Sunday, January 20, 2013

KUMPULAN SKRIPSI BAHASA INGGRIS TENTANG THE ERRORS ANALYSIS OF USING THE PREPOSITION


THE ERRORS ANALYSIS OF USING THE PREPOSITION
MADE BY ENGLISH DEPARTEMENT’S STUDENTS
ACADEMIC YEAR 2010/2011



CHAPTER I
                                                                  INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background
Preposition is one of function words in English. It had introduced from junior high school till university, one way to introduced and learned the preposition is by asking students to make a writing paper. University  muhammadiyah of mataram have many programs to increase their students writing ability. UMM  has two programs that can make their students ability in writing better and better. The programs are structure and writing.
In writing, the students learn how to make right sentences and at the end of this program they had to write a research design as their final assessment. But before it, the students must pass some subjects. For instance, they must pass program structure I, II, III, and IV. And then, they also must pass program Writing I, II, III and Writing IV. After they pass them all, the students continue with writing research design. Therefore it’s expected that they will able to apply appropriate use of correct sentences or grammar among others the correct used of verbs, article and also preposition.
.           However, a lot of students still make certain grammatical errors in writing specially in writing a research design. The correct use of the preposition is very important in English because ungrammatical words or sentences will make some misunderstanding.
Based on the explanation above, it’s necessary for students to know more and to master everything about preposition, so that they are not making errors in their writing. Finally, this research tries to know the errors made of students in using preposition and also to give contribution to the concept of making true sentence in using the preposition.
1.2  Identification and Formulation of the problems
Prepositions are words normally placed before nouns or pronouns and can also be followed by verbs but, except after but and except, the verb must be in the gerund form (Thomson,1986:91)
Preposition includes to kinds of ‘function words’ which means “a word that doesn’t belong to one of the four major parts of speech in English (noun, verb, adjective, adverb). “Their purpose is not only to express meaning but to relate other words to each other” (Hornby,1975:7).
According to (Hornby, 1975:7) there are eight function words among the function words are:
1. Articles: a, an, and the
2. Auxiliary verbs: be, have, and do
3. Conjunction: after, though, while, etc
4. Preposition: about, as, beside, etc
5. Pronoun: I, You, We, etc
6. Noun-Determiners: a, an, the, some, etc
7. Substitute nouns: all, another, both, etc
8. Intensifiers: pretty, almost, really, etc
9. Specialized expressions: no, O.K, anyhow, etc
Based on the identification above, the formulation of this research is:
“What kind of errors in using the preposition made by English Department students of UMM academic year 2010/2011 in writing the research design?”

1.3 . Research Objective
      
The objective of this research is to find the students’ errors in using the preposition in their research design made by English’s Department students of  UMM academic year 2010/2011


1.4  Significance Of study
Implication:
- The research will give contribution to the concept of making true sentences especially in using the preposition.
Application:
- For teacher, this research is expected will give contribution in designing appropriate teaching structure methods of the use of the preposition and it’s intended to minimize the errors made by English learners.
- For the students, Regarding that this research will give useful input for English Department students in order to make the errors less when they writing something in the future time.
- Next researchers, as a reference for other research studies or conducting a further research.

E. Working Theory
In the most general terms, a preposition expressed a relation between two entities, one being that represented by the preposition complement. Of the various types of relational meaning, those of place and time are the most prominent to identify. (Quirk,1973:6.1)
Preposition includes to kinds of ‘function words’ which means “a word that doesn’t belong to one of the four major parts of speech in English (noun, verb, adjective, adverb). “Their purpose is not only to express meaning but to relate other words to each other” (Hornby,1975:7).
Prepositions are words normally placed before nouns or pronouns and can also be followed by verbs but, except after but and except, the verb must be in the gerund form(Thomson,1986:91)
A preposition is a words that links a noun or a noun equivalent (e.g. a pronoun or a gerund) to another word by expressing such relationships as location, direction, time, or purpose.(Longman,).
Preposition are always followed by nouns (or pronouns).They are connective words that show the relationship between the nouns following them and one of the basic sentence elements: subject, verb, object, or complement. They usually indicate relationship such as position, place, direction, time manner, agent, possession, and condition, between their objects and other parts of the sentence. Prepositional phrases usually provide international asked for by the question words who, what, where, when, why, how, and how long. The noun or pronoun following the preposition is it’s object. A pronoun used in this position is always an object pronoun: me, you, him, her, it, us, and them. The preposition plus its object is called the preposition phrase. (Wishon,1980.288-289)
From all the theories above which are giving definition about preposition, it takes one working theory that strengthen this research. It’s stated by Longman that “A preposition is a words that links a noun or a noun equivalent (eg a pronoun or a gerund) to another word by expressing such relationships as location, direction, time, or purpose.”

            Based on the theory above it concludes that preposition is a word that links a noun, pronoun or gerund to another word. The preposition also expressing such as location, direction, or purpose. Grammar including the preposition is one of basic in English, it’s had learned from elementary school until high school, this predicted that the English Department Students of UMM are able to use correct preposition because to be grammatically correct and to say exactly what we mean, we must use the correct preposition. On other hand, it is assumed that if they are not able to usage them correctly, it means they are not able to master the preposition.



CHAPTER II
Review of Literature

            Error which was mentioned by Karol and Marina (1972:1) is goof. A goof means an error students tend to make in learning English as a second language, for which no blame is implied a sentence containing one or more goofs.
Based on A.J.Thompson, in Oxford ( 1986:91 ).
The student has two main problems with preposition. He has to know whether in any construction a preposition is required or not which it especially troublesome to a European student and which preposition to use when one is required.

2.1  Identification of function words
According to (Hornby, 1975:7) there are eight function words among the function words are :

1.  Articles: a, an, and the
2.  Auxiliary verbs: be, have, and do
3.  Conjunction: after, though, while, etc
4.  Preposition: about, as, beside, etc
5.  Pronoun: I, You, We, etc
6.  Noun-Determiners: a, an, the, some, etc
7.  Subtitate nouns: all, another, both, etc
8.  Intensifiers: pretty, almost, really, etc
9.  Specialized expressions: no, O.K, anyhow, etc


2.2  Identification of Preposition
In the most general terms, a preposition expresses a relation between two entities, one being that represented by the prepositional complement.
2.2.1 Simple and complex prepositions
Simple preposition is preposition that consists of one word, such as at, in, and for. Other prepositions, consisting of more than one word, are called Complex. These are examples of simple prepositions: about, above, after, ,among, around, as, at, before, behind, below, beside, between, beyond, by, down, during,, for, in, inside, into, like, near, of, on, opposite, outside, over, since, through, till, to, towards, under, underneath, up, upon, with.
These are examples of complex prepositions: as well as, according to, along with, apart from, as for, as to, away from, because of, by means of, from… to, except for ,from….until , in front of, in spite of, instead of, next to, on top of, out of, up to, by way of, with respect to.

2.2.2 Types of preposition

a. physical Relationship
1. Time
a.  One point of time
     On : - Used with a day of the week .(I saw him on Sunday)
             - Used with a day of the month. (I saw him on June)
      At : - Used with part of the day considered as a point. (I saw him at noon)
             - Used with an hour of the day. (I saw him at five o’clock)
      In : - Used with a month. (I saw him in September)
             - Used with a year. (I saw him in 1986)

b.  Extended time
        Since : Gives the beginning point, if it is used with the present perfect        tense, the point is now:
                (I have not seen him since Monday)
By : Implies no later then, at anytime up to this point
                (I can see you by Monday)
From-to, until, till : A beginning point with form generally requires on end point wit to
               (I can see you from ten to five o’clock)
For : Gives a quantity of time
               (I can you for one hour)
During : Gives a block of time, usually through of as undivided
               (I can see you during the week)
Within : Gives a quantity of time before which something will happen
               (I can see you within an hour for now)

     c.   Sequence of time
           Before : the event precedes the time given in the before phras
             (I will see you before Wednesday)
           After : the event follows the time given in the after phrase
                        (I will see you after Wednesday)
2.2.3  Place-position
             a).  Position
                1.  The points it self
                      In or inside : Gives the area of something enclosed.
                                          (Hang your coat inside    the closet)
                      On : Indicates the surface of something
                              (put the dishes on the table)
                     At : Refers to general vicinity. Mere presence at a place is indicate
                            (He’s at school)
        2. Higher or lower than a point
            a.  Higher
                 Over : Felt to be generally higher than a point
                              (The plane flew over the mountain)
                Above : Felt to be directly higher than a point
                              (They lives on the floor above us)
             b. Lower
                 Under : Felt to be generally lower than a point
                               (A subway runs under this street)
                 Underneath : Expresses the idea of closer under, especially so as
               To be hidden (He swept the dirt underneath the rug)
                 Below : Felt to be directly lower than a point
                               (He lives on the floor below us)
                 Beneath : Expresses the idea of directly under, with some space under)
         3.  Neighboring the point
              Near : Most general meaning of neighboring of point
                         (He lives near the university)
              Next to : With nothing else between them
                              (The school is right next to the hospital)
             Alongside : Adjoining person s or thing considered as lined up,
           Or side by    side (The tug pulled up alongside the tanker)
             Beside : On one side of a person or thing that has two sides
                            (He sat beside his wife during the party)
             Between : On each side of a person or thing that has two sides
                               (He sat between his two sons)
             Opposite : Directly facing someone else
                                 (The museum is just opposite the bank)
        4.  Direction (Movement in regard to a point)
             To – from : He always walks to school from his home
             Toward (s) : The pilgrims headed toward(s) Mecca
              Away from : They moved away from their old neighborhood
             In (to)-out of : He ran into the house quickly. After a few minutes he ran    out of the house with an umbrella under his arm
            Up-down : He climbed up (or down) the stair
             Around : The ship sailed the island
                Through : You can drive through that town in an hour
                  Past : He walked past his old schoolhouse without stopping
                 As far as : We’ll walk only as far as the old schoolhouse, then we turn                          back. (Frank, 1972: 164-168)
b. Semantic Relationship
Many of prepositions introduce phrases that are adverbial or adjective clause equivalent.
1) Cause or reason (adv) : Because of
Because of his selfishness he has very few friends
2) Purpose (adv) : for, for the purpose of
She went to grocery store for milk
3) Comparison (adv) : like, as
He is living like a millionaire
4) Instrument (adv) : With
He cut the meat with sharp knife
5) Manner (adv) : With
He does his work with great care (= carefully or in a careful manner)
6) Example (adj) : Like, such as
An adjective is used after a verb like, seem, appear, become.
Here some guidelines on the use of preposition:
• The noun or noun equivalent that is used with a preposition is the object of the preposition.
Preposition object
Above the box
• A preposition may have more than one object
With my teacher or my friend
• If a pronoun is the object of the preposition it must be in the object form
About me (not I) to them (not they)
• A preposition may link its object with:
- A verb
Walk behind us (link walk with us)
- An adjective
He is good at English (link English with good)
- Another noun
It’s a book about detectives (link detective with book)
• Many words that are used as prepositions are sometime used as the other parts of speech. To identify preposition, it is important to consider the function of the particular word in a sentence, i.e. preposition links a noun or noun equivalent to another word:
I saw him before lunch (preposition)
I’ve seen him before (adverb)
I saw him before we had lunch (conjunction)
• It is sometime said that a preposition must always be placed in front of noun or noun equivalent and that a sentence should not end with a preposition. In practice, there are instances when a preposition is not followed directly by its object.
Mary is the person you spoke to.
This is an example of something I will not put up to.
What does she look like?
Who did you talk to?
3. Common Errors
a. Pronouns after preposition
The pronoun used after a preposition must be in the object form (e.g. me, her, him)
- Peter was with Jim and I (WRONG)
- Peter was with Jim and me. (CORRECT)
b. Incorrect omission of preposition
When a sentence has two or more words that take different prepositions, none of the prepositions should be omitted.
- The manager disagreed and disapproved of the way you argued. (WRONG)
- The manager disagreed with and disapproved of the way you argued. (CORRECT)
c. Unnecessary repetition of prepositions
Errors in unnecessary repetition of prepositions may seem obvious when they pointed out.
- The error to which recent letter refers to has been corrected (WRONG)
- The error to which recent letter refers has now been corrected (CORRECT)
- The error which recent letter refers to has now been corrected (CORRECT)
d. Noun following between
Between must be followed by a plural noun. It’s not possible to have a position that is between one thing.
- When you write, leave a space of 5 mm between each word. (WRONG)
- When you write, leave a space of 5 mm between words. (CORRECT)
e. Preposition after request
When request is used as a verb, it does not take any preposition. When it’s used as a noun, the preposition used with it is for.
- John requested for your assistance. (WRONG)
- John requested your assistance. (CORRECT)
- John put in a request for your assistance. (CORRECT)
f. Between and among
It’s not correct to say that between is used only when two things or people are referred to and that among is used when there are more than two things or people. Between can be used when reference is made to more than two things or people if each one of them is compared to all the others as a group.
- What is the difference among “sometimes”, “sometime”, and “some time”? (WRONG)
- What is the difference between “sometimes”, “sometime”, and “some time”? (CORRECT)
Among is used when the number of things or people is not known or not important.
- The hut is among the trees (CORRECT)
- The letter you want is among all those document (CORRECT)
- You are among friends (CORRECT)




THE ERRORS ANALYSIS OF USING THE PREPOSITION MADE BY ENGLISH DEPARTEMENT’S STUDENTS ACADEMIC YEAR 2010/2011

2 comments:

  1. boleh minta yang lengkapnya g ? kirimin ya ke :

    i.rasidah23@gmail.com

    di tunggu

    ReplyDelete
  2. minta yang lengkapnya donk sampe chapter III,,di kirim ke emy_ananjell@yahoo.com

    ReplyDelete