Wednesday, January 9, 2013

KUMPULAN SKRIPSI BAHASA INGGRIS TERBARU A STUDY ON THE EFECTIVENESS OF A COMIC BOOK ON STUDENTS’ VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

A STUDY ON THE EFECTIVENESS OF A COMIC BOOK ON STUDENTS’
VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT; AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY
AT FIRST YEAR STUDENTS OF SMKN 3 MATARAM
IN ACADEMIC YEAR 2010/2011


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A.    Background of the Study
English is one of the most important language in the world which used in many people all over the world, it implies that English plays very important rules in any aspect of International affairs such in spoken or written form, English used to transfer information run very vastly.     
Thus, people all over world used English either in the formal or informal situation because English is one of International language and used as first or second language.
In some countries which English as a foreign language, have changed the portion of English as first language or a second language for their communication.
Indonesian government have tried to increase the English proficiency, so that they can increase knowledge, by reading scientific books or attending seminar that are delivered in English as  evidence of this statement, school and university provide English as the subjects.
In educational field or institution especially in Indonesia has been aware of the important of English. It has been realized that English played very important role in International communication. By having good ability in English nowadays way gave an opportunity to get better.

 
Consider the important of English in the world. Indonesia decides English as a compulsory subject taught in all level of study the main purpose of teaching English in Indonesia is as an instrument to transfer science and technology and as tool of international communication.
As a teacher who has a duty to teach, teacher should motivate their students to develop students’ ability to use English. By mastering English they can help themselves to attain the science and technology.
Jeremy Harmer (1991:3) says that motivation is some kind of internal drive that encourages somebody to pursue a course of action. If we perceive goals (that is something we wish to achieve) and if that goal is sufficiently attractive, we will be strongly motivated   to do whatever is necessary to reach that goal.
As teachers we should be prepared to use a variety of technique to help our students learn and acquire grammar, sometime this involves teaching grammar rules; sometime it means allowing students to discover the rules for themselves.
Language students need to learn the lexis of the language. They need to learn what words mean and how they are used. Whilst this obviously involves giving them the name for things, it also involves showing them how words are stretched and twisted.
We should ensure that our students are aware of the vocabulary they need for their level and that they can use the words which they want to use the word we have selected for them to use.
There are many ways to teach English vocabulary, one of is using comic book, A comic book or comicbook (often shortened to simply comic and sometimes called a funny book, comic paper, or comic magazine) is a magazine made up of narrative artwork in the form of separate panels that represent individual scenes, often accompanied by dialog (usually in word balloons, emblematic of the comic book art form) as well as including brief descriptive prose. The first comic book appeared in the United States in 1934, reprinting the earlier newspaper comic strips, which established many of the story-telling devices used in comics. The term "comic book" arose because the first comic books reprinted humor comic strips. Despite their name, however, comic books do not necessarily operate in humorous mode; most modern comic books tell stories in a variety of genres.
In this case, the learners can develop their vocabularies by translating an English text on English Comic Book and memorize some words in it. Recently, is not so difficult to get an English Comic Book. At this English phenomenon, the writer wants to investigated  A Study on the Effectiveness of a Comic Book on Students’ Vocabulary Development; an experimental study at first year students of SMKN 3 Mataram in academic year 2010/2011.  
B.     Statement  of the Problem
This particular presents study in an effort to search for the answer of the research question. “Does comic book have any positive effect on students’ vocabulary at first year students of SMKN 3 Mataram in academic year 2010/2011”.

C.    Purpose of the Study
The writer would like to state the purposes of this study is identify whether the Comic book is effective to develop student vocabularies.
                        
D.    Scope of the Study
The scope of study in the research includes the following points:
1.      The subject of this research is limited to the first year students of SMKN 3 Mataram.
2.      The application in using Comic book, in which the writer would conduct third meeting with experimental group by Comic book.

E.     Assumption of  the Study
The study of conducted based on the following assumption by using Comic book in learning English will be able to enrich their vocabulary. The students who are assign to read the comic book seriously and enthusiastically can enrich their vocabularies.
F.     Hypothesis
The hypothesis set for recent study is as tentative answer of the research problem. It comprises alternative hypothesis (Ha) and null hypothesis (Ha) is a hypothesis that state a relationship exist between experimental treatments that research expert to emerge. The hypothesis which states no relationship between experimental treatments, so in particular writing the alternative hypothesis (Ha) can be formulated as follow. “Using Comic Book   is effective to develop students’ vocabulary.”
Moreover, sake of statistical analysis and the computation, it is important to change the above alternative hypothesis (Ha) into null hypothesis (Ho). This particular null hypothesis (Ho), need to be tested to gain whether it is accepted. After all the data needed are collected and analyzed statistical data computation and finding out the value of level significance. It means, if the last of t-test higher than indication of t-table of confidence level of 5% and 1% the null hypothesis (Ho) is rejected.  

G.    Significance of the Study
The writer hopes this study can give a positive contribution towards the writer,    students, the reader, teacher and other research.
In this study, we can found the two significance factor:
1.      Theoritical significance
Theoretically the research hopefully could give theoritically information concerning the rule of Comic Book in stipulating the student’ vocabulary competence in English
2.      Practical significance
The result of this study will be beneficial:
a)      The students can develop their vocabularies and try to understand by using it in their daily activity. Cause that they are able to develop their vocabulary to improve their students English.
b)      To make sure that excellent of using Comic Book in teaching vocabulary.
H.    Definition of Key Terms
Before to further of this study, the writer needs to explain about some important of used terms in this study. This is attending to avoid misunderstanding.
The terms that need to defined are:
1.      Study              : the process of learning something, piece of research that examines a subject in detail, gave time and attention to learning something. (oxford learners’ pocket dictionary, 2003:430)
2.      Effective         : producing the result that is wanted or intended. (Oxford learners’ pocket dictionary, 2003:138).
3.      Comic book     : amusing and making you laugh, magazine, especially for children with stories told in pictures, series of drawing that tell a story and are often printed in newspaper.  (Oxford learners’ pocket dictionary, 2003:80).
4.      Development   : gradual growth of something, new event or situation, and area of land with new building on it. (Oxford learners’ pocket dictionary, 2003:48).

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

As we know that process of research is star by review, some related literature. It is aimed is to provide a related information to the problem of research which can be as a toll a find a solution of the problem.
The writer would like to present a learning discussion; it is a reasonable to do the fact that subs adscription will be discussion on learning theories that can be investigate. The discussion in this part is indirectly to see how English has been though and what learning is use in teaching to increase students’ vocabulary.
A.    Study
1.      Definition of the study
The traditional argue, study is add and sets the knowledge and specialist knowledge argue that study is growth and change for someone in form of new behavior because of experiment and training.
Study is process by which in activity originates or is changed  through training procedures (whether in the laboratory or in the natural environmental0 as distinguished from changed  by factors not attribute able to training (Ernest R. Hilgard).
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Lesson study is a professional development process that Japanese teachers engage in to systematically examine their practice, with the goal of becoming more effective. This examination centers on teachers working collaboratively on a small number of "study lessons". Working on these study lessons involves planning, teaching, observing, and critiquing the lessons. To provide focus and direction to this work, the teachers select an overarching goal and related research question that they want to explore. This research question then serves to guide their work on all the study lessons.
From above definition, we can take conclusion that study is process change in human if there is no change in human after study so we can not said that have been the process of study.
2.      Theory of the study
a)      Theory of the study accordance with faculty psychology (science of  soul power)
According this theory, the soul of human depend on some of power, like the power of thinking, know, memorize, etc. this power can expand and the function it trained use manner. Depend this argue, so the meaning of study is ways to try the power to develop. So we can thinking, know, memorize, etc.
b)      Theory  of the study accordance with association soul
According this theory, the soul of human consist  of association from a view argue of enter to our soul, that association can be created by stimulus responses.
c)      Theory of the study accordance with science of the soul
According this theory, the soul of human is all of the soul. The soul of human is on and off, and interaction of environment, according this view is creation, done and thinking.
3.      Principle of the study
The process of the study is very complex, but can be analyzed of principle of study, that principle are:
a.       Study should  be to approve
b.      Study need the guide from teacher or the book.
c.       Study need understand of the matter learned.
d.      Study need training
e.       Study need the active process
f.       Study should be with willing
4.      Study abroad
Have you considered studying abroad, but are not sure whether it's worth your time? If you ask anybody who has studied abroad, he or she will most certainly tell you that it is a life-changing experience and one of the most rewarding things he or she has ever done. Perhaps you're not certain what benefits you can reap from an extended stay in a foreign country. Here are 10 very excellent reasons why you should take the plunge:
a.       Study abroad is the optimal way to learn a language. There is no better and more effective way to learn a language than to be immersed in a culture that speaks the language you are learning. You're surrounded by the language on a daily basis and are seeing and hearing it in the proper cultural context. Language learning happens most quickly under these circumstances.
b.       Study abroad provides the opportunity to travel. Weekends and academic breaks allow you to venture out and explore your surroundings - both your immediate and more distant surroundings. Since studying abroad often puts you on a completely different continent, you are much closer to places you might otherwise not have had the opportunity to visit. Some more structured study abroad programs even have field trips planned in or around the curriculum.
c.        Study abroad allows you get to know another culture first-hand. Cultural differences are more than just differences in language, food, appearances, and personal habits. A person's culture reflects very deep perceptions, beliefs, and values that influence his or her way of life and the way that s/he views the world. Students who experience cultural differences personally can come to truly understand where other cultures are coming from.
d.      Study abroad will help you develop skills and give you experiences a classroom setting will never provide. Being immersed in an entirely new cultural setting is scary at first, but it's also exciting. It's an opportunity to discover new strengths and abilities, conquer new challenges, and solve new problems. You will encounter situations that are wholly unfamiliar to you and will learn to adapt and respond in effective ways.
e.        Study abroad affords you the opportunity to make friends around the world. While abroad, you will meet not only natives to the culture in which you are studying, but also other international students who are as far from home as yourself.
f.       Study abroad helps you to learn about yourself. Students who study abroad return home with new ideas and perspectives about themselves and their own culture. The experience abroad often challenges them to reconsider their own beliefs and values. The experience may perhaps strengthen those values or it may cause students to alter or abandon them and embrace new concepts and perceptions. The encounter with other cultures enables students to see their own culture through new eyes.
g.       Study abroad expands your worldview. In comparison with citizens of most other countries, Americans tend to be uninformed about the world beyond the nation's boundaries. Students who study abroad return home with an informed and much less biased perspective toward other cultures and peoples.
h.      Study abroad gives you the opportunity to break out of your academic routine. Study abroad is likely to be much unlike what you are used to doing as a student. You may become familiar with an entirely new academic system and you will have the chance to take courses not offered on your home campus. It's also a great opportunity to break out the monotony of the routine you follow semester after semester.
i.         Study abroad enhances employment opportunities. Did you know that only 4% of U.S. undergraduates ever study abroad? Yet, the world continues to become more globalized, American countries are increasingly investing dollars abroad, and companies from countries around the world continue to invest in the international market. Through an employer's seyes, a student who has studied abroad is self-motivated, independent, willing to embrace challenges, and able to cope with diverse problems and situations. Your experience living and studying in a foreign country, negotiating another culture, and acquiring another language will all set you apart from the majority of other job applicants.
j.         Study abroad can enhance the value of your degree. While abroad, you can take courses you would never have had the opportunity to take on your home campus. In addition, study abroad gives your language skills such a boost that it is normally quite easy to add a minor in a language or even a second major without having to take many more additional courses after the return to your home campus.
B.     Teaching English Vocabulary
Traditionally, the teaching of vocabulary above elementary levels was mostly incidental, limited to presenting new items as they appeared in reading or sometimes listening texts. This indirect teaching of vocabulary assumes that vocabulary expansion will happen through the practice of other language skills, which has been proved not enough to ensure vocabulary expansion. 
Nowadays it is widely accepted that vocabulary teaching should be part of the syllabus, and taught in a well-planned and regular basis. Some authors, led by Lewis (1993) argue that vocabulary should be at the centre of language teaching, because ‘language consists of grammatical zed lexis, not lexicalised grammar’. We are going to discuss aspects of the ‘Lexical approach’ in Part 2. 
There are several aspects of lexis that need to be taken into account when teaching vocabulary. The list below is based on the work of Gairns and Redman (1986): 
1.      Boundaries between conceptual meaning: knowing not only what lexis refers to, but also where the boundaries are that separate it from words of related meaning (e.g. cup, mug, bowl).
2.      Polysemy: distinguishing between the various meaning of a single word form with several but closely related meanings (head: of a person, of a pin, of an organisation).
3.      Homonymy: distinguishing between the various meaning of a single word form which has several meanings which are NOT closely related ( e.g. a file: used to put papers in or a tool).
4.      Homophyny: understanding words that have the same pronunciation but different spellings and meanings (e.g. flour, flower).
5.      Synonymy: distinguishing between the different shades of meaning that synonymous words have (e.g. extend, increase, expand).
6.      Affective meaning: distinguishing between the attitudinal and emotional factors (denotation and connotation), which depend on the speakers attitude or the situation. Socio-cultural associations of lexical items is another important factor.
7.      Style, register, dialect: Being able to distinguish between different levels of formality, the effect of different contexts and topics, as well as differences in geographical variation.
8.      Translation: awareness of certain differences and similarities between the native and the foreign language (e.g. false cognates).
9.      Chunks of language: multi-word verbs, idioms, strong and weak collocations, lexical phrases.
10.  Grammar of vocabulary: learning the rules that enable students to build up different forms of the word or even different words from that word (e.g. sleep, slept, sleeping; able, unable; disability).
11.  Pronunciation: ability to recognise and reproduce items in speech. 
The implication of the aspects just mentioned in teaching is that the goals of vocabulary teaching must be more than simply covering a certain number of words on a word list. We must use teaching techniques that can help realise this global concept of what it means to know a lexical item. And we must also go beyond that, giving learner opportunities to use the items learnt and also helping them to use effective written storage systems. 
Increasing vocabulary knowledge is a basic part of the process of education, both as a means and as an end. Lack of adequate vocabulary knowledge is already an obvious and serious obstacle for many students, and their numbers can be expected to rise as an increasing proportion of them fall into categories considered educationally at risk. At the same time, advances in knowledge will create an ever larger pool of concepts and words that a person must master to be literate and employable. teaching vocabulary is a very important field, and it is more than just presenting and introducing new vocabulary to the learners. Knowing words is not filling papers with new words and memorizing them.
Teaching English vocabulary is an important area worthy of effort and investigation. Recently methodologists and linguists emphasize and recommend teaching vocabulary because of its importance in language teaching. Vocabulary is needed for expressing meaning and in using the receptive (listening and reading) and the productive (speaking and writing) skills. “If language structures make up the skeleton of language, then it is vocabulary that provides the vital organs and the flesh” (Harmer 27).
Vocabulary is not a syllabus, i.e., a list of words that teachers prepare for their learners to memorize and learn by heart. Memorizing may be good and useful as a temporary technique for tests, but not for learning a foreign language. Language students need to learn vocabulary of the target language in another way. If we are really to teach students what words mean and how they are used, we need to show them being used together in context. Words do not just exist on their own; they live together and they depend upon each other. Therefore, teaching vocabulary correctly is a very important element in language learning. Correct vocabulary instruction involves vocabulary selection, word knowledge and techniques.
In the past, teachers used to select and present vocabulary from concrete to abstract. Words like ‘door’, ‘window’, ‘desk’, etc., which are concrete, used to be taught at beginning levels. However, words like ‘honesty’, ‘beauty’ etc., which are abstract words, used to be taught at advanced levels because they are not “physically represented” in the learning/teaching environment and are very difficult to explain.
Nowadays methodologists and linguists suggest that teachers can decide and select the words to be taught on the basis of how frequently they are used by speakers of the language. That is, the most commonly used words should be taught first (Harmer 42).
We can get information about which words will be most useful for learners of English by looking at frequency counts of vocabulary. Usually a vocabulary count is done by making a list of the words in a particular text or group of texts and counting how often and where they occur. Some of the more recent counts have used computers to list the words and count their frequency (Nation 18).
Besides that, teachers can decide which words are useful and should be taught to their learners on the basis of semantics. This means, that the word is more useful if it covers more things than if it only has one very specific meaning. For example, the word ‘book’, which is taught at beginning levels, has wider usage than the words ‘notebook’, ‘textbook’, etc.
Furthermore, Nation says that frequency and coverage are not enough to be used when teachers select and prepare a word list for learners of English. So he suggests other criteria, such as language needs, availability and familiarity, regularity and ease of learning or learning burden.
Teachers can help their learners enrich and increase their vocabulary. They can also help the learners to build a new store of words to select from when they want to express themselves. If any learner can handle grammar correctly, that does not mean that he can express himself fluently unless he has a store of words to select from. Therefore, teachers are a very important factor in selecting and teaching English vocabulary, and they have to design vocabulary syllabi according to their learners’ needs. As a result, “(Teachers’) vocabulary work can be directed toward useful words and can give learners practice in useful skills” (Nation 28).
The selection of words which are to be taught to the students is a very important procedure in the language learning process. However, the word selection process doesn’t mean that the students will be fluent in expressing themselves in English upon learning that list, i.e., what students need to know regarding vocabulary is the word meaning, the word use, the word formation and the word grammar.
When conveying the meaning to the students, teachers should teach their students that a word may have more than one meaning when used in different contexts. For example, the word “book” has at least twelve different meanings when used in context. It has eight meanings as a noun, two meanings as a verb and three different meanings when used with prepositions as phrasal verbs. One may say “I booked my ticket three days ago”; another “I booked him for speeding” and so on (Harmer 52).
Teachers should make the teaching learning vocabulary process clear and easy for their students when conveying any meaning; otherwise the student may feel bored and become fed up with learning vocabulary.
The meaning of words can be communicated in many different ways. Nation suggests that teachers can convey meaning to their students by  demonstration or pictures (using an object, using a cut out figure, using gesture, performing and action, photographs, blackboard drawings or diagrams and pictures from books) and by verbal explanation (analytical definition, putting the new word in a defining context, and translating into another language) (Nation 21). Besides that, teachers should involve their students in discovering the words’ meanings by themselves and let them make efforts to understand words’ meanings. When the students are involved in discovering meaning, they will never forget those meanings and they will be able to express themselves fluently.
When a single word has various meanings, the teacher should decide which meanings are to be taught first, i.e., the teacher must decide which meanings occur most frequently and which meanings the learners need most. As a result, the students will be motivated, and gradually they will build their own store of words which will be a basis for communication at any time.
Furthermore, students should be familiar with the words’ meanings when words are used in metaphors and idioms, and they should know when to choose the right word for the right place. “We know that the word ‘hiss’, for example, describes the noise that snakes make. But we stretch its meaning to describe the way people talk to each other (“Don’t move or you’re dead,” she hissed.). That is metaphorical use” (Harmer 54).
Students also need to know the different forms words have and when to use them. Thus the verb ‘run’ has the participle ‘running’ and ‘run’. The present participle ‘running’ can be used as an adjective and ‘run’ can also be a noun. Therefore, word formation is a very important part in teaching vocabulary. Getting familiar with the different forms of words, the students can easily know how to use the words in writing and speaking.
Moreover, word grammar is one of the most important parts that students should be taught carefully. Teachers should give the students the opportunity to be exposed to grammatical patterns and to practice them frequently, such as nouns (countable and uncountable), verb complementation, phrasal verbs, adjectives and adverbs. Therefore, “different parts of speech should usually be taught separately because they occur in differing sentence pattern, but they need not be widely separated in a course if their meanings are very similar” (Nation 26).
Teaching vocabulary is not just conveying the meaning to the students and asking them to learn those words by heart. If teachers believe that the words are worth explaining and learning, then it is important that they should do this efficiently. Teachers should use different techniques and activities in teaching English vocabulary to motivate the learners, enrich their vocabulary and enable them to speak English properly.
There are many techniques and activities that teachers can employ and use  in teaching vocabulary, such as presentation, discovery techniques and practice. We will look at the “_ C’s approach (conveying meaning, checking understanding, and consolidation), which Celce-Murcia recommends every teacher to follow when using the sabove mentioned techniques. “In stage (conveying meaning), the items are presented to the students. In stage (checking for comprehension) exercises test how far the students have grasped the meaning of the items. In stage _ (consolidation), students deepen their understanding of the items through use and creative problem-solving activities” (Celce-Murcia 17).
C.    Comic Book in Teaching Vocabulary
Learning is one of the primary activities of students in the classroom. Successful learning is only on the right way to lead the process. Good learning atmosphere and method can guide the students to learn more and meaningful. To accomplish such condition, teachers must create varitype and attractive methods for the class.
What should a teacher do if their students get bored? Using varitype alternative solution can be handled this problem. Coomic book as a matter of fact, can help and encourage many students to sustain their interest and work. There is a common perception that all learning should be serious and solemn in nature and that if one is having fun and there is hilarity and laughter, then it is not really learning. This is a misconception. It is possible to learn a language as well as enjoy oneself at the same time. One of the best way of using Comic Book.
A comic book portrays a story through a series of sequential illustrations that incorporate short bits of text containing dialogue, sounds, or narratives. The story may be humorous, or it may present a world of adventure, mystery, or fantasy. Most comic books are printed on a regular basis and have one or more central characters whose appear in each issue. A particular story may be told in a single issue, or it may continue from one issue to the next over a period of time. The artistic style of a comic book is often attributed to a single artist, although most comics are produced by a team of artists and writers working together.
During the preparation of a comic book, a variety of art materials may be used to create the original hand-drawn page masters and color guides. These materials include various sizes, weights, and finishes of paper, as well as several different drawing mediums including pencils, inks, markers, and paints. After the master pages have been scanned and colored on a computer, the computer uses the color guides as a reference to generate four pieces of plastic film that are used in the printing process.


CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHOD
A.    Research Method
In this session the writer gave how this study would be done. The writer begins to formulated the title of the study “A Study on the Effectiveness of Comic Book on Students’ Vocabulary Development; an experimental study at first year students of SMKN 3 Mataram in academic year 2010/2011 ” dealing with the formulation on the title, the writer mentioned the purposes, the scope, and the significance of study.
One of the ways to found out the truth is through investigation or research. In research there are so many things that a research must researcher is easy to conduct.
This study is aim to found out whether using Comic Book has some positive contribution in developing students’ vocabulary in English. However the writer needs to observe the students’ level in using Comic Book by giving vocabulary test.
In this study, the writer conducted as experimental study which planning for about three meetings.
B.     Population of the Research
Arikunto (2002:108) defined that a “population is a set (or collection) of all elements possessing one or more attributes of interest”.    
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20
 
Population is the object or subject or individual that has one or more characteristic that exist in the region and full fill the certain condition which connection with the problem of the research. The population in this study is the first year students of SMKN 3 Mataram in academic year 2010/2011, there are into classes that are experimental group and control group.
C.    Sample of the Research
Sample is the representative number of research subject. It is select from whole population and not classified the certain strata. The writer will take 60 students from the population. According the writer’s, observation that each class has the same quality, there are two classes as sample to represent by the population the student of first year class at SMKN 3 Mataram. The students are dividing into two classes, 30 students for experimental group 30 students for control group.
This number is considering to be representative (more or less 20% of the population) as Arikunto (2002:112) suggested that “if the population of the research are less than 100, it is better to take all the population and if more than 100, it is suggested to take 10-15 % of 20-25% or depend on researcher necessity”. This number of sample is representative enough as the subject of the research.
D.    Data Collecting Procedures
In this study, data means all information that directly gathered from the subject. The data are the items obtain through the test pertaining with the students’ ability on English vocabulary.
In collecting data, the writer used multiple-choice with 20 questions and scored 5 for correct answer and scored 0 for incorrect answer. The test applied to found out the result of the use Comic Book in teaching English vocabulary. The writer makes the test by looking at the Comic Book.
As already stated in the previous subtopic, the writer uses three types of research: pre-test, treatment and post-test. Before giving the treatment, the writer will apply a pre-test. In giving instruction, the writer would teach English twice a week. For experimental group, the writer uses comic book in every meeting. After giving treatments (3 meetings), the writer would give post-test. It can show whether the result of the post-test is different or not from the pre-test.
1.      Pre-test
In this first part, the writer prepared pre-test for the control group and the experimental group, in this sequence, vocabulary test formulated as the objective test in which the students have to select one of the best correct answer to complete each items. The 20 items of objective vocabulary test would be questioned. Pre-test was done to know students skill.
2.      Treatment
In this research, the lesson would hold two times for experimental group. The writer would teach English vocabulary by using Comic Book.
3.      Post-test
After teaching process of treatment, the writer would give post-test for the control group and the experimental group. The test is similar to the pre-test, but the test would reshuffled post-test do to know the students skill

after the treatments and to know differences of students’ study result before and after the treatments.
Regarded the instrument of data collection for each right answer would gotten one point. That result would be applied as the data of study.
E.     Data Analysis Procedure
To analyses the data obtaining the writer used descriptive method. To analyze the result of the test, the following steps would wisely apply:
1.      The writer calculated the deviation between pre-test and post-test of experimental group.
2.      The writer calculated the deviation between pre-test and post-test of control group.
3.      The writer calculated square deviation of experimental group.
4.      The writer calculated square deviation of control group.
The writer used formula as follows:
a.       Mean and square deviation of experimental group:

b.      The mean and square deviation of control group
c.       Find the significance of the deviation by using t-test formula :
d.      Find the significance of the deviation by using t-test formula :

Where :
M        =   Mean deviation of each group
N        =   Subject of sample
X        =   Deviation between pre-test and post-test of the experimental group
Y        =   Deviation between pre-test and post-test of the control group
S        =   The sum of
     =   The roof of
(Suharsimi Arikunto, 2002:280)









CHAPTER IV
FINDING AND DISCUSSION
     Finding
Data Analysis Table
            Starting from tabulating the pre-test and pos-test, the data will be analyze used the guidance scored and then processed by measurement. The process of analyzing data continued to calculate the mean and the deviation of group.
Table 1
Table of computing students individual deviation score from the mean of experimental group (X)
NO
Subject
Xa
(Pre-test)
Xb
(post-test)
X
y2
1
AF
60
90
30
900
2
AFA
60
80
20
400
3
AJ
70
80
10
100
4
AM
80
80
0
0
5
AR
60
80
20
400
6
BR
60
90
30
900
7
DAF
60
90
30
900
8
ED
60
90
30
900
9
FR
60
90
30
900
10
HBS
60
90
30
900
11
HT
60
90
30
900
12
HPW
60
90
30
900
13
IAJ
70
80
10
100
14
IKD
70
90
20
400
15
IM
60
80
20
400
16
IP
60
80
20
400
17
IA
60
80
20
400
18
IT
70
90
20
400
19
IS
60
80
20
400
20
IR
60
90
30
900
21
IM
80
100
20
400
22
JA
70
90
20
400
23
KF
60
80
20
400
24
LM
80
100
20
400
25
LP
60
90
30
900
26
MR
60
80
20
400
27
RH
70
90
20
400
28
RJ
60
80
20
400
29
SH
70
80
10
100
30
SS
60
80
20
400
TOTAL
1930
2570
640
15200

Where:
Xa                   : pre-test score
Xb                   : pos-test score
X                     : deviation score from the mean
X2                   : square of the deviation score


Table 2
Table of computing student individual deviation score from the mean of control group (Y)
NO 
Subject
Ya
(Pre-test)
Yb
(post-test)
Y
Y2
1
AA
60
70
10
100
2
AL
60
60
0
0
3
AM
50
60
10
100
4
AP
70
70
0
0
5
APS
60
70
10
100
6
BR
50
60
10
100
7
BS
70
70
0
0
8
DK
60
80
20
400
9
DPS
60
80
20
400
10
EB
60
70
10
100
11
FH
60
70
10
100
12
HP
60
70
10
100
13
HN
50
60
10
100
14
HSR
60
70
10
100
15
IS
60
60
0
0
16
ID
40
60
20
400
17
KJ
60
70
10
100
18
MB
60
80
20
400
19
MA
50
60
10
100
20
MR
60
70
10
100
21
MS
70
70
0
0
22
MT
60
80
20
400
23
MN
70
70
0
0
24
PD
60
70
10
100
25
RAM
60
70
10
100
26
RA
60
60
0
0
27
SN
60
70
10
100
28
SHJ
60
60
0
0
29
WS
60
80
20
400
30
WW
60
70
10
100
TOTAL
1480
2040
280
4300

Where:
Ya                   : pre-test score
Yb                   : post-test score
Y                     : deviation score from the mean
                   : squared of the deviation score
    Discussion
1.      The computation of mean score
After getting the deviation of both groups, the writer can compute the mean score of experimental group and control group that could be completed as follows:
a.       The mean score of experimental group
       
               = 21,3


b.      The mean score of control group
     
                     = 9,3
2.   The computation of the standard deviation
a.    The standard deviation of experimental group (SDX)
                         
b.   The standard deviation of control group (SDY)
3.   Identification of the significance of the deviation of the two means score :
Based on the data above, formula the value of t could be found as t-test formula:
                  
                   
                    =
                   =
                   =
                   =
                t  = 2,71
          Data interpretation
Before the result is consulted the writer need to determine the level of significance and the degree of freedom used in this study. The level significance is 5 and 1 with degree of freedom 60-2=58, but the writer used df 60 at t-table. Because df 60 most approach of 58 at t-table. The closest degree of freedom for 60 at t-table, the writer found out that the t-table for df 60 is 2.000 for confidence level 5% (95%) and 2.660 for confidence level 1% (99%) of confidence level for two tailed test. In other words, we compare the t-test to table as follows:
t-test                2.71     >          t-table 2.000 (95%)
t-test                2.71     >          t-table 2.660 (99%)
This indicates that the degree of difference between the means score is significance in both confidence level 5% (95%) and 1% (99%).
Based on the data above, it is obtained that the critical value of t-equals. The critical value is higher than that of the indication of t-table. Degree of freedom of 60 at confidence level 05 or 95% is 2.000 and at confidence level of 01 or 99% is 2.660 on the two tailed test indication. In fact, the t-critical value is significance enough.


CHAPTER V
CONCLUSSION AND SUGGESTION
         Conclusion
After conducting the research, the writer found out some points conclusion, such as:
1.      The value of t-test is 2.71, this value higher than the value of t table in df 60 were 2.000 for significance level 05 (95%) and 2.666 for significance level of 01 (99%). The result shows that the use of Comic Book in teaching and learning English is effective and could develop the students’ vocabulary.
2.      Alternative hypothesis (Ha) which states using Comic Book is effective to develop students’ vocabulary is clearly accepted, and null hypothesis (Ho) which states that there is no effectiveness of using Comic Book to develop students’ vocabulary is rejected.

           Suggestion
Based on the research, the writer concluded suggestion as follow:
1.      Comic Book are applicable in teaching and learning English, especially in learn English vocabulary, considering the word used in the Comic Book is not so difficult.
2.      The teacher has to motivate, support, lead and explain their students that English is not a boring subject.
3.      The students should always practice in using their vocabulary in classroom or outside the classroom and have to study hard always pay attention to the uses of vocabulary.


BIBLIOGRAPHY


Arikunto, suharsimi. 2007. Prosedur Penelitan Suatu Pendekatan Praktek, Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.
Aqib, Zaenal. 2002. Profesionalisme Guru Dalam Pembelajaran. Surabaya: Insane Cendekia.
Bahleuwi, Ajie. 2007. Instant Vocabulary. Kediri: Kaysamedia.
Harmer, jeremi. 1991. The Practice of English Language Teaching. London and New York: Longmen.
Kardimin, Akh. 2005. Essential English Grammar. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.
Oxford University Press. 2003. Oxford Learners’ Pocket Dictionary. New York: Oxford University Press.
Soeharto, Karti. 1995. Tekhnologi Pembelajaran. Surabaya: Intellectual Club.

Update : Bagi Teman2 yang ingin skipsi ini selengkapnya beserta instrumentnya,,,bisa krimkan saja alamat Emailnya di kolom komentar,,,terima kasih'''Semoga Membantu ya,,



A STUDY ON THE EFECTIVENESS OF A COMIC BOOK ON STUDENTS’ VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT; AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AT FIRST YEAR STUDENTS OF SMKN 3 MATARAM IN ACADEMIC YEAR 2010/2011

19 comments:

fauzi ahmad on January 13, 2013 at 5:41 PM said...

alakranto@gmail.com

makasih ya, minta tolong sama instrumentnya ya

Muh. Rasyidi on February 4, 2013 at 4:06 AM said...

lw bisa ja ma instrument lengkap\

wirman valkinz on February 4, 2013 at 4:48 AM said...

MUh.Rasyidi : untuk instrumen lengkapnya,,bisa saya berikan gan,,tlong kirimkan aj alamat emailnya,,,,trims

Arull Eevann on February 21, 2013 at 3:07 AM said...

gan minta tolong banget kirim jg instrument x k arul.evannn@gmail.com tlonggg bnr

wirman valkinz on February 22, 2013 at 4:38 AM said...

arul eevann: oke gan,,segera saya kirimkan,,trims dh berkunjung

zana on March 6, 2013 at 7:06 PM said...

zana.lover7@gmail.com

tolong minta intrumentnya ya..
makasih

Idho Aya on March 6, 2013 at 11:10 PM said...

boleh dong minta heheh wat masukan di proposal penelitian ku email : bakkeridho@yahoo.com

Gunawan setiadi on March 22, 2013 at 5:06 AM said...

gan, tolong bantu saya kirimkan data lengkapnya, bantuan anda sangat berarti buat saya.. gugunenglish@gmail.com thanks before gan

gireza on April 10, 2013 at 11:05 AM said...

makasi banyak gan
boleh instrumennya gan

aldy.gireza@gmail.com

Gunawan setiadi on April 19, 2013 at 8:01 AM said...

gugunenglish@gmail.com , tolong bantuannya ya gan, bantuan anda sangat membantu saya

iskandar riah on April 26, 2013 at 4:09 AM said...

tlng dikirimkan yg lngkap instrumentx y gan thnks...
iskandarriah@ymail.com

iskandar riah on April 26, 2013 at 4:10 AM said...

tlng dikirimkan yg lngkap instrumentx y gan ...
iskandarriah@ymail.com

iskandar riah on April 26, 2013 at 4:11 AM said...

tlng dikirimkan yg lngkap instrumentx y gan ...
iskandarriah92@gmail.com

iskandar riah on April 26, 2013 at 4:12 AM said...

tlng dikirimkan yg lngkap instrumentx y gan ...
iskandarriah92@gmail.com

obey lestari on April 28, 2013 at 11:36 AM said...

ke sini juga ya gan..
obayhambali@yahoo.co.id

Ayu Dwi Wardhani on May 18, 2013 at 5:45 PM said...

minta versi lengkapnya dhoonk?krim ke sini ya avriel_zidny@yahoo.com
Terimakasih :)

DARMANSYAH on May 23, 2013 at 11:58 AM said...

minta data-a gan

Anonymous said...

nice study gannn.. :) minta yang full nya donk.. ke : awal.awan16@yahoo.com

Anonymous said...

minta yg lengkap n instrumennya donk! Trimakasih ; )
octovany@gmail.com

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