Thursday, February 21, 2013

CONTOH KARYA TULIS ILMIAH BAHASA INGGRIS TENTANG LEARNING METHOD APPROACH ISLAMIC)

LEARNING METHOD APPROACH
ISLAMIC RELIGIOUS EDUCATION (PAI)


I. INTRODUCTION
When we talk about the scope of Islamic religious education, it will be put forward several areas of discussion that religious teaching has become a stand-alone subject in college religion. Of course it should already have specific methods for each of the subjects (Fiqh, Aqidah, Akhlaq, SKI, Al-Qur'an). The number of subjects may be increased / broken and may be combined. But the basic principles and sources ai not change, because the revelation and the word of Muhammad will grow again, which is a growing field of study in terms of grouping and discussion.
In practice in the field, the problem has always haunt our minds is can the teaching methods that are implemented or used as a tool to achieve the goal of religious education? Therefore, to measure the extent to which the effectiveness of the methods in achieving the goals of religious education, we should know more about the various methods that exist, that each of these methods can we value the basic criteria, (1) how the nature and characteristics of characteristics of these methods? (2) when the method can be used? (3) whether the terms of the good / positive? (4) whether the terms of drawbacks / negative? (5) suggestions for improvement. Also includes issues that are often encountered in teaching, is how to present the material to students as well, in order to obtain an effective and efficient results, so use of the method must be appropriate and in line with the characteristics of the students, the material, as well as the conditions under which teaching takes place. So if further review, the actual superiority of the method lies in the objective factors, student characteristics, circumstances, and personal skills of teachers and facilities used. Then the next in this paper we will describe in more depth with regard to teaching methods in Islamic religious education.

II. DEFINITIONS
Method is the means used to convey the subject matter in order to achieve objectives of the curriculum.
Medium according to Indonesian dictionary Learning is a process, a way to make people / beings learn.
In the literature of science education, especially the teaching of science, can be found a lot of teaching methods. Of western literature, it is known many methods of teaching, such as lectures, question and answer, discussion, and role playing sociodramas, assignments and recitation etc.. In Indonesia this method a lot and will continue to grow in line with the progress of the development of theories of teaching. Teaching method called the common methods, since the methods used for teaching in general. Usually the study of teaching commonly referred to using the term teaching methods.  Actually, for the sake Islamic educational theories, the problem is not too difficult method, teaching methods developed in the west can be used or taken to enrich the theory of Islamic education methods.

III. TYPES METHODS
The task of a teacher is to choose the right methods to create teaching and learning process. Correct use of the method, it depends on the purpose, content p [roses teaching and learning activities. In the process of teaching and learning is good, it should use alternate types of teaching methods or help each other, because each method there are disadvantages and advantages.
The following 5 (five) learning methods are often used in the study as follows:
Lecture method
According Zuhairini et al, the lecture method is a method of education in which the notions of how to deliver the material to the students with the lighting and oral narrative.
Medium according Suracmad Winarno, the lecture method is a form of interaction through information and oral narrative by one of the groups of listeners, the implementation of such an interaction in  speaker in using a tool to clarify the description, but the primary means of communication with audiences was discussed verbally.

Discussion method
Discussion method is a way of presentation / delivery of lessons in which the teacher provides the opportunity for students / groups of students to scientific talks in order to collect opinions, make conclusions or formulate various alternative solutions to a problem. Forum discussions can be followed by all students in the classroom, can also be formed smaller discussion groups batches. Noteworthy is that the students should be able to actively participate in any discussion forums. The more students are engaged and contribute thoughts, so the more they can learn.

Demonstration and experimental methods
Demonstration method is one method to students to see what is done by teachers. So the demonstration is to show teachers how to teach or demonstrate a process so that students can see, observe, hear, feel, and experience demonstrated by the teacher.  Experimental method is a method of teaching where teachers and students work together on something as practical exercises of the known.

Methods Q & A
Question and answer method of teaching is the submission process by asking questions and students give answers, or otherwise students are given the opportunity to ask questions and teachers answer the question.

The method of administration tasks.
Method of assignment (recitation) is often called the method of homework, is a method where pupils / students are given special assignments outside of school hours. Actually, the emphasis of this method lies in the hour lessons, where students are asked to search for information or facts in the form of data that can be found in laboratories, learning resource center and others.
According to Dr. Winarno Suracmad, he suggests there are several methods of teaching in the In fostering a sense of religion, according to Al-Nahlawi, methods to instill a sense of faith is the following:

    Hiwar methods (conversation) Quroni and Nabawi
Hiwar is conversation alternating between two or more parties regarding a topic and deliberately directed to the desired destination (in this case teachers). Hiwar have impact for the speaker and the listener in the conversation.
Quroni and prophetic story of methods  In Islamic education, especially education agam story as a very important method, because:
o stories always enthralling because listener / reader to always follow the story and ponder its meaning.
o quroni and prophetic story can touch the human heart as the story featuring characters whose overarching context
o Acts quroni and Prophetic educate faith feelings, Quranic story is not just mere stories or simply beautiful art, it is also a way to educate God's people to be faithful to Him.  Amtsal method (parable) Quroni and Prophetic
In Surat al-Ankabut verse 41, God likens heathen gods or God with cobwebs:
"Parable of those who seek refuge in other than Allah is like a spider that makes home, but houses the weakest is the spider's house".  This way also can be used as a teacher to teach.  Exemplary method  Pupils tend to imitate educators, it is recognized by all educational experts, both from the west and from the east. Because love is psychologically children imitate.

Habituation methods  The description of habituation has always been one with an outline of the need to practice the good that has been. Habituation basically on the experience. So the point is repetition. Examples of each incoming class just to say hello.  Method 'ibrah and mau'izah  Ibrah and I'tibar is a psychological condition that conveys the essence of something man witnessed, confronted, by using reason, which causes the heart to admit it. Mau'izah is being gentle advice received by the liver by way of explaining the reward or threat.  
 Targhib methods and Tarheeb
Targhib is the promise of the pleasure, enjoyment afterlife accompanied persuasion. Tarheeb is a threat because of sin ang done. Whose goal is to comply with the rules of God.

IV. FACTORS AFFECTING THE DETERMINATION METHOD
There are several factors that affect or that must be considered in determining the method to be used as a tool and means in preparing teaching materials, namely as follows:
1. Specific instructional objectives  In the world of education and teaching we recognize the common goals, objectives temporary, incomplete goals, and objectives. goals are translated into specific objectives for then the teacher will get a clear picture of what it intends to accomplish it and the teacher will be able to also prepare the tools that will be used as well as the appropriate method to be used.
2. State disciples (learners)
3. Materials or teaching materials
Mastery of the material by the teacher should lead to specialization on the nature of knowledge or skills that it teaches. Given the content, nature, and its range then the teacher must be able to decipher the science or skill, and nothing is to be taught in the fields of science or skill in question.
4. Situation
What is meant here is the situation of learning mood or atmosphere of the class. Including the state of pupils, such as fatigue, vigor, weather conditions, as well as the state of the teacher.
5. Facilities
Facilities among other factors props, space of time, place and occasion lab equipment, books, libraries, etc..
6. Teachers (educators)
Every teacher has a different personality, ie there who do not like to talk, or otherwise no teacher who likes to talk. Or educational background D2, S1, or S2
7. Kindness and weaknesses of the method.
There is no method or methods that ugly either. We can say this method is effective, efficient, good, bad it depends on many factors. Noteworthy in the teacher implements a method is knowing the limits of goodness and weaknesses of the method will be used. That allows him to formulate conclusions about the research / decision of the objectives of that. It can be seen from a characteristic or general nature, role and benefits contained in any method.


V. CLOSING
Thank God our gratitude Allah SWT. Who has bestowed all the graces, taufiq, guidance and His inayah to us so that with all the resources and efforts to bring the authors of this paper
What we have stated in this paper is only a small part of the discussion of the topic of the task that we can, and in our discussion that have not necessarily much we can discuss.
Our expectations, hopefully through this paper can be taken to be little benefit to the reader as well, and we sorry if what we present is far from perfect.



REFERENCES

H. Zuhairini, et al, Special Methods of Religious Education, a national effort, Surabaya, 1981
Dr.. Tafseer Ahmad, Science Education in Islamic Perspective, PT. Adolescent
Zakiaah Darojat, et al, Teaching Methodology Islam, PT. Earth Literacy, Jakarta, 2001
Abu Ahmadi, methodical Special Religious Education, Armico, bandung, 1986
Rosdakarya, London, 2001
Ramayulis, Methodology of Teaching Islamic Studies, Kalam Mulia, Jakarta, 2001
Dictionary Drafting Team Coaching and development, Big Indonesian Dictionary, Ed II, P and K, Balai Pustaka, 1989
Winarno Surachmad, Introduction to Teaching and Learning Interactions, Tarsito, London, 1986...


KARYA TULIS ILMIAH BAHASA INGGRIS TENTANG LEARNING METHOD APPROACH ISLAMIC)

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