Thursday, February 14, 2013

CONTOH SKRIPSI BAHASA INGGRIS THE CORRELATION BETWEEN STUDENTS’ ACTIVITY IN WATCHING ENGLISH TV PROGRAMS AND STUDENT’S VOCABULARY MASTER


CONTOH SKRIPSI BAHASA INGGRIS  THE CORRELATION BETWEEN STUDENTS’ ACTIVITY IN WATCHING ENGLISH TV PROGRAMS AND STUDENT’S
VOCABULARY MASTERY: THE CASE OF THE FOURTH
SEMESTER STUDENT OF ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
SEMARANG STATE UNIVERSITY



CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.1 General Background of the Study
Brumfit (1981: 1) stated that English is an international language and the most widespread medium of communication, both because of the number and geographical areas of its speakers and because of the large number of non native speakers who use it for part of their international contact. Thus, it is not surprising that the teaching of English is carried out in many parts of the
world. For example, our country Indonesia treats English as the first foreign  language. English has some important roles in the development of Indonesia, such as it is used as an instrument in developing modern science and technology sources using English in their explanation to help people around the world in learning them. English is one of the international languages used as a means of communication among nations in the world. It is used in international trade, tourism and other important international affairs. Indonesian language is a mother tongue, thus, English language is not used commonly in a daily life by Indonesian people. Therefore, to consider the
important role of English, the Indonesian government positions English as the first foreign language. Realizing the importance of English in our country, many people in Indonesia are learning the language. They learn it for many different purposes such as business, science, technology, and communication and also for education. Besides having different purposes in learning the language, people also have different sources in learning it. Most of them learn the language in formal education such as: schools, college and universities. In our country, English has been taught as a compulsory subject since the students are in the Junior High School until the University. It is also taught in some Elementary Schools and Kindergartens in Indonesia as local content from now on. In addition to learning the language in formal education, people also learn it in non-formal education. English courses and private lessons are the examples of non-formal education institutions existing in our country. People can choose one of them that are suitable with their purpose and funds. Although they are learning the language from different sources, they have a same basic wish in their learning process that they want to get a success on it in realizing their wish; they use some media that can help them in the learning process. These media can be books, magazines, newspapers, cassettes, radios and also television. Television is one of the mass media that can also be used as a medium in learning English. Why television? Because it is an interesting and enjoyable medium to learn anything. The audience can learn anything they have not known before watching television, because it always offers something actual and new to them through its programs. As it is mentioned by Vernon S Gerlach / Donald P. Ely (1980:354) “Television is an electronic system of transmitting still and moving images with accompany in sound over a wire or through space. The system employs equip that converts lights and sound into electrical impulses and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible
sound”. From the quotation we know that the audience at home can know and learn anything new and actual in the world through television. It is like a magic box that gives something wonderful to its audience through its programs.
As one of the mass media, it gives so many benefits to its audience, such as excitement, information and also knowledge. There are many kinds of knowledge that can be obtained by them by watching television programs, for example knowledge of environment, medicine, law, politic, culture and also language. As it is mentioned on the previous paragraph, television can be used as a medium to learning a foreign language, for example English language. It can happen because television broadcast programs that are broadcast on their television channels. The programs are broadcast everyday on television, from morning until night, of course on specific times. This condition is very useful for the English learners in Indonesia, included the students of the English Department of Semarang State University because they can use the programs to add their English knowledge. There are many English skills and knowledge that can be learned by
the students by watching English TV programs, such as listening, speaking and also knowledge of vocabulary. There are many vocabularies that can be learning by them by watching the programs, because the programs provide so many vocabularies of many different fields. They can learn vocabularies of environment, social life, law, politic, education etc from those programs. It is important for them to have a large vocabulary because of the four English skills such as listening, reading, speaking and writing need a large vocabulary. Mastering it will help them to improve the other English knowledge, as it is mentioned by Charles B. Jennings (1978: 4): “If you already have an interest in words (vocabulary) using them can improve your reading, writing, talking, and thinking”. From the quotation above, we can take a reference that the basic component, which must be mastered by them to get a success in learning English is vocabulary. They will find some difficulties in their learning process without mastering it, since most learning activities such as listening, reading, thinking and talking need a large and solid vocabulary. As it is stated by Micheal Bennet (1991:63) “Yet everyone, especially the English learners’ need a large vocabulary to succeed in their learning process because reading and listening are the ways they learn”. The students of English Department of Semarang State University as a part of English learners in Indonesia should also have a large vocabulary. Especially because they will become teachers in the future. As teachers, they should have a good English knowledge because they will teach many students and they should be responsible for their teaching. Moreover, they have a duty to correct the mistakes that have been done by their students during the learning process. Therefore, they really should have a good quality in English
correcting the students’ mistakes is not an easy work, since they should know both the source of mistakes itself and the correct form. They can not do this duty, if they have not a good English knowledge. It is really needed by them to become English teachers. Since this profession has a heavy responsibility; both, responsibility for the result and the responsibility for the learning process itself. Relating to the matter, English students of Semarang State University really must have a good quality in English. They can start to reach it by having a large vocabulary because it helps them to master other English skills. Moreover, it is also helps them in communicating with the teachers, other people and with their students. It is really needed in a communication, as it is mentioned by Canale and Swain in Jack Richard and W. Schmidt (1983: 5) “Communicative competence was understood as the underlying system of knowledge and skill required for communication, e.g. knowledge of vocabulary and skill in using the sociolinguistics of convention for a given language”. From the quotation above, we know that mastery of the vocabulary of a foreign language is the most required thing for communication. Nasr (1975:57) stated that language is used to communicate ideas and experiences and vocabulary is an element in a language that expresses units in our experiences. Realizing this fact, the writer thinks that English TV programs are good media for the English students’ of Semarang State University to enrich their vocabularies, also expression from those programs. They can get that thing that they do not get in their classes and textbooks. It is good for them to learn English language out of campus because it can help them in their English learning process. Their English will develop better if they also learn it out of campus. This fact will open their eyes that they should learn from many different sources if they want to get a success in learning English. They can not learn from one source only. Furthermore, learning English out of campus will help them in conducting communication in English, because out of campus they can learn how to practice their English. Moreover they can know that English in daily communication is slightly different from English in the textbooks. Realizing this fact, learning and listening from people who have a good quality in English is the right way for them to add their English knowledge. They can increase English skills and knowledge, such as speaking and vocabulary by listening them. Listening to the people who have a better speech style, such as lecturers, presenters, teachers and eminent public figures is a good way for them to build a large vocabulary. It is mentioned by Michael Bennet (1991: 63) “That listening to intelligent people or native speakers is another good way to acquire a solid vocabulary”. Furthermore, he stated that the context of spoken language is ever more helpful than of written language. Since it includes body language, facial expression and intonation (stress, pitch and juncture) to help the learners to understand the meaning intended by the speaker (J Michael Bennet, 1991:63). Based on the statements above, we know that one of the ways in learning vocabulary is by listening to the people who have a better knowledge and speech style than we have. Relating to this matter, English TV Programs are exactly the right media for the students of English Department Semarang State University to enrich their vocabulary. It contains things that fulfill the requirements for a good way in building a rich vocabulary. It also contains spoken language, which is supported by facial expression and also the right intonation of the announcers, actors, and actresses of the programs that condition will help the English students in understanding the words or the sentences that are spoken by them by seeing their factual expression and intonation. In this way, the English students can guess the meaning of an unfamiliar word first before they know exactly the appropriate meaning of the word. In addition, English TV Programs also help the English Students of Semarang State University to learn the vocabulary in its context. So, they really know how to use the word that exists in the program in daily life. Moreover, they can understand that a word has different meaning according to its context. For example, the word ‘cool’ has different meaning when it is used in music and climax contexts. In the first context it means good or wonderful. Meanwhile, in the second context it means chilly. From this example, we know that context is the most important thing in determining the meaning of a word. It is also helps them in understanding a meaning of an unfamiliar word without looking it up in the dictionary, Albert J. Harris and Edward R. Sibay(1981: 139) mentioned “We can deduce the meanings of many words without looking them up in a dictionary or other word book by studying them in context, in the sentence which they use in a part”. Furthermore, Perrin(1957) also has the same opinion about the meaning of the words, as it is cited by Gray C. Jack (1963:1) that words have meaning only in a particular statements. From the two statements above, we can conclude that two better ways to understand the meaning of words are by studying them in their context and studying them in a particular statement. Relating to the matter, the writer considers that English TV programs are really good media for the students of the English Department of Semarang State University to learn vocabulary in their contexts, so they will not get a difficulty in choosing words in conducting communication in English In this thesis, the writer wants to discuss the significant correlation between the students’ activity in watching English TV programs and their vocabulary mastery. She takes the fourth semester English students of Semarang State University to be examined because thinks that students in this grade already have enough English knowledge to follow the programs. She considers that the program is a really good program for them in building the vocabulary. She hopes that she can find any significant correlation between two things above because she has a hypothesis that there is a correlation between them. To prove her opinion, then she conducted this research.

1.2 Reason for Choosing the Topic
The following are the reasons of choosing the topic:
1.2.1 The importance of vocabulary mastery for English students.
She realizes that vocabulary mastery in an important thing for English students because a large vocabulary is needed by them to get a success in their English learning process. Although there are four language skills, Such as listening, reading, speaking, writing are started by vocabulary so it is a first thing that English students must be familiar with.
1.2.2 The importance of the context and spoken language in learning the vocabulary.
She considers that context is the first thing that should be noticed by the English students in learning vocabulary. It helps them in using the vocabulary in communication. They will find some difficulties about how to choose an appropriate vocabulary in daily life without understanding the context. Furthermore, she also realizes that spoken language- especially from the people who have good speech style is also a good way to enrich vocabulary. It is good since facial expression, intonation and good performance of the speakers, will help the students in understanding their speech, support it. She considers that English to programs contain those entire things. Moreover, they also contain so many interesting things. Therefore, students will not get boredom in learning vocabulary if they use the program. Furthermore, she has an opinion that there is a significant correlation between students’ activity in watching English TV program on their vocabulary mastery. So, she chooses this topic in her thesis. The writer wants to know whether there is the significant correlation between students’ activity in watching English TV programs on the student’s vocabulary of English Department of Semarang State University. For the sake of limitation, the writer chooses only the fourth semester students as the subject of the
research.
1.3 Assumption and Limitation
In conducting this investigation, the writer has the following assumptions.
1.3.1 A students’ activity in watching English TV programs is indicated by the score of the questionnaires concerning the students’ activity in doing it.
1.3.2 A students’ mastery of vocabulary is indicated by the score of vocabulary test.
1.3.3 The result of this study is only applied to the fourth semester English Department students’ of Semarang State University in the academic year 2006.
1.4 Statements of the Problems
The problems stated in this thesis are:
1.4.1 What does ‘vocabulary’ and ‘vocabulary mastery’ mean?
1.4.2 What types of vocabulary are found in English TV Programs?
1.4.3 Is there any significant correlation between students’ activity in watching English TV programs and their vocabulary mastery?
1.5 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study are:
1.5.1 To understand what is vocabulary in learning language.
1.5.2 To find out vocabulary types those are found in English TV programs.
1.5.3 To find out whether there is a significant correlation between the students’ activity in watching English TV programs and their vocabulary mastery.

1.6 Significance of the Study
The result of this study will be useful for the readers. Especially for the students of the English Department of Semarang State University. It may provide useful information for them in conducting such a research. In addition, this information can distribute to their knowledge of language research. This study may be helpful for the English Department Students of Semarang State University. It helps them be more alert to their vocabulary mastery. Furthermore, it may help them to understand that vocabulary mastery is an important aspect in language learning. It is a key for them to get a success in their learning language process. For the writer this thesis gives awareness that vocabulary is an important aspect in language learning. Besides that, this thesis also gives her a view that learning English out of school is very important to the English Department Students of Semarang State University.

1.7 Outline of the Thesis
The outline of the thesis is as follows chapter I contains the introduction covering the background of the study. The reasons for choosing the topic, assumption and limitation, the statement of the problems, the objectives of the study, significance of he study and outline of the thesis. In chapter II, she discusses the theory underlying the writing of her thesis and the hypothesis. In chapter III, she writes about the method of the investigation. It consists of the population and sample, the variables, the method and procedure of collecting the data, the instruments of the research, the administering of the test, the scoring technique and the method of data analysis. In chapter IV, she presents the research findings, which consists of the data analysis and the discussion of the result. The last chapter, that is chapter V, contains the conclusions and the suggestions of the research.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Uses and Functions of English in Indonesia.
English has important uses and function, although it is not a second language (ESL). For Indonesian people; it still has a significant role to play. It occupies important uses in many fields, such as information, tourism, business and also education. It is an important school subject that has been taught to the students since they are in Junior high schools. In the information field, it is
becoming the second major language of printed information after the Indonesian language. Most of Indonesia’s scientific, commercial, economic and technological knowledge are written and published both in English and Indonesian language. This condition happened because our country is a developing country that needs a broad communication and corporation with other countries in order to build up itself. There are many ways that have been done by the government. One of them is by exporting and introducing our products to abroad. The products can be economical, commercial or technological products. In this activity, Indonesia needs a means of communication that can be understood by other countries. English it the right answers for the need. Since it is becoming the major international language of printed information in the world. Jack C. Richards (1983: 3) stated that a great deal of the word’s scientific, commercial, economic and technological knowledge is written and published in English, though the writers may be Chinese, Swedes or Italians.

2.2 Learning English in Indonesia
Since English has important uses and functions in our country. Many Indonesian people learn the language. They realize whether they like it or not they will need English someday. Furthermore, they need it more in this era when the communication technology developed fast. The world has no limits and anything on it is getting global. These condition force people around the world to have knowledge of a language, in which the language is included into major language in the world and it is used broadly in many world life aspects. English is one of the languages that fulfill the requirements. In learning the language, Indonesian learners will be introduced to many English components; one of them that should be mastered first in their English learning process is vocabulary.
2.3 Why Study Vocabulary
In chapter I it is important for every English learner to master vocabulary, but why they should it first before they study other English components?
The first reason for the question is the words or vocabularies or lexicons are the basic tools for almost English skills such as listening, reading, speaking and writing. Mastering them influence students ability in other English skills. As it is mentioned by John Read (1988: 12) “Vocabulary
proficiency affects not only the students reading skills, but their speaking, listening and writing as well”. From the statement above, we can conclude that vocabulary proficiency helps the students or the English learners to master other English skills, so they should focus their attention first to the vocabulary mastery in their learning process. The second is that vocabulary plays an important role in writing activity. Actually, most of English learners’ activities deal with writing
activities, for example; doing assignments, thesis and also taking writing test. Therefore they should have a larger vocabulary in order to make their writing good, coherent, and also understandable by their readers. Barli Bram (1995: 48) has an opinion concerning with that matter. He stated that words or lexicons are the basic tool for writing. To a great extent, it is word that determines whether a paragraph is good or not. Furthermore he said that wrong words surely do not state the writer’s message across. In essence, the diction or word choosing in a paragraph has an important role. Readers can receive the messages that are conveyed by the writer if she or he uses appropriate words in their paragraphs.
The last reason is that a large vocabulary helps the English learners in studying other English subjects such as Sociolinguistics, Psycholinguistics, Business Correspondence, etc. It will help them to understand and define many concepts, ideas, expressions that they get in such subjects. It is stated by Bella Fiore (1968: 1) “The larger the vocabulary you build up, the better able
you are to define and refine the expression of the images and ideas”. Moreover, she said “The more words you master richer become you thought process and the better you distinguish between shades of word meanings, the subtler grows your expression of ideas”. In conclusion, vocabulary learning is an unseparate thing from language learning because whenever people think of it, they usually think of vocabulary learning and vocabulary mastery. It is a key for the English learners to get a success in their learning process.
2.4 Definition of Vocabulary
We have discussed so far about vocabulary, but do we know exactly what vocabulary is? Here, the writer tries to present some definitions of vocabulary. Bella Fiore (1968: 1) defined “A word or vocabulary is a verbal label that represents a concept or idea. It is the currency of thought”. Albert J Harris and Edward R Sibay (1981: 459-460) also have a similar opinion with Bella Fiore about the definition the vocabulary. They stated “A word or vocabulary is a verbal label that represents a concept or idea, as children mature, the concept represented by the word gradually become refined and accurate” Holt (1966 : 80) has a different definition about vocabulary. He said “Vocabulary is an alphabetical list of the word used in a book, often including their translation or definition”. Besides the definitions above, there is an interesting definition of vocabulary that is stated by Rosalind Minor Ashley (1970: 126). She said “the words or vocabularies are the alchemist’s tools, the mystical ingredients in a magical brew which can intoxicate, hypnotize, incite, inflame, amuse, influence and carry out our fellow human beings”.
From those definitions, the writer concludes that vocabulary is a tool or verbal that represents concept or idea with its definitions in an alphabetical list, in which the tool can amuse very amazing feelings to human beings.

2.5 Vocabulary Types
Language experts classify vocabulary into some different types. Robert A Butler (1978: 70) classifies the vocabulary into working and recognition vocabulary. The first type consists of the words that people use daily in their writing and speaking. On the other hand, the second type consists of words that people recognize in the context of reading matter, but does not actually
use in daily life. Meanwhile, Marry Finocchiaro Ph. D and Michael Bonomo have a different classification. They are function and content words. The function words are a closed class; we cannot add to prepositions or auxiliaries\ or modals or any other structure word of the language. The content words on the other hand, can be added to at any time as new scientific advances make new words and communication about new invention necessary. Different classification of vocabulary also stated by Charles B Jennings, Nancy King and Marjorie Stevenson. They divided the vocabulary into active and recognition vocabulary, which is made up of the words that people use in speaking and writing. Meanwhile, the second type is a vocabulary which is composed of the words which people understand when they hear or read them, but which they do not ordinarily use in speaking and writing. Harris J Albert and Edward R Sibay also had a different point of view about vocabulary types. They divided vocabulary into writing and meaningful vocabulary. Writing vocabulary consists of words that people hear or they use in writing, whereas the second type is the sum of all words that people can understand or use correctly whether in listening, speaking, reading or writing. The last classification that is stated by the experts in English language is a classification of traditional vocabulary, which contains verb, adjective, noun and adverb. From those classifications I can conclude that there are six types of vocabulary. They are working or active vocabulary, recognition vocabulary, meaningful vocabulary that covers active and recognition vocabulary, content word, function word and the last is traditional vocabulary. It covers verb, adjective, noun and adverb.
2.6 General Meaning of Vocabulary Mastery
The vocabulary mastery is a thing that is difficult enough to be defined. Fries (1945: 3) stated that the mastery of language is meant as the ability to use or to understand all the words of the language, but when we read a newspaper or a magazine we often find words we do not know. Therefore, we can never master a through vocabulary or even the vocabulary of our own language. Furthermore, he also said that the vocabulary mastery of a foreign language is also bound by our actual experience. It takes time to learn them\ and there is no short cut to attain mastery of the complete vocabulary of a foreign language. However, we can learn few hundreds lexical items that are most useful in situations and really master them first. So, one can really master a limited number of very useful vocabulary items in a short time. In essence, vocabulary mastery is people ability to use or to understand words of a language that they have learned and heard in certain situations in which they really have experienced the situations in their life.

2.7 General Concepts of Media (Audiovisual)
Teaching media is needed in the teaching learning processes to help students to become active. Gerlach and Ely (1980:281) propose that establishes conditions which enable learners or students to acquire knowledge, skills and attitudes. They also claim that the term instructional media includes a wide range of materials, equipment and technique: chalkboards, bulletin boards, filmstrips, slides, motion picture, TV, programmed instruction, models, demonstrations, charts, maps, book and combination of these. Hornby (1974: 528) defines media as mass communications, e.g. television, radio and the press. There are a lot of media in teaching and learning processes. Gerlach and Elly (1980:247) classify media into six types:
1. Still picture
They form as photographs of any objects or events which can be presented in textbook illustration, bulletin board materials, slides, filmstrip frames or overhead transnsparancies.
2. Audio recording
They are made on magnetic tape on discs or a motion picture sound tract.  These are the actual events or sound effects reproductions.
3. Motion picture or video tape recording
It is a moving image produced in color or black and white from live action or graphic representation, objects or events can be in normal, slow, timelapse or stop motion.
4. All types of audio-video electronic distribution system eventually appear on a cathode ray tube (television monitor) included or television.
5. Real things, simulation and models
They include people, events, objects and demonstration. Real things are the actual objects or events. Simulation is a copy of real situation designed to be as similar as possible to the actual events.
6. Programmed and computer-assisted instructions
They are sequences of information (verbal, visual or audio) designed to elicit predetermined responses. The most common examples are\ programmed textbooks or instructional programs prepared for computers.
The audiovisual aids can be interpreted as any substances which play an important role in teaching and learning process. They help the students or learners master the material more interestingly. Audiovisual aids as one of the media are not new things in the instructional world. Things such as television and video compact disk are often found in the teaching-learning processes.
2.8 Television in Indonesia
Television is one of mass media that has a great attractive power for its audience. It offers so many interesting things for them such as knowledge, information, experience and also excitement. It is also an actual medium that gives something different to them compared with other medium. George Comstock (1978: 9) stated that television is an actual medium that can be seen anytime and it also brings to its audience places, events and situations that could not be seen otherwise. A wonderful box has amazing influences its audience through it programs. Gerlach and Elly (1980:354) states that the rapid growth of television over the last twenty five years has brought about a number of changes in education. Many teachers feel that they are competing with television in teaching students how the world works. Some educators believe the television
distorts the real world; others feel that television glorifies anti social behavior such as crime and violence. Whatever we may think, we must be aware that commercial and educational television affects students for better or worse.
From the definitions above, I conclude that television in general is a means of communication and it can function as an entertainment, learning media, especially in learning English because there are many English programs on television.
According to Gerlach S. Vernon (1980 :366-368) television has several\ advantages for the English learners to enlarge their vocabulary. They can practice them if they want to be successful in learning vocabulary. Those advantages are:
a. Television offers a means for providing a common base of experience for all who see a given program at the same time.
b. It brings to the classroom people, places, and events that could not be seen otherwise.
c. Preconditioned learners come to school as confirmed TV consumers.
d. The reality and concreteness of the visual image are as present in television as in other audiovisual media.
e. A television signal can originate from one source but can be distributed to several areas at the same time.
f. Television makes it possible for the teacher to be in two places at the same time.
g. Immediate feedback of results and performance by teachers and students alike is possible with television.
h. Television can instantly magnify small objects so that all class members can see them at the same time.
In this era, the technology television development in the world is so wonderful. There so many TV stations with variations of program throughout the world right now. In Indonesia there are many television channels recently. There are TVRI, RCTI, SCTV, ANTV, INDOSIAR, METRO TV, TV 7, TRANS TV, TV GLOBAL Etc. Each of them has specific characteristics. All of them offer interesting programs such as films, news, sports and also music program to attract its audience’s attention. Among so many programs which are broadcast by them, the writer is interested in English TV programs to be examined in her thesis. She considers that the programs are good programs for English learners in Indonesia, especially for the fourth semester students of English Department of Semarang State University to develop their English knowledge, especially in mastering vocabulary.
2.9 English TV Programs
English TV Programs are the English programs which are broadcast by our television channels everyday. The programs include English music, news and films programs. In this thesis, the writer wants to discuss two of the programs; they are English news and films. She chooses the two programs to be examined because of two reasons:
a. The two programs contain larger and broader vocabulary compared with the first program; that is English music program.
b. The two programs contain vocabulary of many different fields. This condition will help the English learners, especially the fourth semester students of English Department of Semarang State University.
2.9.1 English News Programs
Two of many television channels broadcast the program; they are METRO TV and TVRI. They broadcast the program with different names and times. METRO TV broadcast the program everyday at 7.30 a.m. The name of\ the program is METRO This Morning. Meanwhile, TVRI broadcast the program at the name time, it is at 15.00 p.m. The name of the program is English News Service. The duration of the program in the three television channels is 30 minutes.
2.9.2 English Film programs
The English film programs have many variations of the theme, such as love, family, friendship, adventure, science, criminals, corps etc. All of them have different specific characteristics, both the stories and the stars. All of our television channels broadcast the program. The duration of English film is two hours.
In general, each television channels broadcast it twice a week with different names. RCTI broadcast its English films in a program with the name Layar Emas and Film Sabtu Siang. SCTV with Gala Sinema. Trans TV with Sinema Gemilang. Lativi with Sinema Malam Minggu. ANTV with Film TV Special. INDOSIAR with Film Sabtu Malam. Meanwhile TPI broadcasts with the name Film tengah malam. Etc. The writer consider that the programs are really good programs to the English learners, especially the English students to learn the vocabulary. They contain so many useful vocabularies, both from the announcers and the actors/ actresses. Listening to them video jockey is a good way for the English students to enlarge their vocabulary, because listening to the intelligent people who have a better speech style than we have will help us in learning vocabulary. It is mentioned by Robert A Butler (1978: 7) “…… A good vocabulary results from years of listening to intelligent people talk and of reading a wide variety of good books”. From the quotation, we know that listening to the intelligent people talk is one of the ways that can be used by the English learners in enriching their vocabulary.

2.10 Types of Vocabulary Found in English TV Programs
Based on the types of vocabulary that have been discussed in section 2.5 (types of vocabulary), the writer considers that vocabularies which are found in English TV programs are included into active or working vocabulary. The vocabularies that appear in the programs are the vocabularies that people use daily in their speaking and writing. The words like: “keep your eyes”, “he is as cool as ….”, “take a round”, she is really a fair girl”, “hello mam”, “the victory of republic party….” , “keep on moving….”, “I want to establish a business….”, “They postpone their wedding and the winner is….”, “I dedicate\ my love to….”, “My father will discipline me….”, “Welcome back in school”, and others are the words that are familiar with the people in communication They use the words in their daily life. Both in oral and writing communication. The audience will not get a difficulty to understand those words because the speakers on those programs speak in an interesting and a right expression and intonation. So, they will know about how to pronounce the words in a right and good pronunciation. Moreover, they will learn to determine appropriate meaning of words by seeing their contexts.
2.11 Student’s Activity in Watching English TV Programs.
Students’ activity in watching English TV Programs that the writer mentioned in her thesis is the daily activity which is done by the fourth semester students of English Department of Semarang State University in watching English TV programs. Watching in this context does not mean watching only, but also covers the activities such as: thinking, writing and discussing that are done by them after they watched the English TV programs. Their intensity in doing the activity is expressed by their responses to the statements on the questionnaires concerning with the matter.

2.12 Hypothesis
In this thesis the writer stated the working; the alternative hypothesis is there is a significant correlation between the students’ activity in watching English TV programs and their vocabulary mastery.

CHAPTER III
METHOD OF INVESTIGATION

As long as the title of this final project is concerned, the main purpose of this research is to find out the correlation between the fourth semester students activity in watching English TV programs and their vocabulary mastery. Besides the purpose of the research, this chapter also describes the population and sample of the research, the variables, the method of collecting data and the instruments that were used to collect the data.

3.1 Population and Sample
3.1.1 Population
The population of this research was the fourth semester students of the English Department of Semarang State University in the academic year 2005/2006. They were chosen as subjects of her research for the following reasons:
a. The students were in the same grade and have been studying English for the same period of time.
b. The students have been familiar with vocabulary items that exist in English TV programs.
3.1.2 Sample
The samples for the research were selected from the total population of
399 fourth semester students of the English Department of Semarang State University. The total samples used in this study were 40 students taken from the population by applying random sampling technique. This means, if the sample is random that all possible sampling of 40 students have the same probability of being selected. In determining the size of sample. Arikunto (2002:112) says that “If the population is 100 or less, it is better to take the whole population as the sample, if the population is more than 100 respondents, the researcher can take 10-15 % or 20-25 % or more than 25% of the population based on the capability of a researcher” (Translated from Metode Penelitian, 2002:112). In selecting the samples, the writer took one of Moser Graham’s procedures called the “lottery method”. First of all, she wrote all the students’ names of each class on a small piece of paper and they were rolled and put into 8 glasses. Glass A for class A, glass B for class B, glass C for class C, glass D for class D, glass E for class E, glass F for class F, glass G for class G and glass H fo class H. Secondly she mixed the rolled papers in each glass and let 5 rolls drop out of each glass. After having the total number of the samples, she stopped it.
3.2 Variables of Investigation
The variables are the condition or characteristics that a researcher manipulates controls or observer. There are two kinds of variables; the independent variable X and the dependent variable Y. The independent is the presumed effect. Whereas the dependent variable is the consequent of independent variable and it is the variable predicted to. Whereas the independent variable is predicted from. In this research, the two variables investigated were:
a. The students’ activity in watching English TV programs.
This is the independent variable. The students’ activity in watching English TV programs is indicated by the following indicators:
- Interest
- Frequency
- Focus
- Time
- Effect
b. The students’ vocabulary mastery (Y)
This is the dependent variable. The students’ vocabulary mastery is indicated by the students’ scores of vocabulary test from those which were available vocabulary subject concerning with the vocabularies that appeared in the\ English TV programs.
3.3 Method and Procedure of Collecting Data
Arikunto (2002: 197) said that there are five methods in collecting the data. They are questionnaire, interview, observation, test and documentation methods. In this research, the writer used two of the five methods; they are questionnaire and test method. She considers that two methods are test method for collect the data in this research.
The procedure of collecting the data of this research involved several steps. The first step was arranging the questionnaire. The second was trying-out the questionnaire to measure whether or not it needed improvement. The third step was collecting and analyzing it for its validity and reliability. The fourth was distributing the questionnaire to the respondents and then collecting it. It was organized on May 15, 2006. After she collected the questionnaire, she analyzed them. The fifth one was obtaining scores of vocabulary test from the vocabulary material and the last one was computing the data.
3.4 Instrument
In this research, the instruments used were questionnaires and vocabulary test.
3.4.1 The Questionnaire
The questionnaire is a number of questions or statements used to gain information from respondents about the respondents themselves or their knowledge, belief, etc. (Suharsimi Arikunto, 2002: 128). The questionnaire in this research is used to measure the students’ activity
in watching English TV programs. In this research, the writer used a rating scale form of questionnaire i.e. a statement followed by columns indicating always, often, sometimes and never.
The questionnaire consists of 20 items were consisting the positive and negative statements. All of students concerning to the students’ activity in watching English TV program. Each item has five scales. The scoring technique of the questionnaire the writer used was Likert scale type. The Likert scale type presents a number of positive and negative statements regarding the attitude of the respondents. In responding to the items on these scales the respondents indicate whether they Always, Often, Sometimes or Never with each statements. The numerical value assigned to each response depends on the degree of agreement or disagreement with individual statements. A subject’s score is determined by summing the values assigned to individual responses. The response is usually expressed in terms of the following five categories; the response option are assigned of four points to each response indicating always with favorable statements, a value of three for often with these statements, two for sometimes and one for never. For an unfavorable statement one reverses the scoring procedure, since never with the unfavorable statement is assumed psychologically equivalent to agreement with always of a favorable statement. It makes no difference whether four is high and one is low or vice versa. The main consideration is that the response be scored consistently in term of the attitude the represent, whether strongly approve or strongly disapprove is the favorable attitude depends on the content of the statement. The outline of scoring of the questionnaire can be seen as follows;
3.4.2 Vocabulary Test
The second instrument used in this research was vocabulary test. To have a valid and reliable vocabulary test, the researcher decided to take the test materials from the vocabulary materials.
The vocabulary test in this research is used to measure the vocabulary mastery. The vocabulary item used in this test is vocabularies of five human aspects. They are; education, social, law, medicine and politic. The researche chose these aspects because she considered that they often appeared in English TV programs, both in English news and films.

3.5 Try out of the Questionnaire and the Vocabulary Test.
Before the questionnaire and the vocabulary test were used to collect the data, it had been tried out to measure its validity, reliability and difficulty of an item It was conducting on June 6, 2006.The researcher used twenty students of the fourth semester student of English Department Semarang State University.
3.6 The Condition of the Test
3.6.1 Validity of Instrument
Suharsimi Arikunto (2002: 145) stated that to get a valid instrument, a researcher should take a careful effort in arranging it from the beginning. He or she has to follow a right procedure to acquire its validity. If he or she has done the procedure carefully, it can be assumed that he or she has acquired the validity. The researcher took the following steps in arranging the questionnaire. First, she has broken the variable into some indicators. From these indicators then, questions of the questionnaire were formulated. She has done all the steps carefully in order to obtain an instrument with logic validity, which means that the instrument was a result from a very careful effort that was done by the researcher in order to acquire validity. The questionnaire and vocabulary test said to be valid when the result rxy are greater than rtable. To measure the validity of the instrument the researcher using the formula :
 (Arikunto, 2002: 146) The result of analysis validity can be seen in the appendix 5 and 8. To the questionnaire, there are five of invalid items from twenty items. So, the questionnaire becomes fifteen items. From fifty items of vocabulary test, there are ten of invalid items. So, the items of vocabulary test become forty items.
3.6.2 Reliability of the Instrument
Reliability of the questionnaire indicates the stability of the questionnaire score when it is used to collect the data. In other words, the questionnaire measures respondents’ responses consistently. Harris mentioned that to have confidence in measuring instrument, the researcher needs to make sure the reliability of the scoring of the test (1969: 14) The questionnaire said to be reliable when approximately the same results are obtained on different occasions. To measure the validity of the instrument used in this research, the researcher applied an internal reliability of questionnaire
test using the formula of Alpha and the result was as the following: The way of computing the reliability was making a preparatory table that can be seen in appendix 7. By conducting a try-out to 20 respondents of the population, the researcher obtained its internal reliability. From the Alpha formula, the value of questionnaire was obtained 11 r = 0,811. Concerning to the amount of subjects for the try out. She considers that is are enough amount for the requirement of a try-out. Relating to the matter, Suharsimi Arikunto (1996: 210) stated that the researcher in a small or large scale could do a try-out. A small-scale try-out can be done to 4-5 respondents. On the other hand, a large-scale try-out is done to 15-50 respondents. Furthermore, she stated the subjects of the try-out could be taken from the population or outside the population. If the researcher took the respondents outside, the population for the try-out, she should take the subjects who have the similar characteristics with the population. Then the reliability of vocabulary test using the formula K – R 20 as
follows :
r11 = Index reliability
k = the number of item
p = Proportion of the subject answering the item correctly
q = Proportion of the subject answering the item incorrectly
= 0,926
From the computation above, it was obtained 11 r was 0,926. Whereas the critical value for ‘r’ with the 5% significant level of 20 respondents is 0,444. So, we can conclude that the value resulted from the computation is higher than its critical value. From the result, we can conclude that the instrument used in this research is reliable with significant level 5%. An instrument is said as a reliable instrument, if the value resulted from the computation, r is higher than its critical value. On the contrary, an instrument is called, as unreliable instrument if the value resulted from the computation is lower than its critical value.

3.6.3 Practicality of the Instrument
Practicality is concerned with the administration of the questionnaire in this research. The questionnaire used in this research was practical enough. Since the respondents were only required to give a checklist in the columns provided in each question according to their responses. Furthermore, the respondents only needed a little time to do it, which was about 20 minutes. On the other hand, it was also practical enough for the researcher, since it did not involve many persons to administer it.

3.7 The Method of Analysis the Data
The main objective of the research is to find out whether there is a significant correlation between the students’ activity in watching English TV programs and their vocabulary mastery. The researcher examined the opinion by computing the data by applying the formula of the Pearson in which :
Σ XY : the sum of XY
Σ X : the sum of the X
Σ Y : the sum of Y
Σ X2 : the sum of square of X
Σ Y2 : the sum of square of Y
N : the amount of subjects
Other objective of her research is to find out whether there is significan correlation between the students’ activity in watching English TV programs on their vocabulary mastery. The researcher examined the opinion by computing the data by applying the formula By using the equation, it can be found the significant correlation coefficient between the students’ activity in watching English TV programs on the vocabulary mastery of the fourth semester students of English department of\ Semarang State University. Then we used the distribution t and its table t distribution with dk\ denumerator (n) with the 5 % significant level, If t in Ho area, that’s
(1−1/ 2 )( −2) (1−1/ 2 )( −2) − < < n n t t t α α , it means not significant. The writer uses the 5% significant level, because the field of her is language subject not an exact subject. In the language study, it is better to use the 5% significant level. On the other hand, for an exact study it is better to use the 1% significant level.


THE CORRELATION BETWEEN STUDENTS’ ACTIVITY IN WATCHING ENGLISH TV PROGRAMS AND STUDENT’S VOCABULARY MASTERY

3 comments:

  1. luton_akhmad@yahoo.com
    mas boleh kah saya meminta instrument yang di gunakan da refrensi.

    ReplyDelete
  2. gan bisa tolong di berikan cara instrumennya kah...
    iskandarriah92@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  3. boleh minta questionnaire and vocabulary testnya???
    octovany@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete