Wednesday, January 9, 2013

CONTOH SKRIPSI DAN PROPOSAL BAHASA INGGRIS WORD GROUPING ACTIVITIES IN INCREASING STUDENTS’ VOCABULARY


WORD GROUPING ACTIVITIES IN INCREASING
STUDENTS’ VOCABULARY: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY
 AT THIRD YEAR STUDENT OF SMP NEGERI 4 MATARAM
IN ACADEMIC YEAR 2010/2011


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
1.      Background of Study
Developing the world  forces us to know everything include the language. As we know, that language is a tool of communication. As such one of its primary function is to communicate (Hugehs,1993 : 64). We know that we have got our language since we are child, we got it from our parents, our friends or environment. And we use it as our first language. When we grow up, we get another language from our school such as English language, and we use it as our foreign language. Mastering English is not pleasure or prestige of knowing the language, but it is the key to the international communication and also for technology and commerce in era of globalization (Hutchison, 2004: 195). As we know that English language become the international language, so many people learn English for many purpose, such as for economic purpose, English teacher, tourism etc. So, English is very important in communication process internationally. 
The difficulty of learning English is not only at junior high school but also at the senior high school and even at the university. Because the process of learning English as foreign language is the same with the process how children learn to talk for the first time. Every school in Indonesia has to give the best service for students with quality teacher/professional teacher to teach the students, facilities etc. Many people recognize the need for change in schools. It solely to improve or to increase students’ ability in many fields especially in English language because English language always needed to fulfill work field, for example: as tourism, a trading, a teacher, businessman, writer, interpreter etc.
Vocabulary is the important thing. Proficiency in other aspect is not enough to guarantee that someone can mastering the English language with limited of vocabulary, for example, because grammar can make sentence grammatically right. Even, we can say the sentences are right grammatically and another is wrong grammatically. But limited of vocabularies are mastered, we just can make simple sentence and limited sentence. And then, in using the language, we use thousands of words to communicate every day. Besides limited several of sentences, less of vocabularies hamper comprehension in communication. Do you ever read a book and you didn’t understand the sentence?
Well, in learning English students should know about vocabularies. Because by knowing the words, students will try how to use it to express idea and communication. In fact, the vocabulary cannot be separated from other language aspect. So, by knowing vocabularies, the children will be able to develop the language skill such as: listening, speaking, reading, and writing.  
This is the reason that the writer applies the grouping word activities to create new styles of teaching rather than old fashioned direct instruction. Education is supposed to become less stressful, more relaxed, and more enjoyable, bringing a long list of educational advantages. The writer assumes that the student can encourage, and they can enjoy with many activities in grouping word. Activities in learning process contain motivational aspects and will increase the interesting in learning.  
In fact, in daily classroom activity, student often find difficulty in vocabulary and how to different among verb, adjective, adverb, and noun. At junior high school grade in third year less knowledge of vocabulary. When people could master grammar and pronunciation better than vocabulary, they will be difficult to communicate but if their master vocabulary is better than grammar and pronunciation they will be easy to communicate ( Widya, 1997:53). In teaching learning process faces many problems, For example, when the teacher explained some topic, some of student look bored, annoying their friend, they can’t keep silent, act. So, word grouping activity is one of way how to solve the problem less stressful, more relaxed, and more enjoyable. Besides that, word grouping activities increasing students’ vocabulary. Word grouping invite to participate them in teaching learning process.  
In any classroom, it is important to get students paying attention and listening. We have to watch them carefully and constantly because kids will be kids.

2.      Statement of the Problem
Based on the background of this study, the writer determined the problem of the study that becomes the concern of the discussion. The problem was elaborated into a research question that reads: “Do word grouping activities increase students’ vocabulary at SMPN 4 Mataram in Academic Year 2010/2011”.
3.      Purposes of the Study
From the statement of the problem stated above the goal of this research was: “To find out whether word grouping activities can increase students’ vocabulary at SMPN 4 Mataram in Academic Year 2010/2011”.
4.      Significance of the Study
This research was hopefully useful to make sure that word grouping activities could increase students’ vocabulary.
5.      Scope of Study
This study was limited to the use of word grouping activities in increasing students’ vocabulary (verb, adjective, noun, and adverb). It was implemented in teaching vocabulary at third year students of SMPN 4 Mataram in Academic 2011.
  1. Assumption
1)            The third year students of SMPN 4 Mataram had the same ability and comprehension in English vocabulary.
2)             Word grouping activities can helped the students or improved their ability in English vocabulary.
3)            Method of collection the data as well as an instrument used was opportunity selected and constructed.
  1. Definition of Key Terms
To avoid possible misunderstanding and misinterpreting of this study, it is necessary to clarify some of the term as follow:
1)            Word Grouping is something activity at number of words to organize based on their each function,
2)            Activities are situation in which something is happening or a lot of things are being done,
3)            Vocabulary is consisting of the total number of word which can use to sequence sentence to paragraph for using in language or master foreign language, and
4)            Increasing is become or makes greater in number, in this case the vocabulary of the students.
  1. Hypothesis of the Study
Based on the background of study, statement of the problem, the hypothesis of this study stated that: “Word grouping activities can increase students’ vocabulary at SMPN 4 Mataram in Academic Year 2010/2011”.


CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

In this chapter review of related literature writer begins with what is language in our life and then what’s function of language itself because language is a tool of communication. How to make relation or communication, that’s because of language. We can express our ideas and feeling by language or communication. Communication can’t run well because there is no good language using of communication.  Communication couldn’t run well without mastering in vocabularies. So, word grouping activities in increasing vocabulary is one of ways to make students have fun, relax, interested, in learning process. So this way, there are some steps in this chapter that is what’s the language, The function of Language, Vocabulary as language element, teaching of Vocabulary.
1.  What is Language?
Language may refer either to the specifically human capacity for acquiring and using complex systems of communication, or to a specific instance of such a system of complex communication. The scientific study of language in any of its senses is called linguistics. The approximately 3000–6000 languages that are spoken by humans today are the most salient examples, but natural languages can also be based on visual rather than additive stimuli, for example in sign languages and written language. Codes and other kinds of artificially constructed communication systems such as those used for computer programming can also be called languages. A language in this sense is a system of signs for encoding and decoding information. The English word derives from Latin lingua, "language, tongue." This metaphoric relation between language and the tongue exists in many languages and testifies to the historical prominence of spoken languages. When used as a general concept, "language" refers to the cognitive faculty that enables humans to learn and use systems of complex communication.
The human language faculty is thought to be fundamentally different from and of much higher complexity than those of other species. Human language is highly complex in that it is based on a set of rules relating symbols to their meanings, thereby forming an infinite number of possible innovative utterances from a finite number of elements. Language is thought to have originated when early hominids first started cooperating, adapting earlier systems of communication based on expressive signs to include a theory of other minds and shared intentionality. This development is thought to have coincided with an increase in brain volume. Language is processed in many different locations in the human brain, but especially in Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas. Humans acquire language through social interaction in early childhood, and children generally speak fluently when they are around three years old. The use of language has become deeply entrenched in human culture and, apart from being used to communicate and share information; it also has social and cultural uses, such as signifying group identity, social stratification and for social grooming and entertainment. The word "language" can also be used to describe the set of rules that makes this possible, or the set of utterances that can be produced from those rules. All languages rely on the process of symbiosis to relate a sign with a particular meaning. Spoken and signed languages contain a phonological system that governs how sounds or visual symbols are used to form sequences known as words or morphemes, and a syntactic system that governs how words and morphemes are used to form phrases and utterances. Written languages use visual symbols to represent the sounds of the spoken languages, but they still require syntactic rules that govern the production of meaning from sequences of words. Languages evolve and diversify over time, and the history of their evolution can be reconstructed by comparing modern languages to determine which traits their ancestral languages must have had for the later stages to have occurred. A group of languages that descend from a common ancestor is known as a language family. The languages that are most spoken in the world today belong to the Indo-European family, which includes languages such as English, Spanish, Russian and Hindi; the Sino-Tibetan languages, which include Mandarin Chinese, Cantonese and many others; Semitic languages, which include Arabic and Hebrew; and the Bantu languages, which include Swahili, Zulu, Xhosa and hundreds of other languages spoken throughout Africa.
 Human language is unique in comparison to other forms of communication, such as those used by other animals, because it allows humans to produce an infinite set of utterances from a finite set of elements, and because the symbols and grammatical rules of any particular language are largely arbitrary, so that the system can only be acquired through social interaction. The known systems of communication used by animals, on the other hand, can only express a finite number of utterances that are mostly genetically transmitted. Human language is also unique in that its complex structure has evolved to serve a much wider range of functions than any other kinds of communication system. The word "language" has two meanings: language as a general concept, and "a language" (a specific linguistic system, e.g. "French"). Languages other than English often have two separate words for these distinct concepts. French for example uses the word langage for language as a concept and langue as the specific instance of language. When speaking of language as a general concept, several different definitions can be used that stress different aspects of the phenomenon:

1)            A mental faculty, organ or instinct is One definition sees language primarily as the mental faculty that allows humans to undertake linguistic behavior: to learn languages and produce and understand utterances. This definition stresses the universality of language to all humans and the biological basis of the human capacity for language as a unique development of the human brain. This view often understands language to be largely innate, for example as in Chomsky's theory of Universal Grammar or Jerry Fodor’s extreme innatist theory. These kinds of definitions are often applied by studies of language within a cognitive science framework and in neurolinguistics.

2)            A formal symbolic system is Another definition sees language as a formal system of symbols governed by grammatical rules combining particular signs with particular meanings. This definition stresses the fact that human languages can be described as closed structural systems consisting of rules that relate particular signs to particular meanings. This structuralism view of language was first introduced by Ferdinand de Saussure. Some proponents of this view of language, such as Noam Chomsky, define language as a particular set of sentences that can be generated from a particular set of rules. The structuralism viewpoint is commonly used in formal logic, semiotics, and in formal and structural theories of grammar, the most commonly used theoretical frameworks in linguistic description. In the philosophy of language these views are associated with philosophers such as Bertrand Russell, early Wittgenstein, Alfred Tarski and Gottlob Frege.

3)            A tool for communication is Yet another definition sees language as a system of communication that enables humans to cooperate. This definition stresses the social functions of language and the fact that humans use it to express themselves and to manipulate objects in their environment. This view of language is associated with the study of language in a functional or pragmatic framework, as well as in socio-linguistics and linguistic anthropology. In the Philosophy of language these views are often associated with Wittgenstein’s later works and with ordinary language philosophers such as G. E. Moore, Paul Grice, John Searle and J. L. Austin.

It’s means that you have the capacity to produce the sounds that signify certain meaning and to understand interpret the sounds, Which are produce by the other people. Language is something couldn’t see but could hear. Languages live, die, shift,  move from time to time, place to place. Languages live if society or people use the language long time. Language die because people didn’t use it in a long time again, language shift because use another language because they move to another place. Besides that, language always changes from time to time.

2.   The Function of Language

Using a language as a primary means of communicating our thoughts is so natural for many people that it is often difficult to realize what in fact are language functions. Some of the roles of language are so mundane that they are hardly ever noticed, others are very elevated, or even abstract. Due to their diversity the functions of language might be divided into two categories: micro functions which refer to specific individual uses, and macro functions which serve more overall aims.
1)      Micro functions:
a.       Physiological function (releasing physical and nervous energy): Although it might be striking this use of language is fairly common. It is easily recognizable when devoted fans of sports are observed while watching their favourite discipline on TV. Such fans often shout instructions, express support, or disappointment and while as a means of communicating with sportsmen they are useless, such cheers are to release repressed energy. Similarly curse words are used to serve this purpose, as they rarely convey any meaning and are only to make the speaker feel better.
b.      Phatic function (for sociability): The use of such phrases as ‘nice day today’, or ‘how do you do’ is characterized by lack of any informative content and is intended to link people and make the coexistence peaceful and pleasant. The phatic use of language is characteristic mainly of speech, however, in certain types of writing it can also be noticed, as in letters for example, where the beginning Dear Sir/Madam and ending Yours faithfully also serve that purpose.
c.       Recording function: Recording function denotes using language to make a durable record of things that ought to be remembered. Owing to its omnipresence writing is probably the most significant function of language. There is evidence that the first writing system was developed in the Middle East as early as 4000 BC. At the beginning writing systems took forms of pictures representing the things they referred to, gradually developing into the alphabets in their present forms.
d.      Identifying function: Language is used also to identify the objects and events in the world we live in. Without this function language would be almost useless, as it is thanks to the names of things that we know what is talked about. Many primitive societies unable to write believe that names hold great power. Even in western culture names are thought to be immensely important: the God’s name ought not to be used in vain, before giving a name to a newborn child parents consider the choice deeply. We use names to classify different types of things, whether we call a car an automobile, a lorry, a van or a truck makes a big difference.
e.       Reasoning function (instrument of thought): Before we say something we think and to do that we necessarily use language. In most cases it is extremely difficult to think about anything without any use of words. In fact is it also difficult not to think for a longer period of time as human brains work all the time processing information, thus providing us with concepts formulated by means of language.
f.       Communicating function: This function would probably be pointed at by most language users without major consideration. Indeed it is in all likelihood most commonly used language function by majority of speakers. Requesting, apologizing, informing, ordering as well as promising and refusing are all reasons for communicating our ideas.
g.      Pleasure functions: The fact that language often gives pleasure both to the speakers and listeners is not only supported by the frequent use of assonance, alliteration and onomatopoeia in poetry. Depending on the sounds of languages some are perceived as being mild as English for example, others crude as German. People also derive pleasure from unusual use of syntactic rules, as well as novelties of meanings juxtapositions and language games, which is often used by skilful writers.
2)      Macro functions:
a.       Ideational function: Ideational function refers to the conceptualizing process involved in our mental activities. Thanks to language we are able to understand what happens around us.
b.      Interpersonal function: Interpersonal function emphasizes that language is mainly a social phenomenon, but apart from enabling communication with other people it enables to project the speaker in the desired way and to represent the speaker.
c.       Poetic function: Here, the word poetic does not refer to the ability to write poetry, but the ability to manipulate language in a creative way. With the use of jokes and metaphors we can play with words and meanings simply for joy.
d.      Textual function: Textual competence refers to our ability to create long utterances or pieces of writing which are both cohesive and coherent. Unlike animals people, by use of certain linguistic devices, are able to produce long sentences and text, and not only simple phrases. The above mentioned functions are only one point of view on language. Most certainly there are many other functions that natural languages fulfill, yet depending on approach to this issue.
2.      Vocabulary as Language Element
Vocabulary as Language Element or Emotional literacy, It comes from language itself. When studied closely, language contains an Emotional Literacy Vocabulary. Words which have been used for thousands of years, over time, connect together to form a structure. This structure is made up of related words itself. The actual structure is based upon the way the mind functions, and the experiences it gives to the individual.
Emotional Literacy Education is the teaching of basic language elements. These elements are the Emotional Literacy Vocabulary. When these words are learned, they are used to interpret the emotional content of any situation. With Emotional Literacy Education, students are taught the skill of understanding the meaning of words in the Emotional Literacy Language. They are also taught how these words are connected together. By connecting the words together, they form a larger emotional picture. They help the student understand why they are experiencing emotions.
The vocabulary helps the student become conscious of the purpose of their emotions, thoughts and behaviors. This leads to greater self-acceptance. The individual learns the value of their feelings and how they can be helpful. It removes self-denial, and the inherent problems of rejecting, repressing and making feelings unconscious. This results in an inability to use feelings to evaluate people, problems and circumstances. The student learns how their own feelings can help them evaluate and solve problems in relationships. The skill of Emotional Literacy knows how to recognize emotional content and its structure within language. It is being able to relate that information to everyday life. Emotional Literacy Education is the learning of a new language. That new language is the Emotional Literacy Language. This language, when it is learned by the student, gives coping mechanisms to help them control their emotions, thoughts and behaviors. It does this by integrating emotion, thought and consciousness. This gives the individual greater insight into their own behavior, and helps them choose actions which produce positive outcomes and feelings. It also gives the student planning skills and greater self-confidence to execute plans and achieve goals. For the student this results in higher self-esteem. It also reduces negative choices which lead to bad outcomes, feelings and low self-esteem.
The Emotional Literacy Language is a structured vocabulary of common words that contain emotional content and meaning. These familiar words are used to create symbolic words and pictures of feelings, thoughts and behaviors. This promotes better awareness of the internal actions of one's own mind. It is the primary tool used in the educational process. Emotional Literacy Language and Vocabulary is structured based upon these criteria:
1)            Organizing words into a structure based upon the way words are connected together in language.
2)            Organizing words into a structure based upon the way words are connected to the individual's experiences.
3)            Words are organized by level of difficulty from easier to more difficult. This criterion is used to assign word by grade level.
4)            Students are taught based on their level of perception of their own emotions.
5)            New words are introduced to the student at language development stage with words that are familiar to them.
The Emotional Literacy language and vocabulary work, Students are taught the Emotional Literacy Language like the way students learn how to read. For example, when learning how to read, students start with the basic elements of speech. They learn how to pronounce the written symbols of vowel and consonant sounds. These basic sound symbols are combined into words. Students then learn how to sound out words based on the consonant and vowel sounds. The student learns to identify the sounds as written words. Also, the student learns the meaning of individual words. This skill is then applied to reading and understanding any textual material.
3.      Teaching Word Grouping
In any classroom, it is important to get students paying attention and listening. English is compulsory subject that must be learned in all level. The first thing that students must know about vocabulary we can express our idea in communication. Rivers (1983) states that and adequate vocabulary is vocabulary, we will be unable to use the structure and function but we may have learned for comprehensible communication. Be sure speak slowly and clearly. Children used to listening in a different language require a few extra milliseconds for their brains to process the new information they are receiving in English.
Teaching vocabulary use games and activities in classroom in learning process. If the teacher feels that an adequate amount of practice via these recognition activities has been reached, there are more challenging, vocabulary games and activities that aim to reduce fear and hesitancy. Most of characteristic of language learners studying a language that isn't their mother tongue. Vocabulary games and activities for teacher aims to make the learning process more active and more have fun. The teacher role is solely as facilitator, while the students do the work and enjoy using this motivating and lively material.
The role of the teacher apart from the activities in the section teacher-led activities the teachers role is largely a passive one. The teacher is mainly responsible for:
1)      Preparing the material in sufficient quantities
2)      Explaining clearly what is to be done
3)      Checking answer and of an activity.
Once an activity has started, student usually works independently of the teacher their own pace. The teacher goes round the classroom listening and monitoring their progress and only interfering or helping if absolutely necessary. In this section, you will apply what you have learned to your own teaching. The following activities are designed to assist you in developing activities to teach word analysis and vocabulary. Choose one or both of the activities from the list below. There are also pre-reading lessons that are based on vocabulary review. There are a variety of fun vocabulary activities that have game-like features that are very motivating: "I'm thinking of" You give the class a few definitions corresponding to a 5-6 vocabulary words and the students guess the word, The teacher whispers the word and the students try and recognize the word, The teacher spells the word backwards and the students try and recognize the word.

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHOD

   In this chapter, the writer explains a research design used in this study. It contains method of study, population and sampling technique, method of the data collection, and data analysis procedure
1.      Method of Study
It is one of ways to find scientific truth. In this research there were many things that writer had to make the research very easy and effective to conduct. First, the writer formulated the title of this research on the “word grouping activities in increasing students vocabulary”. The writer also determined the purpose, the scope, and the significance of the research. 
This research was aimed at finding out whether word grouping activities could increase students’ vocabulary, the writer needed to deliver an experimental research, which was planned for about 4-5 meetings. During 4-5 meetings the writer gave instruction to two groups of sample, Group A as experimental group and group B as control group.
2.      Population and Sampling Technique
A.    Population
The population of this study was the second year students of SMPN 4 Mataram in Academic Year 2010/2011. The writer did take all populations as the sample of this study since the number was too large. In Encyplodia of Education Evaluation, it was explained that a population was a set or collection of all elements possessing one or more attributes of interesting.
The writer took some students in SMP N 4 Mataram, in Academic years 2011. Which consisted of  seven classes, they are 32 in each class and the total of them was 270. These classes, which were supposed, had been actively treated with either Word Grouping in increasing students’ vocabulary.
B.     Sampling
Sample is the population in a research. The samples were chosen of this study were the whole class of VIII in SMPN 4 Mataram in Academic Year 2010/2011. The writer took some of them as sample of the study by using random sampling. They consisted of experimental class (30) and control class (30). So, sampling was 60 students.
3.      Instrument of Research
 The instrument is the tool or facility, that can be used by researcher in setting the data to make more easily (Arikunto, (2002:136). The instrument  be used in this research to collect the data was test. The researcher gave the student test for pre-test on vocabulary for two groups in the first meeting. The student will to selected one best answer to complete each items.
 Research delivered post test to all students as the sample of the research.
Regarding to the instrument of data collection, questions were scored 2 for each correct answers  and research instrument consist of 5 test. It means the right students’ score ranged from the highest 100 (when the students could answer all question correctly) and the lowest was 0 (when the students could not answer any of the test)
4.      The Method of Collecting Data
To collect the data of this study. The writer used method of data collection as follows:  
1.      Pre-test
Pre-test was the first method of data gathering that was used by the researcher. The researcher gave pre-test to both groups (experimental group and control group) as the sample of research. Pre-test aimed at knowing the students’ vocabulary ability. Before having treatment, The test conducted by the researcher.
2.      Treatment
 After pre-testing the samples were treated/ taught by using word grouping action. The researcher  did, 4-5 times. They tested using be post-test by using the same item as pre-test.
3.      Post-test
In this part, after the students treated by word grouping activities for experimental group and for control group without word grouping activities. The researcher delivered a test to all of students as the sample and asked them to do the test individually carefully on certain given time. Finally, the students’ paper sheet  submitted and the students’ results were treat as the data of the study. The test is similar to the pre-test.
5.      Data Analysis Procedure
To analyze the data obtained, the writer used descriptive method of analysis. To get the result of the test, the following steps wisely applied:
A.    Finding out the mean score of the deviation of experimental group (X) and control group (Y) by using the following formula:
      MX =
In which :
MX = The mean score of deviation of experimental group
X    = The deviation score of pre-test and post-test
 N    = The number of sample
     = The sum of
  Where the formula applied for control group :
      =
In which :
MY = The mean score of control group
Y     = The deviation score of pre-test and post-test
N     =  The number of sample
     =  The sum of
B.     finding out the standard deviation of experimental group (X) and control group (Y) by using the following formula :
      SDX = ∑X2 -
Where :
SDX    : the standard deviation of experimental group
         : the sum of
X2          : the quadrate deviation score of pre-test and post-test score
X         : the deviation score of pre-test and post-test score
N         : the number of sample
                        Where formula applied standard deviation for control group :
               SDY = ∑Y2 -        
Where :
SDY    : the standard deviation of control group
         : the sum of
Y2          : the quadrate deviation score of pre-test and post-test score
Y         : the deviation score of pre-test and post-test score
N         : the number of sample
 
C.     Computing the two mean scores to know the significance by applying the following formula :
Where :
M   = mean deviation of each group
N    = deviation of sample
X    = deviation between pre-test and post-test (the experimental     group)
 Y    = deviation between pre-test and post-test (the control group)
           the root of
     = the sum of
d.f   = Nx+Ny-2 (degree of freedom) (Arikunto (2002:280))


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WORD GROUPING ACTIVITIES IN INCREASING STUDENTS’ VOCABULARY: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AT THIRD YEAR STUDENT OF SMP NEGERI 4 MATARAM

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