students are not informed about the relationship concept of some subjects, so that the experience gained as a result of learning to be less meaningful. In the end implies a low student achievement.
B. Planning Actions
Based on the standards of competence and basic competences subjects Citizenship Education, Indonesian Language, Mathematics, Natural Sciences and Social Sciences, the authors take steps to plan for thematic learning model, among others:
a. Create / select a theme.
b. Perform analysis of basic competencies, learning outcomes and indicators in accordance with the theme.
c. Creating a network grouping indicators.
d. Implementation plan based thematic learning network indicators that have been made.
Initial activities for each meeting includes prayer, student attendance and appersepsi. Phase appersepsi be a story or sing with the aim to focus students' attention and drive student interest in themes that will be discussed.
Core activities are the main activities carried out in the study. While the final activity is a series of activities carried out to end the meeting, including the evaluation and provide follow-up chores.
C. Implementation of Measures
In this stage the teacher implementing thematic learning model in accordance with the implementation plan has been prepared learning. Measures implemented include activities during the learning process include initial activities, core activities and activities of late.
Learning activities for each meeting began with the early form of prayer, student attendance and appersepsi. Followed by a core activity at each meeting conveying one indicator of Mathematics as a core (core study).
As examples of indicators Mathematics with Basic Competence "Do addition and
subtraction of two-digit numbers" are a core (core study) at each meeting are:
a. Add two numbers without saving techniques, numbers to 100, for a meeting to-1.
b. Add two numbers with saving techniques, numbers to 100, for a meeting of the 2nd and the 3rd.
c. Subtract two numbers without borrowing techniques, numbers to 100, for a meeting to-4.
d. Subtract two numbers with techniques borrowed, numbers to 100, for a meeting of the 5th and 6th.
Mathematics indicators are associated with indicators of other subjects appropriate to the theme, which is written in the RPP.
Learning at every meeting always ends with an assessment and provide follow-up portfolio assignment. And at the end of the meeting held daily tests to determine academic achievement in Mathematics.
D. Reflection
Learning by leaving conventional learning will be able to develop the students' interest and motivation in learning. Students can be more accepting of the teaching is done by teachers because of its varied and concrete. Besides the teacher as a facilitator and students as learners will be more easily achieved due to high student motivation to increase student activity. It is appropriate to the curriculum of the maximum level of education unit


CHAPTER IV
CLOSING


A. Conclusion
Based on the discussion of the writing imiah with thematic learning in teaching Mathematics in class I can be delivered the following conclusion:
1. Thematic learning model for learning mathematics is done by linking the subjects Mathematics with other subjects through the concepts can be integrated in the shade of a particular theme.
2. With thematic learning can improve student mathematics achievement grade I.
3. By implementing thematic learning model can enhance the active role (participation) in the learning process.
B. Suggestion
Based on our research, there are some suggestions that can be used as a consideration as well as a description of the closing of this study include:
1. For Schools
Should pursue the procurement of various props especially for low-grade Math (grades 1 and 2), both self-droping and schools, so that more support in the cultivation of mathematical concepts in a more real and increasing student learning activities and enable thematic learning model.
2. For Teachers
Should prepare carefully supporting the thematic learning and learning facilities are necessary, because it affects the effectiveness and efficiency of learning, which in turn influence the process and outcomes of students learning mathematics.

REFERENCES


Anton Sukarno. 1994. Efektifitas Sistem Pengajaran Pelayanan Bagi Anak Berkesulitan Belajar. Surakarta.

Departemen Pendidikan Nasional. 2003. Kurikulum 2004 Standar Kompetensi Mata Pelajaran Matematika Sekolah Dasar dan Madrasah Ibtidaiyah. Jakarta: Puskur Balitbang.

Djauzak Ahmad. 1994. Pedoman Proses Belajar Mengajar di Sekolah Dasar. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka.

Hadi Mulyono. 2000. Pembelajaran Terpadu. Surakarta: Sebelas Maret University Pers.

Hartono & Edy Legowo. 2003. Penelitian Tindakan Kelas. Bandung: Depdiknas.

Moch. Ichsan. 2003. Strategi Belajar Mengajar Matematika di Sekolah Dasar. Semarang: BPG.

Moh. Uzer Usman dan Lilis Setiawati. 1993. Upaya Optimalisasi Kegiatan Belajar Mengajar (Bahan Kajian PKG, MGBS, MGMP). Bandung: Remaja Rosdakarya.

Mulyadi HP. 2006. Kajian Teori dan Hipotesis Tindakan dalam Penelitian Tindakan Kelas. Semarang: LPMP Jawa Tengah.

Mulyono Abdurrahman. 1999. Pendidikan Bagi Anak Berkesulitan Belajar. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.

Sutratinah Tirtonegoro. 1988. Anak Supernormal dan Program Pendidikannya. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara.

Tim Pengembang PGSD. 2001. Pembelajaran Terpadu. Bandung: Maulana.

Ujang Sukandi, et.al. 2003. Belajar Aktif dan Terpadu: Apa, Mengapa dan Bagaimana?. Surabaya: Duta Graha Pustaka.

Winkel W.S. 1991. Bimbingan dan Konseling di Institusi Pendidikan. Jakarta: Grasindo.


THEMATIC LEARNING TO IMPROVE STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT LEARN MATH CLASS I SD

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