Thursday, February 28, 2013

KUMPULAN SKRIPSI BAHASA INGGRIS TERBARU A STUDY ON THE STUDENTS ABILITY IN USING CAUSATIVE “HAVE”

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“ A STUDY ON THE STUDENTS ABILITY IN USING CAUSATIVE “HAVE” CASE STUDY AT THE SECOND GRADE OF SMAN 1 GERUNG IN ACADEMIC YEAR 2010/2011



CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.1              Background of the study
Grammar is important, but it is not all important. Grammar is only needed so that communication through language can proceed smoothly (poedjosoedarmo, 1987)
            It has outlined on 2004 curiculum that in learning English one of the important thing to be taught is language function or grammar. Therefore,when we consult the English text books bassed on the curriculum 2004 we can find it is emphasizes on the grammar matery as well as the other language components and language skills. It is quite different from the 1994 curiculum which is communicative based. The students should be able to communicate in target language either spoken or written.
            However, when the student come to the evaluation phase, ether regional or national examination, they were still faced a big sum of test on grammar items, such condition was employed for years, the students in the language classroom are emphasizes on the on the acquisition of  linguistics structure of vocabulary, and as results the students may know the rules of language usage and can use the language properly ( Depdikbud 1977:2).
            The language learners (students) should pose enough grammar competence, since in producing a correct sentences,knowledge on grammar is a must. Such as point out by a scholar that “The primary function of language is to convey meaning: grammatical structures exists for this purpose” (Long, 196:1-2).
            On of the important elements of language grammar that should be mastered by the students is the causative. This is aimed at attaining the students proper basicof grammatical sentence patters. Such any other grammatical elements,causative in English causative perfectly, the speaker or the writers (applied linguistics) dould convery their wish to show that some action was performed, not by us, but by some action was performed, not by us, but by somebody else at our study.
For example:
I had dressmaker make a dress
“saya menyuruh penjahit membuat tok atau pakaian”
Causative is a sentence pattern which is usually used as an instruction, asking or causing other people (Basari, 2002:143). Another scholar wrote that causative is a transitive verb which express causation (Herman,1978:95).
1.2              Statement of the problem
Related to the statement described above, the writer formulates two statements of problems as follows:
  1. Are the second grade student of SMAN 1 Gerug in academic year 2010/2011 able to use causative have?
  2. what is the level ability of the second grade students of SMAN 1 Gerung in academic year 2010/2011 in using causative have?
  3. what factors that may cause students “difficulties of SMAN 1 Gerung in academic year 2010/2011 in learning causative have?
1.3              Purpose of the study
This study is aimed at finding out several things, such as:
  1. The students ability on causative of the second grade students of SMAN 1 Gerung  in academic year 2010/2011
  2. Several factors that may cause some students difficulties in learning causative.
1.4              Scope of the study
This particular investigation is conducted under scopes that are formulated as the following points:
  1. the subject of this investigation is limited at the second grade students of  SMAN 1 Gerung  in academic year 2010/2011, that consist of 40 students.
2. the investigation of the students ability in using causative have.
1.5              Signifieance of the study
The writing hopefully is of some users:
1.       to improve the English teacher is determining student ability on causative have.
2.       to provide the student to develop their knowledge about causative have
3.       as a basic consideration for further research beyond the concept of causative of English.
1.6              Definition of the key terms
In order to avoid possible misunderstanding or misinterpretation on the part of the readers concering to the variables involved inn this writing, the writer states some operational definition used to clarify the terms as shown at the following parts.
  1. Ability
according to oxford advance learners dictionary skill is an ability to do something expertly and well ( As Horn by, 1986), or in other words skill is a certain ability found through education and experience.
  1. Causative
causative is usually used as an instruction of course the instruction is done by the other man and the result is the most important. In clear, according to America heritage dictionary, causative refers to (1) a verb functioning as an agent or cause, (2) expressing causation used of a verb or verbal (Fernando, et al., 1980:713).
  1. have
In British English, have meaning possess is not normally conjugated with do except when there is an idea of habit. 
  1. understanding
“understanding means the ability to grasp mentally”. (Hornby A.S.1974:338). Ability means the quality of being able to do something; physical.mental,financial; or legal power to perform or a natural or acquired skill or talent. (pg.3)
It also means the students are hopefully have fully comprehension upon the reading materials they are encountering.


CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

            Concept of Second Language Acquisition
Even though one has already been well-equipped with native language communicative competence, he learn further a second or, perhaps a third language, according his needs in the social life. If he has only one language in his daily communicative interact, then he learns another language, his learning is supposed to be second language although they have already been able to speak and write two different languages. This later learning is considered to he foreign language learning, but recent literatures tent to use term ‘second language learning’ as a cover term for both ‘second’ and ‘foreign’ language learning (Littlewood, 1984 : 2).
There have been many theories concerning the way a child or adult learners a second or foreign language. Brown (in Tarigan, 1988 : 183), for example, has set out the Acculturation Model of Language Learning, while Hatch (also in Tarigan, 1988 : 193) has set out Discourse Theory. Universal hypothesis, etc. in summary, the child or the adult learns the language through hypothesis testing which is trial and error in nature. It is in according learning, according him is…” a creative process of constructing a system in which the learners is consciously testing hypothesis about the target language from a number of sources of knowledge, limited knowledge of the target language, it self, knowledge about the native language, knowledge about the communicative function of language, knowledge about language in general, and knowledge about life, human beings, and the universe” (Brown, 1987 : 162).
When one starts learning a second or foreign language, he has already spoken his native language. In learning and teaching a second or foreign language, people who have already acquired a native language find some advantages and difficulties. The advantages are that from the experience with mother tongue, the learners have some intuitive knowledge about the nature, characteristic ad the uses of languages. The native language, to some extent, is also useful for the languages. The native language, to some extent, is for the explanation of the patterns, rules and subsystems of the target language (Nababan, 1981 : 17).
Behind the tremendous advantages, however, there are some disadvantages of the student’s native language in the second language learning of classroom instructions. The language with its linguistics items, rules and sub systems has been well-integrated to the learners’ mind that when he learns a second language, his learning is often influenced by the sounds, habits and the grammar of the native language. Indonesia learns of English, for instance, often construct noun phrase like “house green” for the English noun phrase “green house” as the habits of Bahasa Indonesia have the formula of noun phrase of noun + adjective like in “rumah hijau” in short, the native language may facilities learning but also inhibit it, specially in the patterns which are I high degree of difference and some irregular distributions in which the learning supply translation techniques, transformation strategy and easy-mode conversion (Nababan, 1981 : 22).
Regardless of the advantages and disadvantages of the native language to a second or foreign language learning, researchers today area trying and hard to find out how the learners the target language. Ellis,   (1986 : 249-281) describes seven theories of language learning in terns of the learning and acquisition that may take place.
The theories are The Acculturation Model, Accommodation Theory, discourse Theory, The Monitor Models, The Variable Competence Model, The Universal Hypothesis, and the Neur-functional Theory. 
The most interesting theory, among others, is Khrasen’s Monitor Model. His model of language learning consists of five central hypothesis and this number of other factors which strongly influence second or foreign language learning and acquisition. First of all, the target language can be learned by simple acquisitions, and learning as well.
Finally, the affective filter hypothesis. The filter is “the part of the internal processing system that subconsciously screens incoming language based on what psychologist call ‘affect’ (Dullay, 1982 : 46). This filter will control how much input learners are able to take into the internal processing the filter, of course, affects the rate of learning and the development of the grammatical system acquired (Ellis, 1986 : 263).

            Concept of Correctness and Appropriateness in Grammar Usage
The aims of language teaching course are very often defined with reference to the four ‘language’ listening, speaking, reading and writing. These aims, therefore, relate to the kind of activity which the learners are to perform. In this view, the teaching of language involves developing the ability to produce correct sentences.
Many teachers of lectures would subscribe to this view and it has been productive of a good deal of impressive language teaching materials. In some respects, however, it is unsatisfactory (Windowson, 1990 : 1).
The language learners readily acknowledge that the ability to produce sentences is a crucial cine in the learning of a language. It is important to recognize, however, that learners need to acquire. Someone knowing a language knows more than how to listen, speak, read and write sentences. He also knows sentences are used to communicative effect.
Furthermore, Harman (1978 : 12) points out that the learning of language, then involves acquiring the ability to compose correct sentences. That is one aspect of the matter. But it also involves acquiring and understanding of which sentences or part of sentences are appropriate in a particular context. Therefore, (Windowson, 1990 : 3) states that the first kind of ability depends upon knowledge of the grammatical rules of the language being learned.


            Concept of Causative
Harman (1978 : 95) defines causatives as “a transitive verb which expresses causation”. Similary, Djauhari restricts that “Causative ‘Have’ is usually used as an instruction of  cause the instruction is done by the other man and the result is the most important (Djauhari, 1986 : 186). In clear, according to American Heritage Dictionary, Causative refers to (1) a verb functioning as an agent cause, (2) expressing causation used of a verb or verbal (Fernando, et.al., 1980 : 713). Another scholar, Sujana states that “causative verbs are used to indicate that one person causes the third person to do something for the firs person who can be divided into active and passive causative” (Sujana, 1999 : 11). Another writer points out that (1) causative ‘have’ can mean asking someone else to do something else for him/her, (2) causative have can be followed by object + infinitive, and it has an active sense.
Furthermore, Basari (2002 : 143-149) classifies causative ‘have’ into two major categories, these are :
1.      Pattern I
First of all, causative ‘have’ is used to ask someone to do something. Therefore, to convey such message through this kind of sentence, the speaker should apply the following formula :
Subject + have + objective + verb 1 + object


                                 (Agent)                     (Thing)
For example :
I              had            the dressmaker         make                a dress
He          had            the cobber                mead               his shoes
They       had            a mechanic               repair               the bicycle
Mother   had            the gardener             clean                the garden

2.      Pattern II
Another pattern of causative ‘have’ is by asking someone do to something for us. In this extant, verbs used after object is a participle (V3). The formula is a follow :
Subject + will + have + object + verb 3 (Perticiple)
For example :
I              will            have                       a dress                made
He          will            have                       his shoes             mended
They       will            have                       the motorcycle   repaired
Mother   will            have                       the garden          cleaned
Another writer classifies causative “have/get” into three major categories those are : personal causative sentences with “have”, personal causative sentences with “get” and causative from with the passive meaning.


            The Function of Causative Have
The causative have verbs are used to indicate that one person causes the second persons to do something for the first person.
a.       Auxiliary Have
1.      Possessive
Have/has can be used a regular to refer to states (conditions).
Example :
·         I have three brother
·         He has new book
·         She has breakfast every morning
2.      “have” as auxiliary in present perfect
It is used to describe an activity that happened in the past when time is not important.
Consider other example below :
·         I have answer two questions today
·         I have already seen that movie
·         They have moved into a new apartment
·         Have ever visited Mexico.
3.      “have/has” as causative
The causative verbs are used to indicate that one person causes the second persons to something for the first person. There are two kind of causative : Active Causative and Passive Causative.

b.      Active causative
We ask someone to do something for us, bare infinitive comes after object.
Example :
·         Jane had John fix the car
·         The president is going to have adviser arrange a conference.
·         They will have him carry the boxers.
·         She is having Gorger accompany her.
c.       Passive causative
Ask something to be done.
The word order is important, the past participle (done/repaired, etc) comes after the object (e.g. the roof).
Example :
·         Jill had the roof repaired yesterday.
·         John is having his hair cut.
·         She will have her transcript translated.
d.      Causative get is active causative to infinitive comes after object.
Example :
·         Jane got John to fix the car.
·         They get him to carry the boxers.

            The Definition and Purpose of Structure Test
A language test is device that tries to assess how mush has been learned in a foreign language course or come part of course (Oller, 1999 : 1). Heaton (1988 : 5) state that testis device to reinforce learning and to motivate the students or a means of assessing students’ performance in the language.



CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHOD

In this part the writer present the method of research applied in this study which is followed by a brief discussion of population sampling as well as the method of collecting analyzing data finally, the research instrument used to gather the need data to end up this section.

3.1. Method
After determining the problems, purposes and hypothesis of the investigation, it is continued by observing and collecting the data for the accomplishment of the study which was partially conducted trough intensive library research.
In research activities the function of method is very important because the success of research is depending on the method applied.
The method of the study, first of all the writer formulates the title of this research as follows "an analysis of the students' achievement in reading comprehension taught by using summary at the second year students" of  SMAN 1 Gerung in academic year 2010/2011”
The aims of this study is to find out whether summarized reading in post activities text have any positive contribution towards the students’ reading achievement.
The method of the research to be applied is descriptive research and the data is collected trough the result of a test that distribute to the students and data analysis in basic statistical consumption.
3.2. Population
In conducting investigation one of the important element is that what is termed as a research population. Sutrisno Hadi defined population as a number of people or individual who have at least the same character (Sutrisno Hadi: 1984 ; 220).
In this study population is defined as a set of element and/or character having at least the same category the target population of this research is at the Second year students of  SMAN 1 Gerung in academic year 2010/2011 which consist of 65 students who sit in two classes.
3.3. Sample
Sample is part of population that it’s characteristic want to study. The element of sample less than the element of population (Djarwanto: 1990 ; 43).
In taking the number of sample, the writer referred to Surachmad states that if the population less than one hundred, the sample can be taken for 50%, and if the population more than one hundred the sample can be taken for 20%.
From the definition above, the writer takes 50% because the population in SMAN 1 Gerung in academic year 2010/2011 at the second year is less than one hundred (65 students). Finally, the writer gets 34 students as a sample in which 17 from class IIA and 17 students from class IIB. The sampling is done randomly.
3.4. Method of Data Collection
A data collecting is very important step in scientific research because the data will be used to the test the hypothesis that has been formulated. For this study, the data will be obtained from both of the groups. They are treated to use the kind of the same reading material, test by the same item and the same length of the time limitation to do, it is presented in a different way.
Experimental group is asked to summarize the reading text based on the questions given, while control group is treated without any summarizing.
The writer then applies one type of test where the students are expected to answer all of questions while they are reading the reading text. Before the instructional activities, the two group are pre tested to know the students' previous ability by using the same test. Afterwards, both of the groups are given a post test to know their reading comprehension after the process of the reading activities done.

3.5. Research Instrument
A research needs indicator or instrument with the certain relation ship among variable in population the instrument used is intended to measure reading achievement as she constructs. She constructs the same reading text either for experiment or control group. There are three reading text comprised 10 items in each in forming multiple choice answer.

3.6. The Method of Analyzing Data
After raw scores are collected from both groups, group experiment and control group. It is computed with the following steps; first, the writer calculated the means score of the teo groups by applying the following formula:
(Wiresma, 1980)
Where:
ME = is the mean score of experimental group
X    = is the deviation score of pre test and post test
N   = is the number of sample in experimental group
The similar formula is also applied to compute the mean of control group. Second, the writer computes and compares the significance of deviation of the two mean scores :
(Arikunto, 1993 : 269)
The score of students of pre test and post test are considered as the data of the recent study.
Where:
ME = Is the mean score of experimental group
MC = Is the mean score of control group
NE = Is the total number subject of experimental group
NC = Is the total number subject of control group
X    = Is the deviation of x1 and x2
Y    = Is the deviation of y1 and y2
   = Is the sum of
= Is the root of

CHAPTER IV
BIBLIOGRAPHY

A.S Hornby, 1995, The Advanced Learners' Dictionary of Current English, 5th edition.

Arikunto, Suharsimi, 1993, Prosedur Penelitian, Rineka Cipta, Yogyakarta.

Anderson, Jonathan, et al, 1969, Efficient reading, A Practical Guide, Australia; Mc. Graw Book Company Aus., Pty limited.

Behrens, Laurence & Leonard J. rosen, 1985, Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum, Canada; Little, Brown, Company Limited.

Burns, Paul, et. al, 1984, Teaching Reading In Todays Elementary School, Boston, Houghton Miffin Company.

Carrel, P. L and Easter Hold, 1983, Some Issues In studying The Role of Scemata, or Background Knowledge, In Second Language Comprehension. Reading In A Foreign Language, Adopted From Majalah Ilmiah Kopertis Wilayah VIII, 13th edition.

Djarwanto, PS, SE, 1990, Pokok Pokok Metode Reset dan Bimbingan Tekhnis Penulisan Skripsi, Yogjakarta, Liberty.

Finochioro, Mary, 1983, Visual Aids In Teaching English As A Second Language Teaching, English Forum.

Harris and Sipay, 1977, How To Increase Reading Ability, New York David Mekay Company, Inc.
Hodgson In Tarigan, 1979, Membaca Sebagai Suatu Keterampilan Berbahasa, Angkasa Bandung.

Leo, Eieanors, 1974, Powerful Reading, Efficient Reading USA, Macmillan, Publishing Company.

Langan, John, 1986, Reading and Study Skill, USA: John Langan, All Right, Reserved.

Paulson, 1970, in Dr. Soekartawi. Monitoring dan Evaluasi, Proyek Pendidkan.

Papas, George, 1970, Reading in Premary School, 2nd Edition, Melbourne, The Macmillan Company of Auastralia Pty. Ltd.

Hadi, Sutrisno, Prof. Dr. MA, 1984, Methodology Research, Yayasan Penerbitan Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Gajah Mada, Yogyakarta.

Wilga, M. Rivers, 1968, Teaching Foreign Language Skills, The University of Chicago Press.

Wiresma, William, 1980, Research Method In Education, F.E Peacock Publishers.

Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary; 1981, in Dr, Soekartawi. Monitoring dan Evaluasi, Proyek Pendidikan.


Contoh Skripsi Dan Proposal Bahasa Inggris A STUDY ON THE STUDENTS’ DIFFICULTIES IN USING REQUEST AND QUESTION SENTENCES

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 A STUDY ON THE STUDENTS’ DIFFICULTIES
IN USING REQUEST AND QUESTION SENTENCES
OF THE SECOND GRADE STUDENTS OF SMA MUHAMMADIYAH MATARAM
IN ACADEMIC YEAR 2009 / 2010




CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.1              Background of The Study
Language is a means of communication. One of the languages which are used widely in the world is English. Many people say that English is one of the international languages. In facing modern area and free trade, we are demanded to be able to speak and to communicate in English. It means that English plays an important role in international communication.
Indonesia as a developing country realizes the importance of English. It is signed by participated in and placed the English on the curriculum started from the secondary school up to the university or institute.
The main goal of the teaching English is to make the students master it soon. But in the fact, they failed and even found many handicaps in learning processes, even though they have studied English for a long time. They are still facing some problems in grammar, phonology, spelling vocabulary, listening and speaking. It seems that the grammar is more difficult than the other aspects.
In teaching English as a foreign language in Indonesia, there is tendency for a teacher to teach more structure than elements and skills, but the result is still unsatisfactory. This indicates that the structure causes a serious problem in English teaching and learning process.
Structure is very essential to master a certain language especially English because it is a fundamental aspects. As we know together meaning is expressed in vocabulary and relationship expressed is in grammar.
There are two structural aspects that often cause problem to the students, they are request and question sentences. These aspects are difficult, because there are some elements of the sentences involved mainly modal, pronoun, verb and adverb and so on.
These things must be mastered well by the students if they want to structure the sentences, otherwise they will find handicaps in understanding and using it. The mistake they make, of course will annoy and distract the flow of the communication. They can cause misunderstanding on the parts of the listeners or the readers who receive the information that we communicate.
Based on the phenomena above, the writer would conduct a research on: “A Study on The Students’ Difficulties in Using Request and Question Sentences of The First Grade Students of SMA Muhammadiah Mataram in academic year 2009/2010”.

1.2              Research Questions
Related to the statement described above, the writer formulated two research questions as follows:
1.      What are the students’ difficulties in using requests and questions sentences?
What factors contribute to the difficulties of using questions and requests by the first grade students of SMA Muhammadiah Mataram in academic year 2009/2010”.


1.3              Objectives of The Study
The objectives of the study are:
1.      To find out the students’ difficulties in using request and question sentences.
2.      To find out the factors that may contribute to the students’ difficulties in using request and question sentences.
1.4              Significance of The Study
The writer categorizes the significance of this analysis into two categories based on what Aminuddin Categorizes (1987: 60):
1.      General Significant:
By understanding requests and questions sentences, it can improve our knowledge in English about sentences so that we can avoid misunderstanding in communication.
2.      Specific Significant:
1.      It is expected to help the students to develop their knowledge.
2.      It is expected to the English teachers to improve their teaching on both requests and questions.
1.5              Scope of The Study
Scopes of the study are:
1.      The students’ ability in using question such as WH-question.
2.      The students’ ability in using request in imperative sentence + please.

1.6              Definition of Key Terms
To get a clear concept of the terms which are used on the title, the writer presented them briefly in the following:
1.      Ability is a general word of mental power, native or acquire, enabling one to do something well.
2.      Request is (1) asking (person or an organization) to do something;(2) asking for permission or opportunity to do something; expressing a wish or desire to do something; (3) asking (someone) to come or go to somewhere, (Webster, 1980: 1538).
The request and question which is meant by the writer in this writing is about:
1.      WH-questions which ask for information
i.e.:
a.       What is your name?
b.      Why do you come late?
2.      Request which is imperative sentence + please
i.e.:
a.       Sit down, please.
b.      Could you take me that book, please?



CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE

Grammatical structure is the pattern of the arrangement of parts of the words into the sentence (Lado, 1990: 142). The structure means the pattern and the rule of English sentence. The students should master sentence structure in order to build their communication. To help make our meaning in conversations; we can use gesture, tone of voice and facial expression.
In this chapter, the writer would explain what is question, the type of the question, how to form WH-questions, what is the request, the types of request and some differences between question and request sentences.
2.1              What is The Question?
In general, the senior high school students have already studied the question for many years. Directly, their thinking on that a question is an interrogative sentence marked by one or more these three criteria:
1.      The placing of the operator (auxiliary verb) in front of the subject: e.g. Will Peter speak to the boss today?
2.      The initial positioning of an interrogative or WH-question element: e.g.:Don’t you speak to the boss today?
2.2  Type of The Question
Most of the English grammar books in which written either English or Indonesia described that the question can be divided into two major classes according to the type of answer that they expect.
Based on the statement above, we could define that the question into the two types:
1.      A Yes/No Question
A yes/no question is a question that may be answered by ‘yes or no’. These questions always begin with auxiliary verb.
For example:
a. Does she go to school?
Answer              : Yes, she does / No, she does. 
b. Are there enough chairs for us?
Answer              : Yes, there are / No, there aren’t.
Questions above are called ‘yes/no’ questions because the answer, which is may be expressed or just implied ‘yes’ or ’no’. In turning a statement into ‘yes’ or ’no’ question, the operator (do, does, are, etc) is put before the subject.
2.      An Information Question
An information question is a question that asks for information by using a question words: where, when, why, which, whom and how.
For example:
a. Where Anna live now?
Answer: Anna lives in California.
b. How old are you?
Answer: I am 23 years old.
c.   When will they come?
Answer: They will come on Friday.
Questions above are called ‘WH-question’ because in English they almost always begin with one of the ‘WH-word like: what, who, whom, where, when, whose, which or how’. (Philip S. and Dale, 1976).
2.3  How To Form WH-questions
WH-question is formed with the aid of one of the following simple interrogative words (Q-words):
a.      Who
b.      What
c.       When
d.      Where
e.       Why
f.       How
As a rule, (Randolph Quirk, at al., 1972: 394)
1.      The Q-element (i.e. clause element containing the Q-Word) comes first in the sentence (apart from some conjunct).
2.      The Q-word itself, moreover takes first position in the Q-element.
e.g.: What did you see base your prediction?
WH-questions ask for the specific information. They are called WH-questions, because in English, they always begin with one of the WH-words: what, where, when,  why, who, and how.
For example:
1.      What is she doing?
2.      Where does he live?
Furthermore, we try to clarify one by one of the following question words with its more examples and the answer it.
1.      In the most cases indicates that the ‘WH-question’ (Q-word) should be followed by one of the auxiliary verb.
2.      What? ‘What’ is a general interrogative used for things. (Thomson and Martinet, 1986: 72).
2.1        If what used as the subject of a question, it refers to ‘things’.
For example:
                        Question                                             Answer
a.       What made you angry?              +    His rudeness.
b.      What went wrong?                    +    Everything.
2.2        ‘What’ is also used as an object.
For example:
Question                                       Answer
a.    What do you need?                      +   I need a pencil.
2.3         ‘What kind of’ asks about the particular variety or type of something.
For example:
                  Question                                             Answer
a.       What kind of soup is that?                      +   It is bean soup.
2.4        ‘What + a form of do’ is used to ask questions about activities.
For example:
                  Question                                             Answer
a.       What did you do last night?        +   I studied English last night.
2.5         ‘What’ may accompany a noun.
For example:
                  Question                                             Answer
a.       What countries did you visit?    +   I visited Italy and Spain.
2.6         ‘Who?’
3.1 ‘Who’ is used as the subject of a question. It refers to people.
                  For example:
               Question                                             Answer
a.       Who can answer that question?  +   I can answer that question.
b.      Who came to visit you?              +   Jane and Eric came to visit me.
3.2   ‘Who’ is usually followed by a singular verb even if the speaker is asking about more than one person.
                  For example:
            Question                                          Answer
a.       Who is coming to dinner tonight?         + Ann, Bob and John are coming to dinner tonight.
3.       ‘When?’
                        ‘When’ is used to ask questions about time.
For example:
         Question                                          Answer
    1. When did they arrive?                        +   They arrived yesterday.
4.       Where?’
                        ‘Where’ is used to ask questions about place.
For example:
               Question                                          Answer
a.       Where is she?                          +   She is at home.
5.       ‘Why?’
‘Why’ is used to asks question about reason.
For example:
         Question                                          Answer
a.       Why did he leave early?          +   He leaves early because he is ill..
6.      ‘How?’
2.7 ‘How’ generally ask about manner.
                  For example:
               Question                                             Answer
a.           How did you come to school?            +   I come to school by bus.
2.8 ‘How’ is used with ‘much + countable’ and ‘many + uncountable nouns’
For example:
            Question                                          Answer
a.         How much sugar do you need?           +   I need two kilograms.
10.2    ‘How’ is also used with adjectives and adverbs.
For example:
            Question                                             Answer
a.       How old are you?                      +   I am 23 years old.
b.      How long is your ruler?                        +   My ruler is thirsty.
c.       How quickly can you get there?           + I can get there in 30 minutes.
d.      How well does she speak English? +   She speaks very well.
2.8‘How long’ asks about length of time
For example:
               Question                                             Answer
a.       How long has he been here?      +   He has been here 2 years.
2.9 ‘How often’ asks about frequency
For example:
               Question                                                         Answer
a.       How often do you visit your family? + I visit my family every week.


2.10 ‘How far’ asks about distance.
For example:
               Question                                                         Answer
a.         How far is it to hospital from here?       +   It is 100 kilometers from here.
2.4  What is Request?
Request is (1) asking (as a person or an organization) to do something; (2) asking for permission or opportunity to do something; expressing a wish or desire to do something; (3) asking (a person) to come or go to something or some place (Webster, 1996-1929). Guth defines that request is asking others to do something. (1978: 102). Simatupang and Ariyanto (1988: 175) state: “To state a request in English can be used imperative form, imperative form can be taken from present tense for the second personal pronoun”.
Imperative can also be used to make a polite request when the word please is added. Formulas of politeness such as please, will (or would) you please often accompany request.
1.      Formulas of politeness before the verb
a.       Please open the window.
b.      Will / would you (please) open the window.
2.      Formulas of politeness at the end of the sentence
a.       Give me that book, please.
b.      Give me that book, will / would you (please).
3.      Formulas of politeness split between the beginning and the end of the sentence
a.      Please turn on the light, can / could you.
b.      Can / could you turn on the light, please.
Request include asking for something, information, permission and asking for a favor.
1.      Asking for something
For example:
a.       May I have a glass of water, please? – Here you are
b.      Could you spare a moment? – Any time.
2.      Asking for information
For example:
a.       Excuse me, could you tell me how far the post-office is? – Sure. It’s two block away from here

3.      Asking for permission
1.      Is it all right (ok)
For example:
a.       Is at all right for me to go now? – Sure, if you must be off now.
2.      Do you mind?
‘Do you mind?’ is used for any occasion, e.g.:
a.       Do you mind, if I use the bathroom? – Not at all. I’ll show the way.
4.      ing for a favor
For example:
a.       Could you spare me a moment?
2.5  Types of Request
Before we discuss the types of request, it is useful to know first about the definition of speech act. Speech act is the verbal behavior used to convey the missing that makes up each phrase of the conversation. (Reardon, 1985: 265) defined that the speech is an utterance as a functional unit in a communication. There are many kinds of speech acts, such as request, orders, assertions, complete and question.
In speech act theory, utterances have two kinds of meaning:
1.      prepositional meaning (known as non-elocutionary meaning)
This is the basic literary meaning of the utterance, which it conveyed by the particular words and structures, which the utterances contain.
2.      Elocutionary meaning (known as a elocutionary farce)
This is the effect of the utterance or written text has on the listener on the reader.
By referring to this theory we can say that the request consists of two types, namely prepositional meaning and elocutionary meaning.

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHOD

3.1              Method of The Research
The writer used descriptive method in this research. This method aimed to find out the students’ difficulties in using request and question sentences and the factors that may contribute to the students’ difficulties in using request and question sentences.
3.2              Population and Sample
1.      Population
Population according to Hadi (1988: 220) is the number of people or individual that has at least the same characteristic.
Based on the opinion above it could be concluded that “a population is all individuals that are prepared as research subject”. The population of this research was all of the first grade students of SMA Muhammadiah Mataram in academic year 2009/2010 .Total of the population was 140 students.
2.      Sample
According to Arikunto (2006: 134): “If the population less than a hundred, it must be taken all as sample. It is categorized as population research. However, if the population is a hundred or more, it should be taken 10-15% or 20-25% from all of the population”.
      Based on the opinion above, the writer would take 20 % of the population in this research. It means that from 50 students, the writer would take 10 students as the sample of this research.
 The sampling technique used in this research was a sample random sampling. A sample random sampling is a technique to get a number of sample and it’s doing directly to the unit of sampling. It means that each unit of sampling as population element which remote gets same chance to be a sample or to represent population. The writer would take the sample in an ordinal manner. All of the subjects were give the number than the number were chosen randomly and who gets a number of multiple five was taken as a sample.
The first grade students of SMA Muhammadiah Mataram in academic year 2009/2010.
consist of 1 classes. From that population, 10 students were taken to be investigated in this research.
3.3              Instrument of the Research
            In this research, the writer used two instruments, they were questionnaire and multiple choice.
1.      Questionnaire
The writer used check list questionnaire, the students only gives a check sign to the fit column in the check list questions. This test is applied to find out the students’ difficulties in using request and question sentences.
2.      Objective test
In objective test, the writer used multiple choice and test. The objective tests are applied to find out the factors that may contribute to the students’ difficulties in using request and question sentences.
3.4              Procedures of Data Collection
The data needed in this study were collected through questionnaire and objective tests.
In questionnaire, the writer give some free question which are related with request and question sentences in which they are only gives a check sign to the fit column in the check list question.
In multiple choices, the writer gave 10 questions in which they are asked to choose the correct answer.
In test, the writer gave each student 10 questions for request and 10 questions for question in which they are asked to determine the sentences that belong to question or request.
3.5              Technique of Data Analysis
In analyzing the data, the writer classified the data as the quantitative form. It means the writer tabulated the data through the check list questionnaire and multiple choices test to find out the students’ scores on the difficulties in using request and question sentences. The writer  applied the following classifications:
10        is classifications as excellent
8 – 9    is classifications as very good
6 – 7    is classifications as satisfactory
4 – 5    is classifications as fairly satisfactory
3 – 4    is classifications as fairly English
1 – 2    is classifications as poor English



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