Thursday, January 10, 2013

Contoh Skripsi Bahasa Inggris Lengkap AUDIO LINGUAL TEACHING AS AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD IN TEACHING SPEAKING


AUDIO LINGUAL TEACHING AS AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD IN TEACHING SPEAKING: EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH AT THE FIRST YEAR STUDENTS OF SMP NEGERI 20 MATARAM IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR 2010/2011


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.    Background of the Study
We never stop learning language from the babbling of babies to the vicarious preschool years, from our early encounters with print and our first attempts at writing through to the secondary textbooks and then beyond to the new demands  of the adulthood, where we still continue to learn and refine the language needed in every new situation in which we find ourselves. (Derewianka, 1990:3)
People use language to express their mind, wishes, and ideas. Language is a means of communication people use to share ideas with others. Language predicts attitude and wishes of the users.
Language is not only used for daily conversation but also used in education, research and science both spoken and written. Considering those functions of language, people study language both formal or in class and informal or outside the class.
English is one of the widely used international languages. Both as a means of oral and written communication, including the broadcasting and the writing of newspaper, magazine and technological as well as scientific books. Therefore, people who want to be acquainted with technology and scientific advances have to master this language well since it is much used in science and technology in almost all countries.
In Indonesia English is taught at SMP (junior high school), SMU (senior high school), in University, many courses and it has also been taught at SD (elementary school). Knowing that English is quite significant for Indonesia in the future, the government always makes efforts to improve the quality of English teaching. By improving the quality of teachers and other components in educational process, hopefully the English teaching can be improved. One of the improvements of the English teaching deals with the syllabus which is reflected in the materials given to the students.
According to Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan 2006 (KTSP, 2006:278) the aim of the English teaching in Indonesia especially teaching English to junior high school is to enable students to have the ability in developing communicative competence in both oral and written form in achieving functional literacy level, to have the awareness about the essence and the important of English in increasing competition in global community, and the last is developing the students’ comprehension about interrelatedness between language and culture.

1.   Problem of the Study
Based on the general background of the study above, statement of the problem can be stated as: How effective is audio-lingual teaching used as an alternative method in improving the students’ speaking achievement?



1.  Objectives of the Study
The main proposes of this study is to find out the effectiveness of Audio-lingual teaching as an alternative method in improving the students’ speaking achievement

1. Significance of the Study
The significant of the study will be some uses:
1.      As a reference for everyone who is learning about speaking skill.
2.      To make the students be aware when they making good conversation with other people.
3.      To enrich the student’s knowledge at SMPN 20 Mataram. Especially in first grade.
4.      To find some information for the speaker how the way to speak English using audiolingual method.

1. Definition of the Key Terms
1.         Audio Lingual
Audio Lingual method of teaching English as a second language had its origins during World War II when it became known as the Army method.  It was developed as a reaction to the grammar-translation method of teaching foreign languages.  Grammar-translation had been used to teach for thousands of years, but the method was perceived as taking too long for learners to be able to speak in the target language.  The Audio-Lingual method set out to achieve quick communicative competence through innovative methods.
2.         Alternative
3.    Methode
1)      Methode is a means or manner of procedure, especially a regular and systematic way of accomplishing something: a simple method for making a pie crust; mediation as a method of solving disputes. See Usage Note at methodology.
2)      Methode is Orderly arrangement of parts or steps to accomplish an end: random efforts that lack method.
3)      Method is a technique of acting in which the actor recalls emotions and reactions from past experience.

4.      Speaking Or Speaking Model
Speaking model, is a model socio-linguistic study (represented as a mnemonic) developed by Dell Hymes. It is a tool to assist the identification and labelling of components of linguistic interaction that was driven by his view that, in order to speak a language correctly, one needs not only to learn its vocabulary and grammar, but also the context in which words are used.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE

2.  The General Concepts of Audio-lingual Method
Using contrastive The Audio-lingual Method, also known as the aural oral, Functional skills, new key or American method of language teaching was considered a “scientific” approach in language teaching (Lado in Omaggio, CA, 1986:61)
By the explanation above the writer concludes that Audio-lingual method is a kind of method for teaching language through dialogues which stresses on the students’ habit formation by repetition, memorizing grammatical structures through substitutions, singular-plural and tense transformations etc, using the target language and the culture where the language is spoken.

2. The Principles of Audio-lingual Method
The Audio-lingual method, like the direct method, is also an oralapproach. However, it is very different in that rather than emphasizing vocabulary acquisition through exposure to its use in situations, the Audio-lingual method drills students in the use of grammatical sentence patterns. In its development, principles from behavioral psychology were incorporated. It was thought that the way to acquire the sentence patterns of the target language was through conditioning helping learners to respond correctly to stimuli through shaping and reinforcement.

2.  Techniques of the Audio-lingual Method
There have been many arguments about the emphasis on or the importance of the subject matter and the importance of the method. Some methods have been applied to the teaching of English in the effort improving the result, such as the Direct Method, the Total Physical Response Method and Audio lingual Method.
Drills, as part of the Audio lingual method, have been applied to the teaching of English especially in speaking. In this case, teaching English as a foreign language makes teachers and students try to use English as a means of communication the better our students will master English. In reaching the goals of the teaching speaking, the use of an appropriate method is keenly needed. In the writer’s opinion, drills are probably one of the best alternatives in teaching speaking.

2.   The Analysis of Speaking
Speaking is one of the four basic skills in learning foreign language besides listening, reading, and writing. It has been taught since the students entered a Junior High School; however it is not easy for the students to communicate in English. They have to think more often when speaking English. Of course, students need interaction with others (teachers, friends) to communicate. Martin Bygate (1998:7) acquaints that interaction skill involves the ability to use language in order to satisfy particular demands. First, it is related to the internal conditions of speech. Second, it involves the dimension of interpersonal interaction in conversation.
From the four skills mentioned earlier, we could make them grouped into two categories; oral and written features. As what stated in Oxford Dictionary, orally means through spoken word, of, by, or for the mouth. While written on other hand is the form of letters, symbols, words or messages etc especially on paper.
Among those language skills, speaking is unfortunately in many ways treated as an undervalued skill. Maybe it is because we can almost all speak, so we take the skill too much for granted. The phenomenon that most language teachers emphasize their teaching in the mastery of grammar is the clearest evidence. They seem to forget that speaking also deserves attention as much as literary skill.
According to the Oxford Advanced learner’s Dictionary, speak means to say words; to say or to talk something about something, to have a conversation with somebody; to address somebody in word etc. while speech means the power of action of speaking; a manner or way of speaking….(1995:1140,1142)
From the explanation above, it is clear that students should be careful in choosing words and styles in communication. Somebody who wants to speak English well, she/he has to know the ways of speaking English.
Speaking is really different from writing. In speaking students need to know grammar, broad vocabularies, having interaction with listeners and can speak English well as native speakers do
      Speaking Skill
Learning any foreign language has to do with the four sills that have to be mastered. The four skills are listening, speaking and listening (oral skills) are said to relate to language expressed through the aural medium. Reading and writing are said to relate to language expressed through the visual medium (written symbol). Another way of representing these skills is by reference not to the medium but to the activity of the language user. Therefore, speaking and writing are said to be active or productive skills, whereas listening and reading are said to be passive or receptive skills
Speaking skill is the ability to use the language in oral form. In junior and senior high schools this skill is limited to the ability to conduct a simple conversation on some subject (e.g. expressing regret, gratitude, agreement, offer, certainty, etc.) Among the four skills, speaking skill is a difficult one to assess whit precision, because speaking is a complex skill to acquire. The following four or five components are generally recognized in analysis of speech process:
1.        pronunciation (including the segmental features:
Vowels and consonants; and the stress and intonation).
2.        grammar.
3.        vocabulary.
4.        fluency (the ease and speed of the flow of speech)
5.        Comprehension.
                                                                                                (Harris, 1969:81)

The ability to speech a foreign language is the most pressed skill. Because someone who can speech a language will also be able to understand it.

Speaking skill is a matter which needs special attention. No matter how great an idea is, if it is not communicated properly, it cannot be effective. Oral language or speaking is an essential tool for communicating, thinking, and learning powerful learning tool. It shapes modifies, extends, and organizes thought. Oral language is a foundation of all language development and, therefore, the foundation of all learning. Through speaking and listening, student learns concepts, develop vocabulary and perceive the structure of the English language essential components of learning. Students who have a strong oral language base have an academic advantage. School achievement depends on students’ ability to display knowledge in a clear and acceptable form in speaking as well as writing.
In communicating with other people, it is important to know whether the situation is formal or informal. Besides, it is also important to know that the language, in this case English, can be standard or non standard so that they are able to communicate effectively. In speaking English as a foreign language the speaker obviously has to try to speak it in the way the native, speakers do. In order to be able to speak English better, it is important for him to learn all of the four skills in English and matter English phonetic as well, because it is very helpful to learn the language quickly and successfully.
The use of language or speaking skill is a matter of habit formation. In speaking, he must implant the habit of fusing it for communication until it becomes deeply establishes.
In conclusion, the definition of speaking skill lexically is the ability to utter words or sounds with the ordinary voice; or the ability to communicate vocally or to have conversation through practice, training, or talent. In addition to that, Lado (1961:240) points out that speaking ability or skill is described as the ability to report acts or situation, or the ability to report acts or situations in precise words, or the ability to converse, or the express a sequence of ideas fluently. The writer can conclude that someone who wants to speak a foreign language has to know the rules of that language, like grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, and word-formation, and to apply them properly in communication.

1.        The Elements of Speaking
Jeremy Harmer (2003:269) states that the ability to speak English presupposes the elements necessary for spoken production as follows:
Language features The elements necessary for spoken production, are the following:
a)    Connected speech: in connected speech sounds are modified (assimilation), omitted (elision), added (linking r), or weakened (through contractions and stress patterning). It is for this reason that we should involve students in activities designed specifically to improve their connected speech
b)   Expressive devices: native speakers of English change the pitch and stress of particular parts of utterances, vary volume and speed, and show by other physical and non-verbal (paralinguistic) means how they are feeling (especially in face to face interaction). The use of these devices contributes to the ability to convey meanings.
c)    Lexis and grammar: teachers should therefore supply a variety of phrases for different functions such as agreeing or disagreeing, expressing surprise, shock, or approval.
d)   Negotiation language: effective speaking benefits from the negotiatory language we use to seek clarification and show the structure of what we are saying. We often need to ask for clarification when we are listening to someone else talks and it is very crucial for students.
2.        Mental or Social Processing
Success of speaker’s productivity is also dependent upon the rapid processing skills that talking necessitates
a)      Language processing: Language processing involves the retrieval of words and their assembly into syntactically and propositionally appropriate sequence.
b)      Interacting with others: effective speaking also involves a good deal of listening, an understanding of how the other participants are feeling, and knowledge of how linguistically to take turns or allow others to do so.
c)      (On the spot) information processing: quite apart from our response to other’s feelings, we also need to be able to process the information they tell us the moment we get it.


2.  The General Meaning of Action Research
Action research is the name given to an increasingly popular movement in educational research. It is a form of self-reflective enquiry that is now being used in school-based curriculum development, professional development, and schoolimprovement schemes and so on, and, as such, it actively involves teachers as participants in their own educational process.
In this globalization era, educators are demanded to be more professional in their job, otherwise they will be left behind. So, it is important for them to be more creative in finding a new kind of method in teaching process. To support all those things they have to conduct their own strategy of teaching by doing some kinds of research. They have to try hard in order to reach the target language.
According to Bristol (1993:44), the definition of action research is: “…is a form of self-reflective inquiry undertaken by participants in social including educational situation in order to improve the rationality and justice of their understanding of the practices and the situations in which practices are carried out.
From those explanations, one can conclude that the meaning of classroom action research is reflective action which is done to maintain the doers’ rationality in doing their jobs to deepen their understanding of their action in order to make the teaching-learning process better.

CHAPTER III
METHOD OF INVESTIGATION

       Method of The Research
Action research is a reflective process of progressive problem solving led by individuals working with others in teams or as part of a "community of practice" to improve the way they address issues and solve problems. Action research is done simply by action, hence the name. Action research can also be undertaken by larger organizations or institutions, assisted or guided by professional researchers, with the aim of improving their strategies, practices, and knowledge of the environments within which they practice. As designers and stakeholders, researchers work with others to propose a new course of action to help their community improve its work practices (Center for Collaborative Action Research).
The main problem that would be solved through these studies is Audio Lingual teaching is an alternative method in teaching Speaking, is an action research method. This study is conducted in student speaking skill at first grade of SMPN 20 Mataram. To meet this need, the writer provides test which will done by the student to take the sample”.

3.  Population
There were many definitions of population. Saleh (2002:17) says that population is group of objects, events or indicators that become targets of the research. Meanwhile Johnson, (1987:110) states that population is the entire group of entities or person to which the results of a study are intended to apply. Brown. A and Dowling.P (1998:33) also say that population is the notional class of possible subjects and it may be defined at any level of analysis. The population may be all the individuals of a particular type or more restricted part of that group. The population in this study was the first year students of SMP Negeri 20 Mataram in second semester of the academic year 2010/2011”. Which is consists of four classes and each class consists of 40 students except class VII D and A is 36 students.

3.  Sample and Technique of Sample
Sample is a sub group of the population that affects the conclusion which refers to the result (Johnson. 1987:111). Arikunto (2002:109) says that sample is a limited number of elements from a population to be representative of the population.
The samples of this study are two classes (students of the first grade of SMPN 20 Mataram) in academic year 2010-2011. The samples are two groups; an experimental group and control group, the experimental group from the first grade of D class, and control group from A class.
The method of sampling would be used in this study was the random sampling. According to Brown and Dowling (1998:33) the production of a random sample involve attempting to ensure that each member of population that your sampling has an equal chance or probability of being selected as a subject. Here, the writer did not take the sample based on the students individually but based on the group of students in class with the following reasons:
1.        The population in this study consists of the classes which are relatively same.
2.        Getting the material based on the curriculum.
3.        The students who become the object of the study are in the same level.
4.        There is no superior class in the class division.
The writer takes two class from four classes that became the member of population.From control group consist of 36 students and experimental group consist of 36 students also. The procedure will follows: first, the writer writes the name of each member of population in a piece of paper and rolls it. Then, he put the paper in a box and shakes it. Finally, the writer take one of the roll papers and opens it to know which class who become the sample.

3.   Variable
Variable is a quality which can take a number of different values or states (Brown  and Dowling. 1998:22). According to Sudjana (1992:310) there are two kinds of variables, that is independent variable and dependent variable. Independent variable is a variable that are easily obtained and can be diversified into free variable, while dependent variable is the effect of independent variable. In this study, the independent variable was the use of Audio-lingual teaching as a method in teaching speaking and signed by (X) while the second variable is called dependent variable was the students’ speaking skill improvement and signed by (Y)
 
3.  Method of Collecting Data
In this study, several procedures would be used in order to get the empirical data required. The research would be conducted in three ways are as follows:
1.    Questionnaire
The writer used this method to measure how Audio-lingual method influence the students’ speaking skill improvement.
2.    Observation
This method would be used to observe the teaching-learning process and the students’ activities.
3.    Test
This study would be carried out through three activities. The first activity are teaching-learning process. In the third activity, the students do the posttest and questionnaire. Before giving the three last activities, the writer gives a pre-test.

       Instruments of the Study
1.        Questionnaires
According to Brown and Dowling. (1998:66-69) questionnaires hold a number of attractions for the researcher who wishes to collect information from a large number of people but has limited time and resources. They also said that questionnaires are particularly useful for gathering simple information on what people do or have done(although care must be taken to allow for the limitation of memory in the question asked) and what people know alternative
From the assumptions above, the writer has reasons for choosing questionnaires as her instrument. The reasons will follows: it could collect information from a large number of students and on the other side; the students as respondents can complete and return it in certain period.
The alternative questions of questionnaire would be used in this study is the closed question. The writer wants to underline here that the questionnaire would be used to measure the students’ speaking skill improvement. The writer tries to construct the questionnaire which contains five items.
2.        Field notes
It will be used to note finding and improvement during action step in each cycle. The guideline of the field notes encompassed:
a)        Observation towards the students
(i) observed students’ activities
(ii) observed students’ co-operation in their groups
b)        Observation towards the teacher way of teaching.
c)        Test items
This study would be carried out through four activities. The four activities are teaching-learning process. In the first activity, the writer give a pre-test. The purpose is to know how far the students could speak English fluently by performing the simple dialogue relating to the given materials. In the second activity, the writer applies audio lingual teaching method in teaching-learning process with the material “Introduction”. The students performe the simple dialogues given by the teacher. In the third activity, the writer still used audiolingual teaching method in teaching-learning process with the material “Hobbies” just the same as previous activities the students still performed the simple dialogue. In the last activity, the students do the post-test and fill in the questionnaire or multiple choice about speaking. The purpose of which is to measure the students’ progress and result of the teaching-learning activities. The writer used the same dialogue in the first activity (pre-test) to last activity (post-test) with the purpose giving such kind of illustration about the material which will teach to students. In this study, the writer uses an oral test as the instruments for collecting data. According to the statement above, the writer assumes that in his research, he would like to conduct an achievement test. The achievement test is similar to the progress that it measures how much the students have learned it of first foreign language interaction (Rebecca M. Vallette, 1996:4). The achievement test is appropriate to measure that students’ progress in learning process.
Achievement test can be designed to measure a variety of learning outcomes, such as knowledge of particular facts; the ability to apply facts and principle; and various thinking skills. The first aim in constructing an achievement test is to identify the learning outcomes that are measured. It is based on the speaking mastery of the students after conducting the teaching- learning process by using Audio-lingual Method. The students’ voices would be recorded on tape recorder when the students perform the dialogues. Students would be asked to memorize the dialogues and then perform the dialogue.
3  The Procedure of the Study
This study would be carried out through four activities. The two activities are teaching-learning activities. The first activity is pre-test and it will continue with a post-test after the teacher gives the two teaching-learning activities to the students.
The action research is conduct through four activities; in which each activity consisted of four steps, as follows:
1.        Planning
Planning is the first step of the research procedure. This activity cover the problem identification. This is the most important step in conducting action research as by knowing the problems, the researcher and collaborator could find a good solution to solve the problem arose.
2.        Acting
After recognizing the possible cause of problems face by the students of SMP Negeri 20 Mataram. Low score of speaking test, the action is decided in advance. The action is aim to solve the problem.
3.        Observing
Observing was the activity of collecting data to supervise to what extent the result of “acting” reach the objective. The data will take are qualitative and quantitative data. The quantitative data cover the students’ progress (the students’ score) while the qualitative data comprised students’ interest, class management. In short, in this phase, the researcher or collaborator elaborated kinds of data, the procedure of collecting data and instruments (observation, questionnaire, and so forth).
4.        Reflecting is the activity of evaluating critically about the progress or change of the students, class, and also the teacher. In this step, the researcher and collaborator could observe whether the “acting” activity had resulted any progress, what progress happened, and also about the positives and negatives, and so on. In the planning, the writer wants to improve the students’ speaking skill. He will use the audio-lingual method for improving the students’ achievement in speaking. There will be some steps like a pre-test, the teaching-learning activities, and post-test. Here is the elaboration of the whole activities:

1.Pre-test
Pre-test is the first activity before the teacher do the teaching-learning activities and a post test. The students will perform the dialogue. Their voices will be recorded by the teacher. Because it is the first meeting, the writer introduces his self to students.

2.Teaching-learning Activity
In teaching-learning activity , the writer will present Audio-lingual teaching as the method in teaching speaking. In order to make the teaching learning process effective, it is necessary for each member of the class to participate.
3.Post-test

In the last activity, the students do a post-test. In this test, the students perform the dialogue that given in the three previous meeting and fill up the questionnaire. The teacher records the students’ voices and distributes the questionnaire.

       Scoring Technique
After gathering the individual score of two groups, the writer used T-Test formula. First, the writer converts the students’ raw score into standard score, the writer uses the formula:
First, the writer calculated the mean deviation scores of both experimental group and control group. The writer applied the formula:
Mdx =
Where:
Mdx             : The mean deviation of score of experimental group
Dx                : The deviation score of pre-test and post test
N                  : Number of sample
             : The sum of …
While the formula applied for control group as follow:
Mdy =
Where
Mdy             : The mean score for control group
Dy                : The deviation score of pre-test and post-test
N                  : number of sample
             : The sum of …

Second, mean score obtained through the above formula analyzed and interpreted. Finally the writer computed the correlation coefficient of the two mean score to know whether it was significance or not. Here is the formula:
Where             :
Mdx                : The mean deviation score of experimental group
Mdy                : The mean deviation score of control group
dx                  :  The square deviation of pre-test and post-test of experimental  group
dy                  :  The square deviation of pre-test and post-test of control group
N                     : Number of sample
Nx                   : Number of the experimental group
Ny                   : Number of the score group
                : The sum of ……
(Arikunto, 1998:306)


3.  Validity and Reliability of the Test
1.      Validity
Brown (1988:101) says that test validity is the degree to which a test measures what it claims to be measuring. Meanwhile, Gronlund (1982:126) says that validity refers to the appropriateness of the interpretations of test results (typically with regard to some practical use of the test results.
The concept of validity, as used in testing, can be clarified further by noting the following general points: (1) validity refers to the interpretation of test results (not to itself) (2) validity is inferred from available evidence (not measured) (3) validity is specific to a particular use (selection, placement, evaluation of learning) (4) validity is expressed by degree (for example: high, moderate, or low). (Gronlund, 1982:126).

2.      Reliability
According to Harris (1969:14) by reliability is mean the stability of test scores. Test reliability is affected by a number of factors, chief among them being the adequacy of the sampling of tasks. In addition, Gay (1987:135) says that reliability is the degree to which a test consistently measures whatever it measures. Reliability refers to the consistency of test result. Reliability refers to the consistency of the students’ achievement (Gronlund, 1986:125). It means that the students will always get the same result.
In this study, the writer used the scorer rater reliability. Gay (1987:141) states that scorer rater reliability refers to the situations for which reliability must be investigated, such as essay test, short answer test involving more than one word response, rating scale, and observation instrument. In this study, the writer used assessment criteria by Bartz.



CHAPTER IV
FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS

     The Result of the Study
This study was conducted in three activities. The one activity was teaching-learning activity. The first activity was pre-test and held in January, 4th 2011. The second activity was held in January, 5th 2011. The third activity was held in January, 6th 2011. The last activity was post-test and done in January, 10th 2011.
      Data Analysis
Analysis means the categorizing, ordering, manipulating, and summarizing of data obtain answers to research questions (Kerlinger, 1988:125). The purpose of analysis is to reduce data to be intelligible and interpretable so that the relation of research problem can be studied.
In scoring the test, the students called out in turn and the writer tested them by giving the dialogues relating to the material. In giving scores, the writer followed rating scale developed by Bartz (Bartz cited in Valette,(1983:150). It showed four items that were important to be scored from their fluency, quality of communication, amount of communication, and effort to communicate. But in this study, I did not give score on amount of communication because the students did not create the dialogue. They only memorize the dialogues given.

1.    Analysis of the Pre-test
As stated in the previous chapter, before conducting this action research, the writer gave a pre-test. The purpose is to know how far the students could speak English fluently by performing the dialogue relating to the material was given.                
From the analysis above, the average of students achievement of the pre-test was 11.43. The writer concluded that the students had little difficulties to speak English fluently in performing the dialogue.
2.    The Analysis of the Teaching-learning Activity
According to the writer, all activities could run well. All of the students were paying attention to the students the teacher seriously and interestingly while presenting the lesson. The students seemed to be worried when they performed the dialogue. They looked nervous because probably they rarely did conversation in the class.
 In teaching-learning activity, the writer presented Audio-lingual teaching as the method in teaching speaking. The writer showed some pictures and gave the copies of dialogues to each student. Teacher drilled the students by using the combination drill in Audio-lingual teaching method. The students practiced and performed the dialogue in group in front of the class.
3.    The Analysis of the Post-test
In the last activity, the students did a post test. The activities could run well. The students came one by one in front of the class and got the turn in performing the dialogues. The students performed the dialogue that given and answer the questions. The writer pay attention to the students’ voices and distributed the questions. The writer also noted the students’ scores for each indicator of assesment.Table 01
Table of student’s Raw Score in pre-test and post-test of two groups

EXPERIMENTAL GROUP
CONTROL GROUP
Subject
Pre-test
Post-test
subject
Pre-test
Post-test
1
15
80
1
15
40
2
5
70
2
5
50
3
5
75
3
10
35
4
5
85
4
5
35
5
5
45
5
5
25
6
5
50
6
0
45
7
5
65
7
5
35
8
5
70
8
5
15
9
5
70
9
15
90
10
5
55
10
5
20
11
25
95
11
10
35
12
5
85
12
5
45
13
5
65
13
0
20
14
5
90
14
5
40
15
5
50
15
5
40
16
5
75
16
5
30
17
0
60
17
0
30
18
10
100
18
10
25
19
15
100
19
5
30
20
10
75
20
5
25
21
5
80
21
5
10
22
10
80
22
5
30
23
5
80
23
0
50
24
5
85
24
10
65
25
5
75
25
5
20
26
5
70
26
5
55
27
5
85
27
5
35
28
5
100
28
0
40
29
10
55
29
5
45
30
15
100
30
0
25
31
10
90
31
5
35
32
15
80
32
5
25
33
5
100
33
5
40
34
10
95
34
5
30
35
10
85
35
5
35
36
15
90
36
0
40


Table 02
Table of Tabulation of pre-test and post-test standard score in two groups

Subject
Pre-test (X1)
Post-test (X2)
1
15
80
2
5
70
3
5
75
4
5
85
5
5
45
6
5
50
7
5
65
8
5
70
9
5
70
10
5
55
11
25
95
12
5
85
13
5
65
14
5
90
15
5
50
16
5
75
17
0
60
18
10
100
19
15
100
20
10
75
21
5
80
22
10
80
23
5
80
24
5
85
25
5
75
26
5
70
27
5
85
28
5
100
29
10
55
30
15
100
31
10
90
32
15
80
33
5
100
34
10
95
35
10
85
36
15
90


Subject
Pre-test (Y1)
Post-test (Y2)
1
15
40
2
5
50
3
10
35
4
5
35
5
5
25
6
0
45
7
5
35
8
5
15
9
15
90
10
5
20
11
10
35
12
5
45
13
0
20
14
5
40
15
5
40
16
5
30
17
0
30
18
10
25
19
5
30
20
5
25
21
5
10
22
5
30
23
0
50
24
10
65
25
5
20
26
5
55
27
5
35
28
0
40
29
5
45
30
0
25
31
5
35
32
5
25
33
5
40
34
5
30
35
5
35
36
0
40


Table 03
Table of Computation of mean Score of Experimental Group

Subject
Pre-test (X1)
Post-test (X2)
Deviation score of pre-test and post-test (dx)
Square of the deviation score
(dx)2
1
15
80
65
4225
2
5
70
65
4225
3
5
75
70
4900
4
5
85
80
6400
5
5
45
40
1600
6
5
50
45
2025
7
5
65
60
3600
8
5
70
65
4225
9
5
70
65
4225
10
5
55
50
2500
11
25
95
70
4900
12
5
85
80
6400
13
5
65
60
3600
14
5
90
85
7225
15
5
50
45
2025
16
5
75
70
4900
17
0
60
60
3600
18
10
100
90
8100
19
15
100
85
7225
20
10
75
65
4225
21
5
80
75
5625
22
10
80
70
4900
23
5
80
75
5625
24
5
85
80
6400
25
5
75
70
4900
26
5
70
65
4225
27
5
85
80
6400
28
5
100
95
9025
29
10
55
45
2025
30
15
100
85
7225
31
10
90
80
6400
32
15
80
65
4225
33
5
100
95
9025
34
10
95
85
7225
35
10
85
75
5625
36
15
90
75
5625
Total
2530
184600




Table 04
Table of Computation of mean Score of Control group

Subject
Pre-test (Y1)
Post-test (Y2)
Deviation score of pre-test and post-test
(dy)
Square of the deviation score
(dy)
1
15
40
25
625
2
5
50
45
2025
3
10
35
25
625
4
5
35
30
900
5
5
25
20
400
6
0
45
45
2025
7
5
35
30
900
8
5
15
10
100
9
15
90
75
5625
10
5
20
15
225
11
10
35
25
625
12
5
45
40
1600
13
0
20
20
400
14
5
40
35
1225
15
5
40
35
1225
16
5
30
25
625
17
0
30
30
900
18
10
25
15
225
19
5
30
25
625
20
5
25
20
400
21
5
10
5
25
22
5
30
25
625
23
0
50
50
2500
24
10
65
55
3025
25
5
20
15
225
26
5
55
50
2500
27
5
35
30
900
28
0
40
40
1600
29
5
45
40
1600
30
0
25
25
625
31
5
35
30
900
32
5
25
20
400
33
5
40
35
1225
34
5
30
25
625
35
5
35
30
900
36
0
40
40
1600
Total
1105
40575




4.  The Computation and Analyzing of Mean scores
After getting the deviation score of pre-test and post-test, the mean score of two groups are computed by dividing the total number of sample. It is formulated as follow:     
§  The Mean Score of Experimental Group
In table 03 above, it is identified that  2530 and N = 36
§  The Mean Score of Control Group
In table 04 above, it is identified that  1105 and N = 36 so, the mean deviation of control group as follows: 


 5.   Identification of the Significance of the Deviation of two Mean Scores.  
The last process of the statistical analysis is to find out the value of the t-test. In this case, the t-test formula could be found because of the element rate to the formula as follows;
Reading at the result mean score of two groups it might be true to say that experimental group is more successful than control group. Theoretically, however the significance of the deviation of two means scores formula of the T-test are to compare the deviation of two means score and to measure whether the deviation is significance or not. Based on data above,
4.3 Discussion 
From the statistical analysis of data obtained, the writer continued to interpret and discuss the result. The discussion will be interpreted from the post-test’s score and value of mean of both groups. It is already clear the findings in above explanation shows the mean score of experimental group is higher than mean score of control group, there is 70,27 for experimental group and 30, 69 for control group.
Based on the analysis, the writer intended to say that the different change of score for both groups was just because experimental group has been given treatment by using Audio Lingual teaching. The students of control group were also given a treatment with the same method that was memorizing.
            Back to the analysis of the data obtained in both groups, the degree of freedom (df) that is used in this research is interpreted again by comparing the two critical values: t-test and t-table. The degree of freedom (df) of this research obtained using the formula (Nx + Ny) – 2, (36+36) – 2 = 70.  The writer found 2,000 for confidence level of 0,05 and 2,660 for confidence level of 0,01.

t-test
t-table
Df
0,05
0,01
11,43
70
2,000
2,660
(The comparison between the t-test and t-table)
From the comparison above, it is clear that the t-test is higher than t-table. This indicates that the degree of difference of the mean scores is significant in both confidence levels. In conclusion, the writer would like to state that the result of using principles is very supportive to Audio Lingual teaching.
So it is clear that Null hypothesis (Ho) which states: if t-test≥ t-table at the confidence level of 0, 05 and 0, 01 in testing hypothesis is rejected. As a result, Ha is accepted.
Finally, the analysis and the interpretation of the data above lead the writer to the conclusion that the use of Audio Lingual teaching is an alternative method in teaching Speaking for seventh grade of students of SMPN 20 Mataram in academic year 2011-2012. This is proven by the mean scores of experimental group which are higher than those of the control group.

4.    The Observation Interpretation
1.Teaching-learning Activity
In teaching-learning activity I taught introduction as the material. The teacher helped me to observe the students’ activities and the way I taught. The result of observation can be seen as follow:
1) Observation of the students’ activities
a). 36 students were present (100 %)
b). 6 students actively asked questions (15 %)
c). 6 students actively answered teacher’s questions (15 %)
d). 36 students actively worked in groups (38 %)
e). 36 students did activities asked by the teacher (90 %)
f). 36 students paid attention to the teacher’s explanation (90 %)
2) Observation of the teacher’s activities
a). The researcher was good enough in opening the lesson.
b). The researcher gave enough chances to the students to be active during the
learning.
c). The researcher was developing question-answer activity by giving enough
oopportunity to students asking questions.
d). The researcher was good in giving explanation of the teaching material.
e). The researcher was good enough in classroom management in handling the
Class.
f). The researcher showed fair attitude to students and warned the trouble
maker in the classroom.
CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS

5    Conclusion
In chapter IV the writer has analyzed the data statistically. Back to the analysis of the data obtained in both groups, the degree of freedom (df) that is used in this research is interpreted again by comparing the two critical values: t-test and t-table. The degree of freedom (df) of this research obtained using the formula (Nx + Ny) – 2, (36+36) – 2 = 70.  The writer found 2,000 for confidence level of 0,05 and 2,660 for confidence level of 0,01.
Since the obtained t-test (11.43) was higher than the critical value at 0.05 alpha level of significance (2.000), the writer concluded that the test was statistically significant. As the mean of the post-test was statistically higher than that of the pre-test, the writer concluded that the speaking mastery achieved by the first year students of junior high school improved after they were taught using Audio-lingual teaching method. After finishing the experiment, the writer concluded the advantages of using Audio-lingual teaching method to teach speaking to the first year student of junior high school. The advantages could be described as follows:
1.      The students showed a great enthusiasm during the lesson.
2.      Using Audio-lingual teaching metod to teach speaking to first year student of junior high school was very good. It was supported by the higher scores gained by the students who have been taught using Audio-lingual teaching method.
3.      The Audio-lingual teaching method has a significant effect on the first year students’ speaking skills of Junior High School at SMP Negeri 20 Mataram due to the significant difference (0.05) between the pre-test and post-test scores of the students’ speaking skills, in which the post-test’s mean is significantly higher than those of the pre-test.
4.      This teaching method has an impact on the students’ speaking skills may derive from the fact that the students become more confident and motivated in learning the language because of the teaching aids and materials used in the class along with the provision at the teacher’s positive reinforcement.
5.      The first year students of Junior High School have positive attitudes towards the Audio-lingual Teaching Method. This may be because during the class, students were positively reinforced. With the positive reinforcement, students’ intrinsic motivation became promoted that was the most fundamental to learn the language for their own self-perceived needs and goals leading them to positive attitudes towards the teacher, the class, the teaching method, and of course, language learning.
5.2 Suggestions
From the advantages of using Audio-lingual teaching method in teaching speaking English to the first year student of junior high school, the writer would like to give some suggestions to be considered by English teachers as follows:
1.      Audio-lingual teaching method as an alternative method of the teaching process is a good way to be applied in the first year students of junior high school to improve their ability in speaking.
2.      The students are more likely to be shy and afraid to take risks in speaking, the target foreign language causing them to reach the satisfied levels of English comprehension and production should conduct a study using the Audio-lingual teaching method for their speaking class with a larger number of subjects.
3.      The teacher should give more chances to the students to be more active, and let the students to do several practices. The teacher should trust the students that they are able to do those activities by themselves. Here, the teacher only observes and helps the students when they meet difficulties.
4.      High appreciation from the students does not make the teachers in a hurry to add more words, sentences, and or dialogues building to learn. The teacher should not rush to add new material before their students internalize the words, sentences, and or dialogues given before.


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AUDIO LINGUAL TEACHING AS AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD IN TEACHING SPEAKING: EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH AT THE FIRST YEAR STUDENTS OF SMP NEGERI 20 MATARAM

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