Friday, February 1, 2013

Kumpulan Artikel Dan Makalah Bahasa Inggris Lengkap LANGUAGE AND SPEECH, VERBAL REFERTOIRE


                                         LANGUAGE AND SPEECH, VERBAL REFERTOIRE


CHAPTER  I
INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND
Language is a communication tool used by humans to interact with each other. By mastering the language that humans can know the content of the world through science and knowledge- new and has never been seen before. As a means of communication and interaction that is only possessed by humans, language can be examined internally and externally. Internally it means the assessment carried out on the internal elements of the language just like, phonological structure, morphology, and syntax alone. While external assessment means the study was conducted on the things or factors beyond language, but it relates to the use of the language itself, the speech community or environment.  Cuneiform is one of the first written language is unknown, but believed to predate spoken language since at least ten or a thousand years earlier.
Language may refer to the specific capacity of man to obtain and use a complex system of communication, or to a specific instance of a complex communication system. Scientific study of language in all senses is called linguistics.  Approximately 3000-6000 languages
​​spoken by humans today is a prominent example, but natural languages ​​can also be based on visual rather than auditory stimuli, for example in sign languages ​​and written language. Code and other forms of artificial communication systems such as those used for computer programming can also be called languages. Language in this context is a signaling system to encode and translate the information. The English word "language" is derived directly from Latin lingua, "language, tongue", via Old French. Metaphorical relationship between language and the tongue exists in many languages ​​and became a witness in the history of the emergence of spoken language. When used as a general concept, "language" refers to the cognitive ability to make humans can learn and use systems of complex communication.   The ability of human language to say essentially different from and higher level of complexity than other species. Human language is very complicated which he based on a set of rules relating to the symbols and meaning, thus forming a mention of the infinite possibilities of a limited number of elements. Language is said to originate from the hominids first started working together, to adopt the system early communication based on expressive cues that include theory of mind and shared purpose. The development is said to coincide with the increase in volume of the brain. Language is processed in the human brain in different locations, but specifically in Broca's area and Wernicke's area. Humans acquire language through social interaction in infancy, and children are able to speak fluently about the age of three years. The use of language has been entrenched in human culture and, in addition are used to communicate and share information, it also has social and cultural functions, such as to indicate a group identity, social stratification and for social and entertainment sets. The word "language" can also be used to describe a set of rules that could make it there, or the mention of a set that can be generated from these rules.
All languages
​​depend on the process of semiosis to connect a signal with a particular meaning. Spoken language and gesture has a fonologikal system that governs how sounds or visual symbols are used to form sequences known as words or morphemes, and a system of syntax that governs how words and morphemes are used to form phrases and mentions. Writing languages ​​use visual symbols to indicate the sound of the spoken language, but it still takes the rules of syntax that produces the meaning of a sequence of words. Languages ​​change and vary each time, and the history of its evolution can be reconstructed by comparing modern languages ​​to determine which traits that must be possessed by the language of its predecessor to later changes can occur. A group of languages ​​descended from a common ancestor is known as a language family.
Due to the increasing number of languages
​​spoken by people in everyday life the relationships with the community languages, as well as various aspects that arise as a result of that relationship. That's the underlying writer to raise this issue as a material to be studied.

1.2 THEOLOGICAL PROBLEM
1. What is the difference between the language of the speech?
2. What sense language experts say?
3. What is the nature of language?
4. What understanding verbal repertoire?
5. What sense monolingual, dwilingual, and multilingual?
1.3 PURPOSE OF WRITING
The purpose of this paper is to provide the reader in the form of discourse that sociolinguistic language in this paper describes the language and speech and verbal repertoire thus the reader is also able to apply the values ​​contained in the language that we explored. In addition, this paper also aims to fulfill the sociolinguistic subjects.

CHAPTER II

2.1 LANGUAGE AND Speech
According to Ferdinand de Saussure (in Abdul Chaer and Leonie Agustina 2004: 30-34) distinguishes between the so-called language, langue and parole. Third term derived from the French language, the Indonesian language is not careful, commonly paired with one term, namely language. Though all three have very different senses, though all three are equally concerned with the language. Language in French terms used to refer to the language as a symbol of the sound system used by humans to verbally communicate and interact among themselves. Language are abstract. Perhaps the term language can be paired with the word as contained in the phrase "Humans have language, not animals." Thus, the use of language in terms of the sentence, the equivalent word language, does not refer to one specific language, but generally refers to the language, as a means of human communication. Animals also undertake communication activities, but the tools were used instead of language.
The second term of Ferdinand de Saussure's language that is intended as a symbol of the sound system used by a particular group of community members to communicate and interact with each other. So, langue refers to a particular sound symbol system used by a group of members of a particular community, which may be paired with the word in the sentence, "Nita learn Japanese, while Dika learn English". Same with the language of abstract language too abstract, because both language and language is a system of patterns, regularities, or rules that exist or humans but obviously not used.
Unlike language and language that are abstract, the third term is the parole concrete, because it is the implementation of parole language in the form of speech or the speech made by the members of the public to interact or communicate with each other. Parole here may be paired with a word in a sentence. "If he spoke the language is full of words and suffixes than ken". So, once again it is not an abstract parole, there are real, and can be observed empirically.
It should be noted that the object of study of linguistics is language, as a system of a particular language, but it is done through parole. Why? Since parole is empirically observable. Language it can not be observed empirically because it is abstract, but each study must be made through empirical data that.
From the discussion of the term language, langue and parole above shows that the word or term in Indonesian language concepts bear a very heavy, because the third term comes from the French it can be paired with one word that, although it should be in the context of the different. Expenses incurred concept or meaning of the language says, it is very hard, because in addition to bear the concept of term langage, langue and parole also bear concept or understanding others. Note the use of the word language in the following sentences?
* Fellow law enforcement officers must be no common language, so that decisions do not conflict.
* English military does not need to be used in the face of unrest there.
* Declare your love in the language of flowers. The result would have been better.
* The king who was intoxicated by the victory did not know the language of the empress was dead.
* Kinda hard to talk to people who are also crazy-crazy language.
The fifth word in the above has nothing to do either with the word language, language, and parole. The first means 'policy, a view', the second means 'way'; A third meaning 'communication tool'; fourth means 'that', and the fifth means 'little'.
As langage language is universal, because he is a symbol of the sound system used by humans in general, not a human being at a certain place or a certain period. But as the language langue, despite characteristics, are limited to one particular community. One particular society is rather difficult formula; yet understand the characteristics of each (mutually intelligible) could probably use a single language restrictions. So, for example, the population in South Garut to those in Karachi and on the slopes of Mount Salak, Bogor, still in one language and society in one language, because they are still able to understand verbal tools. They can communicate or interact verbally. Likewise, people who are in Banyumas with its Semarang and Surabaya who are, still in one language and one language community because there is no mutual understanding among their neighbors.
Mutual understanding between the people in the South Garut residents in Karachi is because of the similarity of the systems and subsystems (phonology, morphology, syntax, lexicon, and semantics) among parole-parole they use. So also with the people in Banyumas, Semarang and Surabaya, surely they could understand each other because of the similarities in the parole system and subsystem-parole they use. So also with the people in Banyumas, Semarang and Surabaya, surely they could understand each other because of the similarities in the parole system and subsystem-parole they use. But the population in the South Garut Banyumas residents there is no mutual understanding between them verbally neighbors. This happens because the parole-parole used between people in both places did not have the same system or subsystem. The lack of similarity between the systems and subsystems in the two language communities that lead no understanding, marking the two different systems langue. So in the case of used parole population in the South and in Banyumas Garut, we call langue there are two systems, namely in South Garut Sundanese and Javanese in Banyumas.
Thus we call the two parole from two different communities as two different languages ​​is due to the lack of mutual understanding verbally. Naming is based on linguistic criteria. However, in many cases it was found that there are two language communities understand each other, but admitted using two different languages ​​with different names. For example, Malaysia's population are able to understand the population of Indonesia since the linguistic similarities between the systems and subsystems used both parole. But Malaysia's population claimed to speak Malaysia, while Indonesia's population claimed to speak Indonesian. So in this case naming Indonesian and Malaysian languages ​​are not based on linguistic criteria, but rather based on political criteria. The language used in Malaysia is the language used in Malaysia and Indonesia is the Indonesian language. A similar case occurred in Sweden, Norway, and Scandinavia. Linguistically language used by residents in the three countries is a language; yet politically population in the three countries that claim to have their own languages. Rather different case occurred in mainland China. Tribes that exist in mainland China was not able to verbally communicate verbally because they are linguistically distinct languages. But in writing that they can communicate well, because they are the same writing system, which is ideographic. That is, each letter represents a concept or meaning, although the sound is not the same entity. Or if you follow the terminology of de Saussure (1961) each letter represents signifie, although signifiannya not the same. In the case of English today has seemed  attempt to give different names to the English used in the UK, in America, and in Australia with the appearance of the name of British English, American English and Australian English.
On top of already used that parole population in South Garut, in Karachi, and in Bogor is different, even if they understand each other, because there is still the presence of a system or subsystem similarities between parole in the third place. So, in the "diversity" they still are "interrelatedness of understanding". In this case, the parole-parole used in third place was referred to as dialects of the same language. In concrete terms as prevalent said: Sundanese dialect Garut, Karawang Sundanese dialect, and Sundanese dialect Bogor. Likewise, in the example above we find Banyumas dialect of Javanese, Javanese dialect Semarang, Surabaya and Javanese dialect.
Each person in a concrete has its own peculiarities in language (speaking or writing). This distinction can affect the volume, choice of words, syntactic arrangement, and use of other language elements. That is why, if we are familiar with the person, we will be able to identify people just by hearing his voice (people not shown), or simply by reading the writing (his name is not mentioned in the article). Language characteristic of a person referred to as So, if there are 1000 people, then there will be 1000 .
From the discussion above, it can be concluded that any linguistic language as langue may consist of a number of dialects, each dialect composed of a number idiolek. However, it should also be noted that two linguistic dialect is a language, as a member of both dialects can understand each other: but politically could be described as two different languages.
Stephen Ulimann (in Kinayati Djojosuroto 2007: 52-54) describes the differences in language and speech is as follows:
a. Language is a vehicle of communication (for all the people in the community), and said it was the use of a vehicle by a person in a certain situation. Clearly, the language is password (code) while the speech is encoded (encoding), the use of passwords to the content of a particular meaning, the speaker, which is then decoded (interpreted) by the listener.
b. The language is still something of potential (in the form of power that is hidden), is a system of signs that are stored in the mind (memory) we are, ready to be actualized (realized) and translated into sounds that are physically in the process of tutor. So, the fact that language is not made up of the sounds in the physical sense, but rather consists of sound impressions stay behind real sounds that we or we hear from others.
c. Speech is the use of language by one person in a typical situation (specific), an individual action. Instead individuals master the language because language belongs to the community at large and completeness. Language can act as a communication tool only if the language is basically the same for all speakers. Language is a social institution.
d. Correspondingly, other differences regarding attitudes towards speakers of each language and speech. A speaker is the master of himself he said. Said depends on the speakers: whether or not he wants to say, what to say, how he wanted to say. However, in terms of language, he is actually just a receiver (recipient) is passive. He assimilated (mastering, mixing with) language in early childhood, and since it can not do anything to change it.
e. Speech is a single act at all limited by time. Said long gone in a matter of minutes, even seconds. Once a word out of his mouth, then he can not be sucked back. Instead, it moves slowly so that at times seemed stalled. Changes little by little, if any, require a long time, even centuries to change the sound and grammar. Language is a social phenomenon which had survived than any other social phenomenon. It is easier to kill than the breaking form individual (Sapir, 1921).
f. Said it has two facets (faces), the physical and psychological aspects. Sounds tutor (who and we hear) is a physical event (such as sound waves), whereas meaning was taken (or contained) by the sound of it is psychological symptoms. But the language is purely psychological. Language is formed from impressions of sounds, words and grammar elements are stored in our minds and stay there.
In summary the main difference between language and speech'd be tabulated as follows:
LANGUAGE / Langue: Speech / PAROLE:
Password (code) encoding (encoding)
Potential actualized
Individual Social
Definite (fixed) Free
Moving fast-slow-moving short
Psychological psychophysical
2.1.1 Language Itself
In general linguistic study of language, both as langue and langage, lajim symbol is defined as a system of arbitrary sounds that are used by humans as a means of communication or social interaction tools. As a system, the language also systematic, meaning that there is a whole language of its maxims. Then, the systematic meaning, the language system is not a single system, but there are subsystem-subsystems, the subsystems grammatical and semantic subsystems.
As a symbol means, each unit of language such as words and sentences, of course there is the symbolism. Then, as a symbol of the language in the form of sound, then the sound symbol language [horse] is used to symbolize or mark 'a kind of four-legged animals usually driven' and symbol language, which reads [water] is used to symbolize or mark 'a kind of liquid used used for day-to-day '.
Coat language is arbitrary. That is, there is no "necessary connection" between the symbol with the symbolized. So, if asked "why ordinary quadruped driven" called or symbolized by the sound [horses] can not be explained. So also can not explain "why the liquid used for everyday purposes" referred to or represented by sound [water].
As a result of the arbitrary nature of this, then we will find the existence of a symbol used to represent two distinct entities. For example, the symbol which reads [boyfriend] is used to represent the two entities, namely, 'lover' and 'rouge nails' or 'henna'. It could also be two or more different symbols are used to represent the same entities. For example, the symbol [die], [died], and [death] is equally symbolize the state 'that was animate a lifeless'. Another incident was a result of the arbitrary nature of a symbol can make a different sound than previous symbolized. For example, the symbol which reads [address], was used to symbolize the state of 'nag, nag': but now is used to represent entities 'description of a field of science in front of crowds'.

The final part of the definition of the language stating that the language used by speakers to communicate or interact in a speech (Abdul Chaer, 2010: 14-15).
2.1.2 Meaning and Definition Language According to the Experts .
Language is a symbol of the speech sound system is used to communicate by the wearer. Good language developed by a system, ie a set of rules followed by the wearer. Language itself works as means of communication and as a means of integration and adaptation (http://carapedia.com/pengertian_definisi_bahasa_menurut_para_ahli_into494).
Language is a system of individual psychological development in a context of intersubjective (Bill Adams in http://carapedia.com/pengertian_definisi_bahasa_menurut_para_ahli_into494).

Language is a form of thinking that can be understood, in touch with reality, and has a shape and a logical structure (Wittgenstein in Language is a distinguishing feature of the most prominent because of the language of any social group as a whole felt different from other groups (Ferdinand De Saussure in Language is essentially a statement of one's mind by means onomata (name objects or something) and rhemata (speech) which is a reflection of the idea of
​​someone in the flow of air through the mouth (Plato in Language is a symbolic system that is arbitrary and the system was a social group working together (Bloch & Trager in larbitrary, used, or which can be used in communication between individuals by a group of people and that is rather thorough gave names to objects, events, and processes in the environment human life (Carroll under

Language is a means of effective communication while not perfect so the imperfection of language as a means of communication is one source of misunderstanding (Sudaryono in

Language is a system of sounds that when combined according to certain rules pose meanings can be captured by all the people who speak that language (William A. Haviland in

There are two senses of language: first, declare the language as a means of communication between members of the public in the form of a symbol of the sound produced by the instrument man said. Second, language is a system of communication that uses symbols vocal (speech sound) that are arbitrary (Keraf the Sharif Hidayatullah, 2009).
Language is language can be defined as a socially shared combinations of those symbols and rule governed combinations of those symbols (language can be defined as a socially acceptable code or conventional system for conveying concepts through the use of symbols and the desired combination of symbols governed by the provisions) (Owen in Sharif Hidayatullah, 2009).

There are two definitions of language. First, language is a system of systematic, perhaps also for generative systems. Second, language is a set of symbols which this or arbitrary symbols (Henry Guntur Tarigan the Sharif Hidayatullah, 2009).
Language is a series of sound produced by the instrument man said knowingly (Kusno Budi Santoso in Sharif Hidayatullah, 2009).
Language is a form and not a state (language may be the form and not matter) or something that sounds arbitrary symbol system, nor a system of many systems, a system of an order or an order in these systems (WF Mackey in Sharif Hidayatullah, 2009).
Language is a system of symbols that are meaningful and articulate sound (generated by said tool) that are arbitrary and conventional, which is used as a communication tool by a group of men to give birth to feelings and thoughts (Revelation Wibowo the Sharif Hidayatullah, 2009).

Language of communication is the most complete and effective way to convey an idea, message, purpose, feelings and opinions to others (Walija the Sharif Hidayatullah, 2009).
There are two language understanding. First, language is a tool used to shape our thoughts and feelings, desires and actions, a tool used to influence and be influenced. Second, language is a clear sign of a good personality and the bad, a clear sign of the family and the nation, a clear sign of moral humanity (AR Shamsuddin in Sharif Hidayatullah, 2009).

Language is a system to express and report what happens in the nervous system (Maruli the Sharif Hidayatullah, 2009).
Language is a means of connecting spiritually very important in human life (Ag Soejono the Sharif Hidayatullah, 2009).
2.2 Verbal Repertoire
On top of already talked about that Ferdinand de Saussure distinguishes between langue and parole, between language as a system of abstract nature, and language in real in society can we call level (English: speech). Another expert, Chomsky, prominent transformational-generative grammar, mentions the existence of competence (English: competence) in addition to performance (UK: performance). The definition of competence is the ability, the knowledge about language speakers of the language. While performance is the act of speaking itself or the use of language in real situations in the community. Halliday, systematic linguistic character, a lot of paying attention to the social aspects of language, does not explicitly distinguish the language as a system and language (speech) as a skill. He only mentions the communicative skills (English: Communicative Competence), which is roughly a mix or a combination of both that sense. What is meant by the ability to use language appropriate to the function and situation and norms of language use in the context of the situation and its social context (Halliday 1972: 269-293). So, to be called having one's communicative abilities should have the ability to distinguish grammatical sentences and are not garamatikal, as well as having the ability to choose the forms of language appropriate to the situation, being able to choose the appropriate expression to behavior and situation, as well as Not only can you interpret the meaning of the referential (meaning references) but also be able to interpret the meaning of situational context and meaning. Every speaker of a language, of course, with various gradations level, it has a communicative skills.
Communicative ability of a person was also varied, at least mastering one language to mothers with various variations or manifold, and others may be controlled, in addition to their mother tongue, as well a other languages ​​or more, obtained as a result of education or interaction with native speakers outside environment. Average an Indonesian who had held his mother's school to master the language and Indonesian language. Moreover, it may master one or more languages ​​other areas, as well as foreign language, English, or other languages, if they have entered education or higher education. All languages ​​and their diversity-owned or controlled manifold of a speaker is usually referred to as the repertoire of language or verbal repertoire of the man.
Verbal repertoire there are actually two kinds of the each speaker individually, and that of the whole speech community. The first refers to the verbal tools are dominated by a speaker, including the ability to select the language of social norms and functions according to the situation. The second refers to the entire verbal tools that exist in a community, along with the norms for selecting variations according to social context.
The study, which studied the use of language as a system of verbal interaction among the speakers in the community called sociolinguistic sociolinguistic interactional or micro. While the study of language use in conjunction with the linguistic characteristics of society sociolinguistic sociolinguistic correlational or macro (Appel 1976: 22). Both types of sociolinguistics, the micro and the macro has a very close relationship, can not be separated, because the two are interdependent. That is, the verbal repertoire of each speaker is determined by the society in which it is located, while the verbal repertoire of a speech community occurs from the set of verbal repertoire all speakers in the community (Abdul Chaer and Leonie Agustina, 2004: 34-35).
Totality variations superposed and regularly applied in preparing the verbal repertoire of the community. If the relationship of a language can be combined or not combined with a social group, the verbal repertoire is always specific to a particular population. As an analytical concept, verbal repertoire gives us the opportunity to establish a direct relationship between the language of the adjacent complexity of socio-economic communities.
We measure this relationship in the form of two concepts: linguistic range and degree of compartementalization. Linguistic range refers to the distance between the internal language variation adjacent, ie, the total number of purely linguistic differences that exist in society, thus distinguishing multilingual society, multidialek, and homogeneous society. Compartementalization refers to the sharpness that is used to separate certain variations with different variations, according to both dimensions of variation dialektal  and variations superposed. Therefore we discuss the repertoire when used without mixing multiple languages, as dialects separated by a sharp isoglos dialect, or when a certain word choices clearly distinguishable forms of another language. Instead we talked about when the transition between the fluid repertoire that blends language is gradual or when the language style blends with other styles such that it is difficult to outline a clear boundary.
The range of a linguistic repertoire is a function of language and specific word choices that applied prior to the connection (contact). But with period certain relationship, the range of linguistic become dependent on the number of internal interactions. The higher frequency of internal interaction, the greater the propensity to innovate appear in the speech community to diffuse through interaction. Thus, if the communication flow is dominated by a particular center such as Paris France dominated the middle of the range of linguistic relatively small. Instead, political fragmentation is associated with language or dialect diversity, such as in southern Germany, which long dominated by many small countries are semi-independent.
But the frequency is not the only determinant of uniformity. In a stratified society, the speakers of minority languages
​​or dialects generally live side by side, trade, and had sexual services, then often maintain social relationships as workers and bosses or employers with workers. But apart from this relationship, they tend to retain their own language and shows the social norms that set limits on the freedom of inter-communication. Compartementalization reflect social norms. The essence of social linguistic constraints is not yet clearly unknowable, although some literature has suggested new avenues for research.
We find, for example, that a separate language is better prepared to defend themselves in the nearby tribal system, where blood ties dominate all activities. Instead, the choice of a particular word linguistically distinct, maintained through constraints specified status. If social change caused the collapse of traditional social structures and the formation of new bonds, as in urbanization and colonization, the linguistic barriers between the different variations also fall. Rapidly changing society generally showed a gradual transition from a particular language style and style to another or when bilingual society, there is a range of variation that bridge adjacent to the transition between the two extremes (Thanks Abdul Ibrahim, 1993: 143-146).

2.2.1 Language Society
In sociolinguistic Dell Hymes (in Ferdinaen Saragih, 2009) does not explicitly distinguish between language as a system and speech as a skill. Both are referred to as communicative ability (communicative competence). Communicative abilities include language skills possessed by revealing speakers and their language skills in accordance with the function and use of the situation and in the context of social norms.  Languages ​​based on verbal repertoire that is owned by the community, the language can be divided into three, namely:
a) Monolingual Society (monolingual)
Monolingual is an individual who only master one language, especially when the concept of a language that is very narrow and only had limited understanding of regional variations (I Dewa Putu Wijana and Muhammad Rohmadi, 2010: 55).
Factors affecting the monolingual, among others:
1. In a society that is not bilingual diglossia and, of course, there is only one language, and without variation and can be used for all sorts of purposes, this situation can only exist in remote or primitive societies, which today is hard to find (Fishman in Abdul Chaer and Leonie Agustina, 2004: 118).
2. In guyub diaglosa, small children first learn the language L, a result almost all the young kids are L. Once adulthood will acquire language H, be they bilingual L and H (Sumarsono and Paina Partana, 2002: 233).
b) Bilingual Community (bilingual)
Bilingualism in Indonesian language called Bilingualism is defined as the use of two languages ​​by the speakers in the interaction with others in turn (Mackey in Abdul Chaer and Leonie Agustina, 2004: 84). In addition, Mackey classifying four aspects to facilitate discussions about bilingual, is as follows:
1. Level of ability
Ability will appear on the four skills, namely listening, reading, speaking, and writing. The four-level skills include phonological, grammatical, leksis, semantics, and stylistik.
2. Function
Proficiency level depending on the function or use of the language. It can be said that the more often the language used, the fasihlah speakers. The factors that influence the internal and external factors.
Internal factors include, among others:
a.       Internal use such as counting, estimation, praying, cursing, a dream, a diary, and notes.
b. Aptitude: talent or intelligence, and is influenced by, among others: 1. Sex 2. Age 3. Intelligence 4. Memory 5. Attitude 6 languages. Motivation.
b.      Influenced by external factors:
c.       a. Contacts, the contact with the speakers of the language in the home, language in society, language schools, language mass media, and correspondence.
b. Variable, meaning that the variables of the last speakers of contacts and determined by 1. The duration of contact 2. Frequent contacts 3. Pressure, meaning that influence speakers in the field of language usage, such as the economic, administrative, cultural, political, military, historical, religious, and demographics.
3. Substitution between languages
​​(alternation)
d.      Substitution between language fluency and also depends on the external and internal functions. Conditions speakers switch languages ​​invented by at least three things: the first by the subject, the two people involved and tension (tension).
4. Interference (interference)
e.       Interference is an error that caused entrainment habits of speech or language into the language of maternal dialeg dialeg second. Interference common in pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, and even cultural significance. Description interference with such individual, so it is idiosyncratic and parole speakers.
In addition to the four aspects that have been raised by Mackey, Alwasilah added two other aspects, namely:
1.move  language (language shift)
When a new group comes to other places and mingled with the local group that will pass move language (language shift).
2. Convergence (convergence) and Indonesianization
Convergence is met activities and mainly move towards unity and uniformity.
Indonesianization is that vocabulary uptake was experiencing a change in sound and spelling adjusted to the Indonesian language.
 in Indonesia, namely:
1. Local language and Indonesian language
bilingual in Indonesia (Indonesian and local languages).
Use bilingual This can happen because:
a. In 1928 the oath of youth using the Indonesian language (at the time called Maleis) associated with the struggle for independence and nationalism.
b. Regional languages
​​have a reasonable place alongside coaching and development of the language and culture of Indonesia.
c. Intermarriage between the tribes.
d. Movement of people from one region to another due to urbanization, internal migration, mutation employee or employees, and so on.
e. Interaction between ethnic groups: that in trade, socialization and elements work or school.
f. Motivation is driven by the interests of the many professional and life interests.
However, often the speakers of regional languages
​​Indonesian speaker also use the informal language of the region is caused by several factors including:
1. In ceremonies that require the use of local languages
​​will be more impressive and more in line with the expected atmosphere.
2. To create a distinctive atmosphere; example, between family members, close friends, and so on.
3. In the interest of literature and enjoy the culture.
c) Community Multilingual (more than two languages)
    Multilingual is a society that has several languages. Such communities occur because some ethnic helped in terms of ethnic communities that can be regarded as a plural society (plural society) (Sumarsono and Paina Partana, 2002: 76).
The development of monolingual language became bilingual and multilingual eventually be caused by many factors. The development of communication technology, globalization, rapid education needs of the community led to a shift of the language as well as the progress of time indirectly confound between languages.
In the history of the formation of multi-language, a language that we see there are at least four patterns is through migration, colonization, federation, and in the border region.
* Migration
Migration or movement of people who cause problems of language can essentially be divided into two types. The first type is a large group of the population to expand to other areas already inhabited by other groups. The second type occurs when a small number of ethnic members into areas already under national control.
* Colonization
In the process of colonial control was held by a relatively small number of people from citizenship in the new controller.
* Federation
Federation is the union of different ethnic or nationality under the political control of the country.
* in border areas
The origin common in the border region on the border happened as a result there may be people who become citizens but sosiokultur A citizenship B. Complications border regions usually associated with war. Vanquished people were forced to give up some territory to the win.
CHAPTER III
CLOSING
3.1 Conclusions
Words in Indonesian language has more than one meaning or sense. Many experts make the definition of the language by first highlight in terms of its function. Language is a system of arbitrary sound symbol used by the group members to work together, communicate and identify themselves.
Another problem with regard to understanding the language is a language called speech, which is different from other languages; whenever only considered as a variation of a language. Two speech could be described as two different languages ​​based on two benchmarks, the benchmark linguistic and political standards. Two linguistic utterances are considered as two different languages, if the members of the two communities do not understand each other's speech. Due to the complexity of a parole determine the language or not, only the dialect of a language to another course, then until now there has never been a precise figure be the number of languages ​​that exist in this world.
Communicative abilities of the individual or group is called verbal repertoire. So verbal repertoire can be grouped into two, namely the verbal repertoire of the individual and the communities. If a community has a verbal repertoire is relatively the same and have the same assessment of the use of the language of the community as the community language.

3.2 ADVICE
Given the lack of knowledge and skills possessed by the author, to gain a more fundamental understanding, it is suggested to the reader to read the literature that has been attached to the reference list
Thus also expected that the suggestions and constructive criticism from readers, so that this paper can provide knowledge of language and speech as well as the verbal repertoire.

REFERENCES


1. Chaer, Abdul. , 2010. Kesantunn Net. Jakarta: Rineka Notices.
2. Chaer, Abdul and Leonie Agustina. , 2004. Introduction Early sociolinguistic. Jakarta: Rineka Notices.
3. Djojosuroto, Kinayati. , 2007. Philosophy of Language. New York: Library Book Publisher.
4. Hidayatullah, Sharif. , 2009. "What language was? Ten Definition Language According to the Experts ". (Online). accessed on 09 September 2011).
5.http :/ / carapedia.com/pengertian_definisi_bahasa_menurut_para_ahli_into494/html, accessed on 09 September 2011.
6. Saragih, Ferdinaen. , 2009. "Public Relations and Languages". (Online). (Http://ferdinaen01.blogspot.com/2009/02/hubungan-masyarakat-dan-bahasa/html, accessed on 09 September 2011).
7. Sumarsono and Paina Partana. 2002. Sociolinguistic. Yogyakarta: Word.
8. Ibrahim, Abdul Gratitude. 1993. Capita Selekta Sociolinguistics. Surabaya: National Business.
9. Wijaya, I Dewa Putu and Muhammad Rohmadi. , 2010. Sociolinguistic Study of Theory and Analysis. Yogyakarta: Student Library....


LANGUAGE AND SPEECH, VERBAL REFERTOIRE

0 comments:

Post a Comment