Monday, February 4, 2013

Download Skripsi Bahasa Inggris INCREASE OF STUDENTS’ SPEAKING ABILITY USING PICTURE


INCREASE OF STUDENTS’ SPEAKING ABILITY USING PICTURE OF FLASH CARD AT THE SIXTH YEARS OF SDN 2 SABAH BALAU BANDAR LAMPUNG

 

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A.      Background
One of the objectives of teaching English is to make the learners able to communicate using the language in the form of oral and written communication. One of the objectives of teaching foreign language is to provide the students with skills which enable them to communicate orally with the speakers of other nationality who have also learned the language.

Speaking is one of oral communication that is learned by students from Elementary School until Senior High School. It is useless to master so much vocabularies and grammar if they cannot use them in communicating and interacting with others. Speaking is a process of communication between at least two people and speaking is a way to express someone’s idea. For students in elementary school speaking is one of skill in English lesson. In speaking class, the students of elementary school learn how to pronounce the words in English, learn how to describe person, place, thing, introduce themselves fluently and make a dialogue, and the students can understand about the meaning of the English.

The objective of teaching speaking in the elementary schools is to enable the students to describe person, place, make a conversation, and introduce them. Now, English is one of the subjects in Elementary School. The English lesson has been taught since at the first grade of elementary school. Ideally the students at the sixth year can introduce themselves in English, they can describe something like person and place, or they can use English when they speak with their friends. In fact there are many students at the sixth grade cannot introduce themselves, describe something, and speak with their friends in English.

The students of the Sixth Years of SD N 2 Sabah Balau Bandar Lampung had some difficulties in speaking. They get difficulties in using English when their teacher ask them to come in front of the class to speak, such as to describe something, to introduce, or to make a dialogue with their friends. One of the problems faced by students of the Sixth Years of SD N 2 Sabah Balau Bandar Lampung is the low quality of speaking ability. Based on the daily average score test conducted by the researcher to the students of the Sixth Years of SD N 2 Sabah Balau Bandar Lampung in August 2011, found that students can not fulfill standard of competence and minimum completion score, it is 60 for the sixth grade of elementary school. Their speaking skill was not appeared and also the 20% of students’ speaking score achieved the minimum completion score (KKM). Below is the table of students’ speaking ability.
There are 20% of the total number of students achieved minimum completion score (KKM). It signed that English learning result of students of the Sixth Years of SD N 2 Sabah Balau Bandar Lampung is still low.

There are many aspects that cause their difficulties such as shyness, nervousness, feeling afraid of making mistake, not knowing the way how to pronounce certain words, are potential problems that can hinder the students to speak. The using of media can be made the difficulties for students in the speaking class. Those factors may be the reason why the pupils of Elementary School get problem.

In teaching learning process, students of the Sixth Years of SD N 2 Sabah Balau Bandar Lampung class not only feel difficult but also make a noise and permit to go out of class; even they are bored following English teaching learning in classroom. Commonly English teaching learning process in many schools focuses on grammar. There is little chance for students to practice English orally. In teaching learning process it is better to give much chance for students to develop their communicative skill.

The process of English teaching learning in the Sixth Years of SD N 2 Sabah Balau Bandar Lampung is just mastering the subject itself as a material for final test. The role of the teacher is also very significance. Students just accept what the teachers teach and they can not apply it to the real situation. According to the Competence Level Based Curriculum students are the central core of teaching learning process to develop their competence.

That is why the researcher must have good strategy or approach to teach English, so that students will enjoy with English teaching learning process and will be serious to study. It can be done by applying picture of flash card. A flashcard is used as a learning tool. It usually has a question on one side and an answer on the other side. People usually use flashcards to help them memorize learning materials, such as vocabulary and formula, etc.Flash cards can be effective teaching tools for many types of skills for elementary aged children and older students.

If the students are provided or shown some pictures which they might have seen before, automatically most of them try to express some word or sentences about those pictures. They will produce words, sentences or even short description. Flashcards remain one of the best tools for memorizing information. Students can simply make the question on one side and the answer on the opposite side and test themselves repeatedly. However, there are several ways to modify this process to enhance the learning experience.

There are two kinds of speaking, monologue and dialogue. Dialogue is conversation which happens between two or more speakers. Speaking has a quite important role in the transferring of the information that is a direct way of giving information from the speaker to the listener. That is why English learning is expected to develop all skills in English so that the students are able to communicate in English as well in certain literacy degrees. There are some techniques in teaching speaking, including games, role-play and simulations, drama, projects, interview, brainstorming, information gap, jigsaw, problem-solving and decision-making, and opinion exchange.
Teacher should find the interesting technique that can make the students are motivated to practice their speaking in front of the class or out of class. Based on the researcher`s pre-survey in SD N 2 Sabah Balau Bandar Lampung, even though the students are in language department their speaking ability is poor, because for speaking class teachers only use old method which makes the students become inactive learner. The method is not suitable or does not match anymore with the students’ need in the real communication.

The researcher in this research used picture of flash card media. A picture usually contributes to understanding by being a part of a context. Picture as sufficient essential visual aids can be used as a tool of communication between teacher and pupils in teaching learning process. The researcher tried to investigate whether picture media could also be used in teaching speaking and weather there was significant increase of students’ speaking ability. Vocabulary is very important thing in speaking. The students can not speak if they do not know the vocabulary.

Based on the background above and the difficulty that was faced by students in elementary school in speaking, the researcher concerned to find out whether picture could significantly increase the students speaking ability through her research entitled “increasing Students’ speaking ability through picture of flash car at the Sixth Years of SD N 2 Sabah Balau Bandar Lampung”.

B.     Identification of the Problem
In references to the background above, the researcher identified the problems as follow:
1.      The students speaking ability is still low
2.      In learning a foreign language a teacher needs the way of learning to make  student in language learning

C.    Limitation of the Problem
In this research, the researcher focused on students’ speaking ability and picture of flash card.

D.    Formulation of the Problem

Based on the background of the problem, the researcher formulated the problem as follows: Is there any increase of students’ speaking ability through picture of flash card?

E.     Objective of the Research

The objective of this research was to find out whether there is increase of students’ speaking ability through picture of flash card.

F.     Significant of the Research

The significant of this research are:
1.      Theoretically
The significant of this research is to contribute useful information for the future research of teaching speaking.
2.      Practically,
As consideration for English teachers that picture of flash card can be used as an alternative to increase students’ speaking ability, and to promote picture of flash card in the classroom.

G.    Scope of the Research

This research was conducted at the sixth year of SD N 2 Sabah Balau Bandar Lampung. This research was intended merely “To know whether there is  increase of students’ speaking ability using picture of flash card at the sixth years of SD N 2 Sabah Balau Bandar Lampung”

H.    Definition of key words

1.    Speaking
Speaking is a process of communication between at least two people and speaking is a way to express someone’s idea.



2.    Increase
Increase means a process of becoming larger or longer or more numerous or more important .In this research the researcher intends to make the students ability better.
3.    Picture
Picture is a representation (as a person, landscape, and building) on canvas, paper or others surfaces produced by printing, drawing, or photography.
4.      Flash Card
Flashcard is a mode to help you learn some facts. A flash card is a small card with two sides. On one side, a question is written, on the other the answer.
5.      Dialogue
Dialogue is conversation involve two or more speaker and can be subdivided into those interpersonal dialogue and transactional dialogue.
6.      Media
Media can be defined as everything that can be used to distribute messages, stimulate thoughts, feelings, concerns, and the willingness of students, so that they can engage in a process driven learning.

 


CHAPTER II
FRAME OF THEORIES

This chapter discusses about concept of speaking, concept of picture, and criterion of good picture, concept of flash card procedure of teaching speaking, theoretical assumption and hypothesis.

A.      Concept of Speaking Skill

Speaking is an effective and efficient way used in real communication. It is impossible if someone understands English in written but he or she does not understand the productive abilities, especially speaking. So, speaking is one of four ability which has important role in daily life, even as a main ability in communication among human beings. Moreover, speaking is a productive ability in which speaker produces and uses the language to express sequence ideas and at the same time he tries to get the idea or the message. In this situation, there is a process of giving or transpiring, encoding and understanding the messages.


Speaking is oral communication. It is a two – way process between speaker and listener and involves productive and receptive skills of understanding. Speaking is encoding process where we communicate our ideas, thought and feeling through one or the other forms of language. Speaking is the main skill in communication. Based on these ideas, it is understood that through speaking one can communicate or express what he wants in order to understand one another. Furthermore, someone can communicate or express what he wants from other and responds to the speaker. It means that in order to speak or to express one’s ideas, the speaker must attend the aspects of speaking, in order that the message is understandable to the listener.

Speaking is the primary element of language and it can be developed from the beginning when someone was born, from the first contact with the language. From the statement, we know that speaking develops since one’s birth, even though it only occurs for the first language. Speaking as the ability to express oneself in life situation, or the ability to converse, or the ability to express a sequence of ideas fluently. It means that in the process of speaking there must be at least two people, one is the speaker and the other is the listener. Based on the ideas, speaking is very important in daily activities, because we can react to other person and situation and express our ideas, thought and feeling through spoken language.

From the definition above the researcher can conclude that speaking is an ability to express idea, feeling and emotions to other person. The language is used to express oneself to be understood by other. Speaking is a process of communication to express our idea among people in society to keep the relationship going well. Welty states that speaking is one of four basic skills of language and it has important role in daily life because it is the main skill in communication.[12] Speaking must fulfill these following criteria, they are:

1.      Pronunciation
Pronunciation refers to the ability to produce easily comprehensible articulation. There are 3 basic of the main range of the teaching technique which can be invoked to assist pupils in learning pronunciation. The first is exhortation, exhortation is the instructions to imitate and mimic, to make such a sound, without father explanation. For example the students say Like /lek/ and then the researcher asks the students not /lek/ but /laik/. The second is speech training, it is the construction of special games and exercises which entail the use of word or sentence so as to practices particular sounds, sequences of sounds, stress-patterns, rhythm, and intonation. The researcher asks the students to practice how to pronoun sentences. The third is practical phonetics which including description of the organ of speech, description of the articulation of sounds, description of stress, rhythm and intonation.

2.      Grammar
The study of how words and their component parts combine to form sentences, structural relationships in language or in a language, sometimes including pronunciation, meaning, and linguistic history. grammar is the set of logical and structural rules that govern the composition of sentences, phrases, and words in any given natural language. Grammar refers to the study of language rules it is a kind of regularity of sound structure that nobody could learn language without grammar.

3.      Vocabulary
Vocabulary means the appropriate diction which is used in communication. Vocabulary refers to the selection of words that suitable with content. Vocabulary is divided by two part close class and open class. Close classes is consist of preposition, pronoun, conjunction,

4.       Fluency
Fluency is the smoothness of flow with which sounds, syllables, words and phrases are joined together when speaking. Brumfit in Nation sees fluency as the maximal effective operation of the language system so far acquired by the students. Besides that it refers to the one who express a language quickly and easily without any difficulty.


From the explanation above, it is clear that students should be careful in choosing words and styles in communication. Somebody who wants to speak English well, she/he has to know the ways of speaking English. Speaking is really different from writing. In speaking students need to know pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, fluency, comprehension, having interaction with listeners and can speak English as well as native speakers do.

B.       Type of Speaking

Brown classifies the type of oral language in two parts, monologue and dialogue. Monologue is divided in two parts planned and unplanned. Dialogue is divided in two parts interpersonal and transactional. The first is monologues. Monologues means that when one speaker uses spoken language, as in speeches, lectures’ readings, news broadcast, and the like, the hearer must process long stretches of speech without interrupting – the stream of speech will go on whether or not the hearer comprehends. In planned, as it opposed to unplanned, monologue differs considerably in their discourse structures.

The second is dialogue, dialogue involves two or more speakers and can be subdivided into those exchanges that promote social relationship (interpersonal) and those for which the purpose is to convey proportional or factual information (transactional). Transactional dialogue, which is carried out for the purpose of conveying or exchanging specific information is an extended form of responsive language. Conversation, for example, may have more of a negotiate nature to them than does responsive speech.

C.      Concept of Picture 

In teaching learning process of second foreign language, including the learners should be given how to learn English and the teacher should be able to create interesting situation so that the students can learn and understand the materials. Therefore picture as a kind of visual aids are expected to be able to help the students in learning the target language.

Picture is a representative on canvas, paper or surface produce by painting, drawing or photography. Picture is as a media to attach any objects which are considered valuable to support presentation of a lesson. Based on the statement above, picture media will be helpful to learn speaking because picture can give the meaning of something and increase their way of thinking which is orderly and continuously. A picture is a flat visual representation of an object, person, or view and its main purpose is to draw attention to or emphasize a certain thing.

Literally, picture is painting, drawing, sketch of something especially work of art, Picture functions as media to attack any object which are considered valuable to support presentation of the lesson. The purpose of using pictures is to gain students’ interest toward the lesson taught not only in class but also outside the class.

Based on the theory above, picture is a two-dimensional visual that is used to clarify or show things, person, and place from area far outside students’ experiences. Picture will be very useful in the teaching learning processes if the teachers carefully and creatively prepare them, and then, they are used effectively to support the presentation of the lesson. The picture can give a good impression on students. Picture is one kind of media that can be used in teaching learning. The students especially in Elementary School interest with the lesson if the teacher uses media especially picture media in teaching language.


1.      The Criterion of Good Picture:
The criteria of good picture are:
1.    The size of picture is about 30cm x 30cm so the students can see the picture clearly.
2.    The picture must be clear and interesting so the students who sit in the back can see the picture clearly.
3.    The picture must be simple, natural and appropriate to the level of the students so the students will not bore.
4.    The picture should be familiar to the students so the students enjoy in the teaching learning process.

D.    Concept of Flash Card

A flashcard is used as a learning tool. It usually has a question on one side and an answer on the other side. People usually use flashcards to help them memorize learning materials, such as vocabulary and formula, etc. In 1970, a German researcher, Sebastian Leitner, proposed the Leitner system, which uses flashcards efficiently. The system sorts flashcards into groups depending on how well the learner knows each card. The learner tries to recall the solution written on the flash card. If the answer is correct, learner puts the card into the next group.
Flash cards are a really handy resource to have and can be useful at every stage of the class. They are a great way to present, practice and recycle vocabulary and when students become familiar with the activities used in class, they can be given out to early-finishers to use in small groups. The researcher gets the students to make their own short dialogue based on the flash cards. Multiple intelligence theory reminds teachers that there are many types of learners within any one class. Gardner's research indicates that teachers should aim to appeal to all the different learner types at some point during the course. It is particularly important to appeal to visual learners, as a very high proportion of learners have this type of intelligence.

A flashcard or flash card is a set of cards bearing information, as words or numbers, on either or both sides, used in classroom drills or in private study. One writes a question on a card and an answer overleaf. Flashcards can bear vocabulary, historical dates, formulas or any subject matter that can be learned via a question and answer format. Flashcards are widely used as a learning drill to aid memorization by way of spaced repetition. Flash cards can be effective teaching tools for many types of skills for elementary aged children and older students.

A flash card is a little piece of paper, the size of a business card, which has on one side a new word in a language you're learning, and on the other side a word in your mother tongue.  Flashcards remain one of the best tools for memorizing information. Students can simply make the question on one side and the answer on the opposite side and test themselves repeatedly. However, there are several ways to modify this process to enhance the learning experience.

a.      History
Paper flashcards have been used since at least the 19th century, with Reading Disentangled (1834), a set of phonics flashcards by American educator Favell Lee Mortimer being credited by some as the first flashcards. Previously, a single-sided hornbook had been used for early literacy education. The Leitner system for scheduling flashcards was introduced by German scientific journalist Sebastian Leitner in the 1970s, specifically his 1972 So lernt man lernen. Der Weg zum Erfolg (How to learn to learn), while the SuperMemo program and algorithm (specifically the SM-2 algorithm, which is the most popular in other programs) was introduced on December 13th, 1987 by Polish researcher Piotr Woźniak.
b.      Steps of Using Flash Card
  1. Sit comfortably facing the students.
  2. Arrange the flash cards in the order to present them.
  3. Starting with the first flash card, hold it up so students can clearly see the front. Keep the back of the flash card toward you so students cannot see it.
  4. Read the flash card front to students. For example, the researcher may read a math problem or a question from the flash card front. Wait three full seconds.  The researcher did not need a timer to use flash cards. The researcher could count three seconds silently by saying, “one thousand one, one thousand two, one thousand three” at a normal speaking pace. This would allow students about three seconds to consider the question on the flash card and think about their answers.
  5. If students gave a correct answer, the researcher placed the correctly answered flash card in a pile on the researcher’s left.
  6. If students gave an incorrect response or no response, the researcher told to students the correct answer, and placed these flash cards in a pile on the researcher right side.
  7. After the researcher had finished showing students all of the flash cards, the researcher may continue flash card teaching session by using the stack of incorrectly answered cards. Continue in the same manner, placing correctly answered flash cards on the left and incorrectly answered flash cards on the right.
  8. Once students had mastered the full set of flash cards, practice the students periodically to ensure students to remember the flash cards. 
c.       Activities for using flash cards

I have divided the activities into the following categories: Memory, drilling, identification and TPR activities as follow:
1.      Memory Activities
a.       Place a selection of flash cards on the floor in a circle.
b.       Students have one minute to memorize the cards.
c.        In groups, they have two minutes to write as many of the names as they can remember.
2.      Drilling Activities
a.       Stick 9 flash cards on the board and draw a grid around them.
b.       Use a pen or a pointer to drill the 9 words. The researcher pointed to the flash card the researcher drilling.
c.        The researcher gradually removed the flash cards but continue to drill and point to the grid where the flash card was.
d.       When the first card is removed and you point to the blank space, nod the researcher head to encourage students to say the word of the removed flash card.
e.        Students should remember and continue as if the flash cards were still there. They seem to be amazed that they can remember the pictures.
f.        Depending on the age group I then put the flash cards back in the right place on the grid, asking the children where they go, or I ask students to come up and write the word in the correct place on the grid.
3.      Identification Activities
a.       Cover the flash card or word card with a piece of card and slowly reveal it.
b.       Students guess which one it is.
c.        Once the card is shown, chorally drill the word with the group using different intonation and silly voices to keep it fun. Vary the volume too, whisper and shout the words. Children will automatically copy your voice.
d.       Alternatively, flip the card over very quickly so the children just get a quick glimpse.
e.        Repeat until they have guessed the word.

E.       Concept of Media

The word media comes from the Latin medius, which literally means the middle, intermediate, or an introduction. But more specifically, understanding the media in the learning process is defined as the means graphic, photographic, or electronic means to capture, process, and rearrange the visual or verbal information. Media also can be defined as everything that can be used to distribute messages, stimulate thoughts, feelings, concerns, and the willingness of students, so that they can engage in a process driven learning. Media is anything that can be used to send messages and can stimulate the mind can generate excitement, attention, and the willingness of students that can foster students' self learning process.

F.       Concept of Teaching Speaking

At the elementary school level, the first priorities in English classes are for students to gain a lasting interest in the English language and to speak as much as possible. Teaching speaking means teaching how to use language for   communication, for transferring ideas, thought or even feeling to other people. Speaking is developed from the first contact with the language that we learn, because by speaking we can transfer out idea to order people. It is clear that language is very important. We cannot only teach what will be spoken but also the situation that we deal with. The teacher teaches speaking by carry out the students in certain situation concerning the topics discusses. The topic must be familiar to the students, so that ideas and the organization are clear and the learners have an oral command of the language need to describe the topic.

From the explanation above, the researcher assumed that in teaching speaking, teacher should give the situation and opportunity to students in order that they will see the real think because any single utterance always reflect to condition of speaker without being afraid to communicating with other students to tell their ideas, experience or feeling in this case the researchers propose teaching speaking by using picture media.

G.      Theoretical Assumption

Based on the description about relate theories and advantages of using picture of flash card in teaching speaking, the researcher assumes that picture of flash card gives positive influence in increasing students’ speaking ability of the sixth year of SD N 2 Sabah Balau Bandar Lampung.

H.      Hypothesis of Action

Referring to the theories and the theoretical assumption above the researcher formulated hypothesis action: there is increase of students’ speaking ability through picture of flash card at the sixth year of SD N 2 Sabah Balau Bandar Lampung.


CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

A.      Research Design
The method used in this research is Classroom Action Research (CAR). This study was taken to obtain detail information by doing some actions which were deal with the problems occurred. Action research is any systematic inquiry conducted by teacher researcher to gather information with the goal improving students’ outcome this study also attempted to describe the events or the real conditions that happened in elementary school of SD N 2 Sabah Balau Bandar Lampung. The research was conducted from 18 July-18 September 2011.

Action research is usually a collaborative activity - involving input from people who are likely to be affected by the research. Action research is the application of fact finding into problem solving to improve the quality of action within it, which involve the collaboration of researcher, practitioners and laymen. Action research is a process by which change and understanding can be pursued at the one time; usually described as cyclic. Kemmis and McTaggart suggest that the fundamental components of action research include the following: (1) developing a plan for improvement, (2) implementing the plan, (3) observing and documenting the effects of the plan, and (4) reflecting on the effects of the plan for further planning and informed action. The steps will be explained below.
Cycle 1
1.    Planning
The researcher prepared the material by picture of flash card. Then introduced about picture. The research condition of student, took the absence of student and say greeting.
2.    Acting
The researcher put the picture of flash card on the blackboard and read loudly. The students were asked to answer the question aloud about the picture one by one.
3.    Observing
In this part the researcher observed that they had problem in their speaking.
4.    Reflecting
They were problems in bad speaking and have not enough encourages to speak loudly. 


Cycle 2
1.    Planning
The researcher made lesson plan based on the reflection from the first cycle.
2.    Acting
The researcher conducted teaching learning process through picture of flash card based on the reflection result in the first cycle.
3.    Observation and evaluation
The researcher conducted the observation toward students’ learning activity through picture of flash card.
4.    Reflecting
The researcher conducted the reflection toward the second cycle, analyzed and concluded the conduction Increasing Students’ Speaking Ability through Picture at the Sixth Years of SD N 2 Sabah Balau Bandar Lampung.

B.       Research Subject
The population of this research was the sixth grade of the SD N 2 Sabah Balau Bandar Lampung. There is one class of the sixth year. It is applied based on the consideration that every student has the same opportunity to be selected and in other to avoid the subjectivity in the research. In this research, the subject of the research was students of the sixth grade of the SD N 2 Sabah Balau Bandar Lampung. There were 12 male students and 8 female students. In Classroom Action Research, population and sample were not used. “ …penelitian tinadakan kelas tidak mengenal populasi dan sampel, karena dampak perlakuan bagi subjek yang dikenai tindakan saja. Dengan kata lain, hasil penelitian tindakan kelas hanya berlaku bagi kasus yang diteliti” 

C.    Research Procedure

According to Lewin that is explained by Kemmis said that: cycle in the spiral form of CAR can be stopped if substantive action has been evaluated well. Either researcher or collaborator has mastered the teaching skill that is implemented in the research. For the researcher, cycle can be stopped if the data is saturated or class is stable.

On this session the researcher explained the set of planning action, involving: what, why, when, where, who, and how concerning the action that was carried out. The researcher had set the planning action two weeks before implemented the action.
1.      Planning
In the classroom action research, teacher and observer are two different persons. That is why CAR considered collaborative research. It is intended for maintain the objectivity in measuring, valuing, and deciding actions in achieving the best result. There should be an agreement between the researcher and the observer when  planning the action research. The plan should be implemented together by the researcher who is conducting the action and the observer who is observing the research process. It is aimed at avoiding observation subjectivity and assuring the quality of the research. In implementing the action research, the researcher performed as teacher while the English teacher performed as observer. On this planning session the researcher decided which phenomenon needs special attention. After that the researcher made the research instruments as tools of observation to record findings and evidence along the action research. Next, the findings and evidence of the research are called data. The activities of this session involve the followings:
a.       Identifying and analyzing problem. The researcher has found that the lack of students’ speaking skill in Sixth Years of SD N 2 Sabah Balau Bandar Lampung is a main problem in English learning.
b.      Determining reason. It described why the researcher was conducting the action research. The research was conducted because the researcher found many serious problems, that is, if the students cannot answer, respond, get or share information with the teacher or peers using speaking skill sufficiently the teaching and learning process will be obstructed.
c.       Arranging problem solving. The researcher has chosen Picture of flash card  as the solution to enhance the students’ speaking skill in the classroom.
d.      Arranging tools on how to examine the action hypothesis. The researcher used discussion and spoken test to examine the action hypothesis. The researcher also used class discussion to measure the students’ progress.
e.       Making action plan
This main action plan was used to avoid a waste of time in implementing the actions of the research
2.      Action
On this session, the Picture of flash card and the lesson plan for the instructional process was implemented. The procedure of the lesson plan includes the followings: (1) step by step procedure of the instructional process using Picture of flash card (2) activities that would be taken by the teacher along the instructional process using Picture of flash card (3) activities that would be conducted by the students along instructional process using Picture of flash card (4) the details of the instructional media and procedure on how to use them in the instructional process using Picture of flash card (5) types of the instruments and observation forms that were used to collect information and data of the research.
3.      Observation
This session was conducted along with the implementation of the action research. On this session the observer conducted the observation and taken notes all of things needed for data analysis. Data collection was conducted by the observer using observation forms which were filled in along the instructional process. The data are involve the followings: (1) the progress of students’ English speaking in the classroom Picture of flash card, (2) the instructional process using Picture of flash card, (3) the result of students’ learning (4) the students’ learning behavior and response toward the instructional process using Picture of flash card Data collection were both quantitative (score of the students’ discussion and spoken test result) and qualitative (the students’ activities, enthusiasm, and the comprehension of learning strategy taught by the researcher to the students in instructional process using Picture of flash card).
4.      Reflection
This session was conducted by the researcher and the observer to comprehensively examine, investigate, and analyze the action results collected by the observer. The reflection results or conclusions were used as the source for the next action cycle. Bellow is diagram cycle of CAR
D.    Data Collecting Technique
1.      Observation
Observation involved some forms of observation of learning process. The first is observation which was conducted before the cycle to reveal the real condition in the class and problems faced by the students in learning speaking. Then observation during the cycle, it was used to establish objective data concerning what happens in the classroom. It was chosen because it is suitable to enclose the whole observation aspects in the research. It concerns to the improvement of teaching and learning in classroom. For the students, it used table of students’ activities in learning process. It concerns to their engagement during the learning process.
2.      Test
Spoken tests were administered to measure the improvement of the students’ speaking skill including fluency, pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary and comprehension. The assessment of speaking performance needed to be tested to investigate the validity and reliability. It should be tried out before the teaching learning process. According to Richards the assessment becomes valid when the test assesses what it claims to assess and what has been taught.

Face and content validity were used in the research to find out the validity of the assessment. Actual speaking sample and the relevantly to the students’ speaking needs becomes the basic of the assessment that indicate the face validity. Then, to check the content validity, the task should be appropriate with the students’ level of proficiency which is assessed by an objective comparison in the test with content-based in curriculum. For the reliability, it can be done by choosing the topic and genre, giving clear instruction and ensuring the assessment is familiar for the students.

The scoring system employed to assess the students’ speaking skill. It can help pinpoint the student’s strengths and weakness even though the conversation isn’t long enough. The format of scoring system can be seen below:

E.     Research Instrument
a.       Test:
The researcher used the spoken test to measure students’ Speaking ability. Pretest was administered before the teaching learning process. Spoken test was the product of the teaching learning process. The test was conducted orally and directly. The test was in the form of short dialogue based on the topic in lesson plan. The result of this test was considered as the data of student’s speaking ability improvement. The researcher used scoring system spoken test above to assess students’ speaking ability. If the table represented the materials that the researcher was going to test, then it was considered as a valid test.
b.      Observation.
The researcher used observation sheet to assess students learning activity in English teaching learning process. Observation is important for assessing physical and social skill, work habit, attitudes, interest, and self management.The observation sheet was filled out by researcher during the process of teaching and learning. The researcher took a note on student’s activities and the process of the teaching and learning in the classroom reflected in the pre-activity, while activity and post activity. The making of the observation sheet was based on the procedure as written in lesson plan so that it fulfilled the requirement of content validity. The observation sheet was used to determine whether the students were active in class or not.
F.     Data Analysis
Data analysis was the process of organizing the data in order to gain regularity of pattern and form of the phenomena observed in the research. The term interpretation defined as a procedure of giving meaning to the result of analytic process. Data analysis was an effort to choose, examine, eliminate, categorize and arrange the result of research to answer the problem, so the researcher delivered and used for the reader. The researcher tried out to increase validity of data and the observation by using triangulation of source that is by gathering from the researcher and students and triangulation of instrument that is by using spoken test and observation. The researcher used analysis data as follow:

1.    Analysis of Data from Test
In comparing the students’ speaking performance in each cycle, it used scoring technique that employed scoring system from the student oral language observation matrix to make the assessor easier to give the score for each aspect of speaking in very specific range and criterion. Then the result of the test was analyzed by using descriptive statistics because the data cannot be used for generalizing results beyond the context and research participants. Descriptive statistic fit in well with the local and specific characteristic of action research. It used measures of central tendency that reduce the numbers to find the mean of the numerical values for comparing students’ speaking performance in each cycle.

The research was conducted in two cycles with seventy minutes duration for each meeting. The research stopped when some progress in students’ behavior especially in their speaking skill was appeared and also the 70% of students’ speaking score achieved the minimum completion score (KKM). The minimum completion score (Kriteria Ketuntasan Minimum) of the sixth grade of elementary school in this school is 60. It was also expected that the mean of their score achieved the minimum completion score.

To see the percentage of students who gets ≥ 60, the formula is:
Number of students who get score ≥ 60  X 100%
    Total number of students
The score of each point is multiplied by four;
Hence, the highest score is 100
Here is identification of the scores.
If the students gets     5, so 5 x 4 = 20
                                    4, so 4 x 4 = 16
                                    3, so 3 x 4 = 12
                                    2, so 2 x 4 = 8
                                    1, so 1 x 4 = 4



2.    Analysis of Data from observation
To analyze data from observation, researcher categorize the data in some categories related to the use of picture of flash card in helping students improve their speaking skill during the teaching learning process in the class and their response toward the use of picture of flash card in teaching speaking. Then the data were interpreted to answer research question. The data was collected in every observation activity from each cycles, it was analyzed interactively using percentage technique to know the tendency of every teaching learning process with the steps as follows:
1.    Data reduction, the activity to select the data that is suitable with the focus of the problem. In this step the researcher will discard the irrelevant data.
2.    Data description, the activity to explain the data in order to be meaningful. Data description can be finished in the form of narrative, graphic or table.
3.    Data conclusion, the activity to conclude the data. After analyzing the data, the researcher will make a conclusion.




CHAPTER IV
RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS

This is classroom action research conducted in two cycles. The researcher decided to hold it in two cycles since the indicators of the research had already been achieved at the second cycle. The finding of the research will be discussed in this chapter.

A. Result of the Cycle 1

The objective of this research was to find out whether there is a significant difference of the increase students’ speaking ability before and after pre test and post test. The research was conducted at the sixth year of SD N 2 Sabah Balau Bandar Lampung. There was one class of sixth year in year 2010/2011. The researcher used subject and in her research. There was one class of the sixth year. The class consists of 20 students.



1.      Planning Action Cycle I
Based on the pre-observation and diagnostic result on the students’ speaking skill in the sixth year of SD N 2 Sabah Balau Bandar Lampung, the researcher decided to Picture of flash card to enhance the students’ speaking skill. Before implementing the action cycle I, the researcher had already arranged the action plan. The action plan consisted of picture of flash card which substituted the prevailing instructional strategy using student work sheet (LKS) and teacher-centered method.

In the action cycle I the researcher implemented picture of flash card approach involving constructivism, inquiry, questioning, learning community, modeling, reflection, and authentic assessment to subject material. The action plan procedure in the action cycle I as follows:
a.       Arranged the lesson plan considering the schedule of English lesson in the class.
b.      Adjusted the lesson plan and English speaking material with reference to the School-Based Curriculum (KTSP) for the sixth year of elementary school. The standard competences of speaking for the sixth year of elementary school are the followings: making expressions in transactional text or spoken monolog especially in expression of like and dislike. While the indicators involve the followings: students can make transactional speech and spoken text.


c.       Prepared English speaking material, instructional media, and task
d.      Prepared observation forms to record and observe the students’ behavior toward the instructional process using Picture of flash card (observation sheet is attached.)

2.      The Implementation of Action Cycle I
The implementation of classroom action research in cycle I was conducted in the sixth grade of SD N 2 Sabah Balau Bandar Lampung. The implementation of the action cycle I are the followings:
(1)   Pre Activity
On pre activity session, the researcher arranged the class to make sure about the readiness of teaching and learning process. On this session, the researcher performed as a teacher accompanied by the English teacher who performed as an observer. At the beginning of the teaching and learning process, the researcher greeted the students, followed by asking news. This session was a chance for the researcher to attract the students’ attention and give them motivation to get through the instructional activity.
Then, the researcher checked the students’ attendance list. When conducted the action cycle I there were 20 from 20 students present in the classroom. Next, to attract the student’s attention, the researcher asked their news and feelings. The researcher also asked the students’ readiness to follow the lesson activities using motivating utterances, such as: “How are you doing now? Unfortunately, at first the researcher found some students uncomfortable to start studying. The researcher thought that they were just tired because the English lesson started after the other lesson. So, to refresh the students’ energy and spirit, the researcher asked them to get relaxation. The researcher asked them to stand up, stretch their bodies and take a deep breath. After that, the researcher prepared the instructional media, observation forms, and instruments to encourage the process of instruction and the research progress. After the situation had been under control, the researcher tactically drew upon the students into apperception session. The researcher asked the students about the last meeting materials in order to review and connect it to that day’s lesson material. Afterward, the researcher gave the students lesson reference that will be taught in the instructional process.
(2)    Main Activity
Generally, the implementation of Picture of flash card in the instructional process to enhance the students’ speaking skill went into some steps. They are the followings:
Step 1, motivated the students;
Step 2, prepared instructional media;
Step 3, implemented the picture of flash card to enhance the students’ speaking skill;
Step 4, conducted test;
Step 5, conducted reflection.
(3)   Closing Activity
On step five or closing activity the researcher gave the students score and reward to whom actively participated in the instructional process. The reward patched on the board while the score was noted on the researcher’s daily evaluation book. Because here were many students still had not get involved to the lesson activities actively or still passive, the researcher initiated to give individual work. Next, the researcher asked some students to conclude the lesson carried out on that day’s instructional process picture of flash card in increasing the students’ speaking skill.

Afterward, the researcher also gave the students a chance to ask some questions concerning the material and activities. After that, the researcher together with the students concluded the lesson materials that had been learned. If there was a mistake either in the lesson activities or about the students’ behavior along the teaching and learning process the researcher gave the students a direction, correction, and justification. At the last, the researcher gave the students reference for the next meeting material. And finally, the class was closed by praying and greeting.


3.      Observation Result of Action Cycle I
After finishing the implementation of picture of flash card in increasing the students’ speaking skill in cycle I, the researcher conducted meeting in order to discuss the observation result. The observation’s and test’s results are the followings:
In student’s attention, there are 5 students with very good intention, there are 11 students with good intention, and there are 4 students with good enough intention. In the students attention, there are 2 students with very good participation, there are 14 students with good enough participation, and there are 4 students with bad attention.

Below is the graphic and table of students’ English speaking lesson using picture of flash card:
From the data of the students’ test result above, the average score of class six was 54. The score dominated by 6 students or 30% who got score 48. It showed that the students’ speaking skill and comprehension unsatisfied. Otherwise, there were 5 students or 25% got score 60. There were 5 students or 25% who got score 60, while 1 student got score 68 and 4 students who got score 64. The minimum score was 44 got by another 2 students or 10%. From the data above the researcher concluded that the students speaking’ skill was not good enough and need to be enhanced. It was proven by the only 5 students who got score 68 and 5 students who got 60 and the low of minimum score was at 60. It was not fulfill the minimum completion score (KKM). There was 50% who got higher than KKM It is 70% of students’ speaking score achieved the minimum completion score (KKM). The minimum completion score (Kriteria Ketuntasan Minimum) of the sixth grade of elementary school in this school is 60.
4.       Reflection of Action Cycle I
The conclusions of the action cycle I result are the following:
First, the researcher has to make the students more aware about the important of English speaking skill and its benefits. The researcher also has to encourage the students to participate actively in the class discussion to enhance their speaking skill. Second, the researcher has to design the picture of flash card to be more comfortable for teaching and learning activities in order to support the process of instructions. Third, the researcher and the observer have to review the syllabus and the lesson plan whether it is appropriate or not for the students’ needs and abilities.

It is intended to achieve the instructional objectives and the standard competence. Fourth, the researcher has to adjust the time allocation in using the instructional media properly to avoid a waste of time. Fifth, along the instructional process, the students have to be more active, creative, and brave in expressing feeling and ideas. Sixth, in the discussion and presentation process, the class has to favorable in order to support valuation process. Seventh, the students who can state their opinions, express ideas, or give conclusion in front of the class should be given extra reward (for example candy or a piece of cake) in order to support the students’ motivation. Eight, to increase the students’ motivation and appreciation, the researcher should patch the best instructional media or paper which considered interesting on the wall. It also will help the students memorize the material for the next session.
B.     Result of Cycle 2
1.       Planning of Action Cycle 2
Based on the reflection result in the action cycle I, the researcher acquired the conclusion and recommendation. The researcher used them as the source to design the planning action for the cycle 1. Like on the cycle I the action plan in cycle II also implemented the picture of flash card in the instructional process to enhance the students’ speaking skill. Below is the action plan procedure in the action cycle 2:
1.      Arranged the lesson plan about the schedule of English lesson in the class.
2.      Adjusted the lesson plan and English speaking material with reference to the School-Based Curriculum (KTSP) for grade sixth elementary school. The standard competences of speaking for grade sixth elementary school involve the followings: making expressions in transactional text or spoken monolog especially in like and dislike expression. While the indicators involve the followings: students can make transactional speech and spoken text such as like and dislike expression. In addition, the instructional objectives are involved: improving the students’ communicative skill in English language especially spoken accurately and fluently. The students can respond or answer question using English appropriately. The students can understand the information given by the teacher or other students.
3.      Prepared English speaking material, instructional media, and task
4.      Prepared test (spoken test) to measure the students’ achievement and learning progress in the instructional process using picture of flash card in the action
cycle 2.
5.       Prepared observation forms to record and observe the students’ behavior toward the instructional process using picture of flash card (observation sheet is attached.)
6.      Prepared the observation form to record and observe the teacher (the researcher) and the students’ activities in the instructional process using picture of flash card (observation form is attached.)
2.       Implementation of Action Cycle 2
The implementation of the classroom action research cycle 2 was conducted in class six SD N 2 Sabah Balau Bandar Lampung. The implementation of the action cycle 2 as follows:
(1)   Pre Activity
On this session, the researcher arranged the class situation in order to make sure the readiness of teaching and learning process. On this session, the researcher performed as teacher accompanied by the English teacher who performed as observer. At the beginning of the teaching and learning process, the researcher greeted the students, followed by asking news. This session was a chance for the researcher to attract the students’ attention and give them motivation to get through the instructional activity. Then, the researcher checked the students’ attendance list. When conducting the action cycle 2 there were 20 from 20 students present in the classroom. Next, to attract the student’s attention, the researcher asked their news and feelings.

The researcher also asked the students’ readiness to follow the lesson activities using motivating utterances, such as: “Hello bright stars!” “How are you doing now? I smell a beautiful strong spirit. It is knocking my chest… I feel today is the best time for us to study,” “are you guys ready to study now? (3 times, followed by laughing)” (The researcher acted as an actor Jim Carry). Students answered the question by saying “yes…” Unfortunately, at first the researcher found some students uncomfortable to start studying. The researcher thought that they were just tired because the English lesson started after the other lesson. So, to refresh the students’ energy and spirit, the researcher asked them to get relaxation. The researcher asked them to stand up, stretch their bodies and take a deep breath. After that, the researcher prepared the instructional media, observation forms, and instruments to support the process of instructional and the research progress. The media and instrument for the cycle 2 are module, student worksheet, board marker, observation sheet, the students’ attendance list, score board, and picture complete with speaker active to encourage the students get relaxation and concentration when discussion

After the situation had been under control, the researcher tactically drew upon the class into apperception session. The researcher asked the students about the last meeting materials in order to review and connect it to that day’s lesson material. Afterward, the researcher gave the students lesson reference that would be taught in the instructional process
(2)   Main activity
As the planning action cycle I designed by the researcher before, the implementation of picture of flash card process in the cycle 2 went into some steps, the steps are the followings:
Step 1, motivated the students;
Step 2, prepared picture of flash card;
Step 3, implemented the picture of flash card in enhancing the students’ speaking skill;
Step 4, conducted test;
Step 5, conducted reflection.

Such as in cycle 1, to measure the students speaking progress, the material was about dislike and like expression. The steps are the followings:

At the very beginning, the researcher asked the students question about what like and dislike expression was. After three times the researcher asked the question, there was no answer from the students. To solve the problem and break an ice, the researcher divided the picture of flash card into three parts as follows:
a.       Picture of flash card: orange, star fruit, cucumber, carrot, guava, water guava, chili, pepper lettuce, tomato, tamarind, cheese, bread, butter, and water.
b.      Picture of flash card: basket ball, cat, rabbit, car, motorcycle, and ship.
c.       Carton paper.

The researcher explained and practiced the activities and followed by the students. After the students listened to the explanation, then the researcher asked the students to re-explain to their own in turns. After that, for the task, the researcher asked the students to make a short dialogue based on the picture that had been provided. The discussion result was presented in front of the class. The students’ performance considered as test in cycle 2. Along the picture of flash card, the researcher performed as a facilitator.

The researcher asked each students had presentation number to come forward and present their discussion result in turns. This activity was aimed to measure the students’ understanding and speaking skill especially accuracy and fluency. The researcher realized that every students had a different ability and characteristic in study English especially speaking. In order that, the action cycle 2 was aimed to improve the students’ motivation and input for the next learning process. While the learning process was carried on, the English teacher who performed as an observer conducted observation.
(3)   Closing
On step five or closing activity the researcher gave the students score and reward to whom actively participated in the instructional process. The reward patched on the board while the score noted on the researcher’s daily valuation book. On this cycle 2, the teaching and learning process showed the significant improvement. It was proven by the high of the students’ activity, participation and speaking intensity combined to the action cycle I. Next, the researcher asked some students to conclude the lesson and that day’s picture of flash card in enhancing the students’ speaking skill.

The researcher also gave the students a chance to ask some questions concerning the material and activities. After that, the researcher together with the students concluded the lesson materials that had been learned. If there was a mistake either in the lesson activities or the students’ behavior along the teaching and learning process the researcher gave the students a direction, correction, and justification. After that, the researcher gave a questionnaire to the students to be filled in. At the last, the researcher gave the students reference for the next meeting material. And finally, the class was closed by praying and greeting.

3.       Observation of Action Cycle 2
After finishing the implementation of picture of flash card in enhancing the students’ speaking skill in cycle 2, the researcher and the observer conducted meeting in order to discuss the observation result.
In student’s attention, there are 12 students with very good intention; there are 8 students with good intention. In the students’ attention, there are 11 students with very good participation; there are 9 students with good participation.


 From the data of the students’ test result above, the average score of class six was 75. The score dominated by 6 students or 45% who got score 80. Otherwise, there were 5 students or 52% got score 72. Other 2 students or 10% were got score 88, while the other 1 students or 5% were got score 92. Other student got 28 or 5%. The minimum score was 52 got by another 5 student or 25%. From the data above the researcher concluded that the students speaking’ skill was good and enhanced. It was proven by the average score which was got higher than minimum completion score (KKM) was 75% of all students. It was fulfill the minimum completion score (KKM). It is 70% of students’ speaking score achieved the minimum completion score (KKM). The minimum completion score (Kriteria Ketuntasan Minimum) of the sixth grade of elementary school in this school is 60.
4.      Reflection of action cycle 2

The conclusions of the action cycle 2 results are the followings:
First, the researcher has to make the students more aware about the important of English speaking skill and its benefits. The researcher also has to encourage the students to participate actively in the class discussion to enhance their speaking skill. Second, the researcher has to design the picture of flash card to be more interesting and comfortable for teaching and learning activities. Third, the researcher and the observer have to review the syllabus and the lesson plan whether the lesson is appropriate or not to the students’ needs and abilities.

It is intended to achieve the instructional objectives and the standard competence. Fourth, along the learning process, the students have to be more active, creative, and brave in expressing their feeling and ideas. Fifth, so far, the students’ participation and attention in speaking lesson showed significant improvement. In indicated by the students’ participation and activity along the learning process increased. The researcher task was to keep the atmosphere and to design material and lesson process to be more attractive so that the students get involve in the instructional process. Sixth, due to the students’ motivation and behavior to learn English speaking have been build, the researcher should choose lesson materials which encourage the students’ speaking progress properly. The researcher should keep the students’ spirit to speak English all the time. Seventh, the researcher proposed to the English teacher to declare ‘English day’ so that students should use and express their intentions by English all the time. It can stimulate students to use English habitually.




CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
A.  Conclusion

Having conducted the research at the sixth year of SD N 2 Sabah Balau Bandar Lampung and analyzing the data, the researcher would like to state some conclusions as follows: there was any significant difference of the increase students’ speaking ability through picture of flash card. It can be proved from the increase of the students’ mean score in the second cycle. There was an increase from the mean of the cycle 1 (50 % of students who got score higher than KKM) to cycle 2 (75 % of students who got score higher than KKM). Based on this result, the researcher concluded that teaching speaking through picture of flash card was considered better in increasing the students’ speaking ability.

B.     Suggestion

Considering the findings of the research, the research would like to purpose some suggestions as follows:
1.    Since there is increase on the students’ speaking ability taught through picture, English teacher are suggested to use this media as variation in teaching Speaking skill, so they are not bored to learn. For example using interesting and colorful picture as a media in the teaching learning process. Then the teacher may ask the students to describe about the picture familiar to them.
2.    The teacher should be give more attention to students who face the difficulty. For example, the teacher can combine picture and cassette when she teaches pronunciation or fluency. In the teaching learning process, the                        teacher plays the cassette so the students can hear the pronunciation. It is better if the teacher uses the voice of native speaker



 

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INCREASE OF STUDENTS’ SPEAKING ABILITY USING PICTURE OF FLASH CARD AT THE SIXTH YEARS OF SDN 2 SABAH BALAU BANDAR LAMPUNG

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