Friday, January 4, 2013

CONTOH MAKALAH OBSERVASI BAHASA INGGRIS OF USING PREPOSITION


THE ASSIGNMENT
OF OBSERVATION “OF USING PREPOSITION” IN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
Preposition is one of function words in English. It had introduced from junior high school till university, one way to introduced and learned the preposition is by asking students to make a writing paper. University  muhammadiyah of mataram have many programs to increase their students writing ability. UMM  has two programs that can make their students ability in writing better and better. The programs are structure and writing. In writing, the students learn how to make right sentences and at the end of this program they had to write a research design as their final assessment. But before it, the students must pass some subjects. For instance, they must pass program structure I, II, III, and IV. And then, they also must pass program Writing I, II, III and Writing IV. After they pass them all, the students continue with writing research design. Therefore it’s expected that they will able to apply appropriate use of correct sentences or grammar among others the correct used of verbs, article and also preposition.
However, a lot of students still make certain grammatical errors in writing specially in writing a research design. The correct use of the preposition is very important in English because ungrammatical words or sentences will make some misunderstanding.
Based on the explanation above, it’s necessary for students to know more and to master everything about preposition, so that they are not making errors in their writing. Finally, this research tries to know the errors made of students in using preposition and also to give contribution to the concept of making true sentence in using the preposition.

1.2    Identification and Formulation of the problems
Prepositions are words normally placed before nouns or pronouns and can also be followed by verbs but, except after but and except, the verb must be in the gerund form (Thomson,1986:91)
Preposition includes to kinds of ‘function words’ which means “a word that doesn’t belong to one of the four major parts of speech in English (noun, verb, adjective, adverb). “Their purpose is not only to express meaning but to relate other words to each other

According to (Hornby, 1975:7) there are eight function words among the function words are:
1. Articles: a, an, and the
2. Auxiliary verbs: be, have, and do
3. Conjunction: after, though, while, etc
4. Preposition: about, as, beside, etc
5. Pronoun: I, You, We, etc
6. Noun-Determiners: a, an, the, some, etc
7. Substitute nouns: all, another, both, etc
8. Intensifiers: pretty, almost, really, etc
9. Specialized expressions: no, O.K, anyhow, etc
Based on the identification above, the formulation of this research is:
“What kind of errors in using the preposition made by English Department students of UMM academic year 2010/2011 in writing the research design?”

1.3 . Research Objective
        
The objective of this research is to find the students’ errors in using the preposition in their research design made by English’s Department students of  UMM academic year 2010/2011

1.4  Significance Of study
Implication:
- The research will give contribution to the concept of making true sentences especially in usingthepreposition.
Application:
- For teacher, this research is expected will give contribution in designing appropriate teaching structure methods of the use of the preposition and it’s intended to minimize the error,smadeby,English,learners.
- For the students, Regarding that this research will give useful input for English Department students in order to make the errors less when they writing something in the futuretime.
- Next researchers, as a reference for other research studies or conducting a further research.

E. Working Theory
In the most general terms, a preposition expressed a relation between two entities, one being that represented by the preposition complement. Of the various types of relational meaning, those of place and time are the most prominent to identify. (Quirk,1973:6.1)
Prepositions are words normally placed before nouns or pronouns and can also be followed by verbs but, except after but and except, the verb must be in the gerund form(Thomson,1986:91)
A preposition is a words that links a noun or a noun equivalent (e.g. a pronoun or a gerund) to another word by expressing such relationships as location, direction, time, or purpose.(Longman,).
Preposition are always followed by nouns (or pronouns).They are connective words that show the relationship between the nouns following them and one of the basic sentence elements: subject, verb, object, or complement. They usually indicate relationship such as position, place, direction, time manner, agent, possession, and condition, between their objects and other parts of the sentence. Prepositional phrases usually provide international asked for by the question words who, what, where, when, why, how, and how long. The noun or pronoun following the preposition is it’s object. A pronoun used in this position is always an object pronoun: me, you, him, her, it, us, and them. The preposition plus its object is called the preposition phrase. (Wishon,1980.288-289)
 
CHAPTER II
Review of Literature

Error which was mentioned by Karol and Marina (1972:1) is goof. A goof means an error students tend to make in learning English as a second language, for which no blame is implied a sentence containing one or more goofs.Based on A.J.Thompson, in Oxford ( 1986:91 ).
The student has two main problems with preposition. He has to know whether in any construction a preposition is required or not which it especially troublesome to a European student and which preposition to use when one is required.

2.1  Identification of function words
According to (Hornby, 1975:7) there are eight function words among the function words are :
1.  Articles: a, an, and the
2.  Auxiliary verbs: be, have, and do
3.  Conjunction: after, though, while, etc
4.  Preposition: about, as, beside, etc
5.  Pronoun: I, You, We, etc
6.  Noun-Determiners: a, an, the, some, etc
7.  Subtitate nouns: all, another, both, etc
8.  Intensifiers: pretty, almost, really, etc
9.  Specialized expressions: no, O.K, anyhow,

2.2  Identification of Preposition
In the most general terms, a preposition expresses a relation between two entities, one being that represented by the prepositional complement.

2.2.1 Simple and complex prepositions
Simple preposition is preposition that consists of one word, such as at, in, and for. Other prepositions, consisting of more than one word, are called Complex. These are examples of simple prepositions: about, above, after, ,among, around, as, at, before, behind, below, beside, between, beyond, by, down, during,, for, in, inside, into, like, near, of, on, opposite, outside, over, since, through, till, to, towards, under, underneath, up, upon, with.
These are examples of complex prepositions: as well as, according to, along with, apart from, as for, as to, away from, because of, by means of, from… to, except for ,from….until , in front of, in spite of, instead of, next to, on top of, out of, up to, by way of, with respect to.

2.2.2 Types of preposition
a. physical Relationship                                                                                
1. Time
a.  One point of time
     On : - Used with a day of the week .(I saw him on Sunday)
             - Used with a day of the month. (I saw him on June)
      At : - Used with part of the day considered as a point. (I saw him at noon)
             - Used with an hour of the day. (I saw him at five o’clock)
      In : - Used with a month. (I saw him in September)
             - Used with a year. (I saw him in 1986)
b.  Extended  Since : Gives the beginning point, if it is used with the present perfect        tense, the point is now: (I have not seen him since Monday)
By : Implies no later then, at anytime up to this point   (I can see you by Monday)
From-to, until, till : A beginning point with form generally requires on end point wit to
(I can see you from ten to five o’clock)
For :Gives a quantity of time (I can you for one hour)
During : Gives a block of time, usually through of as undivided(I can see you during the week)
Within : Gives a quantity of time before which something will happen
(I can see you within an hour for now)
c.   Sequence of time
 Before : the event precedes the time given in the before phras (I will see you before Wednesday)
 After : the event follows the time given in the after phrase  (I will see you after Wednesday)
2.2.3  Place-position
a).  Position
 1.  The points it self
 In or inside : Gives the area of something enclosed. (Hang your coat inside    the closet)
 On : Indicates the surface of something (put the dishes on the table)
At : Refers to general vicinity. Mere presence at a place is indicate  (He’s at school)
 2. Higher or lower than a point
 a.  Higher
 Over : Felt to be generally higher than a point (The plane flew over the mountain)
 Above : Felt to be directly higher than a point (They lives on the floor above us)
             b. Lower
                 Under : Felt to be generally lower than a point
                               (A subway runs under this street)
                 Underneath : Expresses the idea of closer under, especially so as
               To be hidden (He swept the dirt underneath the rug)
                 Below : Felt to be directly lower than a point
                               (He lives on the floor below us)
                 Beneath : Expresses the idea of directly under, with some space under)
         3.  Neighboring the point
              Near : Most general meaning of neighboring of point
                         (He lives near the university)
             Next to : With nothing else between them (The school is right next to the hospital)
             Alongside : Adjoining person s or thing considered as lined up,
           Or side by    side (The tug pulled up alongside the tanker)
             Beside : On one side of a person or thing that has two sides
                            (He sat beside his wife during the party)
             Between : On each side of a person or thing that has two sides(He sat between his two sons) Opposite : Directly facing someone else  ((Frank, 1972: 164-168)


CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY
3.1 research method
The research to be used in this research is the descriptive research

3.2  population and sample

3.2.1   population
The population of this study is all of the second year students of SMPN 3 Kediri in academic year 2010/2011. The are  spread into 7 classes. The total numbers of the student are 275 students. 3.2.2   sample
In this  research, the sample will be take by using random sampling  technique. The number of the subjects in each class is between 7 and 8 subject for the sample. All of the samples are 50 students representing the number of population in 7 classes at SMPN 3 Kediri .

3.3 data collection
The data for this research is taken from student’s error in using preposition of derivational that form sentences. There are many items or types of preposition that prepare for the student’s, the which one of the sentences is :

Ø  . physical Relationship
1. Time
a.  One point of time
     On : - Used with a day of the week .(I saw him on Sunday)
             - Used with a day of the month. (I saw him on June)
      At : - Used with part of the day considered as a point. (I saw him at noon)
             - Used with an hour of the day. (I saw him at five o’clock)
      In : - Used with a month. (I saw him in September)
             - Used with a year. (I saw him in 1986)


 b. Extended time
        Since : Gives the beginning point, if it is used with the present perfect        tense, the     point is now:
                (I have not seen him since Monday)
By : Implies no later then, at anytime up to this point
                (I can see you by Monday)
From-to, until, till : A beginning point with form generally requires on end point wit to
               (I can see you from ten to five o’clock)
For : Gives a quantity of time

3.3  population and sample

3.2.1   population

       The population of this study is all of the second year students of SMPN 3 Kediri in academic year 2010/2011. The are  spread into 7 classes. The total numbers of the student are 175 student.

3.2.2   sample
In this  research, the sample will be take by using random sampling technique.        The number of the subjects in each class is between 7 and 8 subject  for the sample.      All of the samples are 50 students representing the number of  population in 7 classes at SMPN 3 Kediri .

3.4   Method Of Analyzing Data

The  data will be analyzed in qualitative descriptive, in which the  researcher  will follow the subsequently steps:
1.      Identification of difficulties
This process will set up student’s difficulties in learning preposition. In this research wants to know some matters related to the students difficulties in preposition of SMPN 3 KEDIRI in academic year 2010-2011
2.      Classification of the difficulties After identification the researcher will classify
Clarification of the difficulties In this step, the researcher will try to analyze the students difficulties in preposition. 
 

PREFACE

Firs of all, we would like to exspress our thanks to almighty Allah SWT who has given chance, so that the our observation in the SMPN of 3 KEDIRI about preposition sentences can be finished. And greating to the lord prophet Muhammad SAW, his family, and his friends until the end of time. As the completion of this paper, would be expected to help university’s students who is learning about procedure in plot.
A big thanks to the lectures, the assistance, guidance, direction, and encourragement that is given to us for finishing this paper.
In addition, infinite to our perents for thir suport and prayers, our frinds, especially vniversity students majoring in english language FACULTY OF TEACHERS TAINING AND EDUCATION,  MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY OF MATARAM which had given a positive sugestion, in the completion of this paper.
 We realize fully that in this paper is still much to luck, therefore,  criticism, sugestion and nature build so we hoped., hopefully this paper can be used by us.
Amen-amen yes  roball almin......................................



ABSTRACT

                   Capability Using Preposition Sentences Students In Class VIII SMPN 3 KEDIRI
. Indonesian Language and Literature Education,UMM / UNIVERSITAS MUHAMMADIYAH MATARAM. Ability, prepositions in sentences of this study aims to determine the ability to use prepositions in sentences.junior high school in kediri. This study examines the entire population. Therefore, this study is called the study a total sampling. The population of this study was grade 8 students,in kediri in year 2010/2011 amounting to 25 students. The method used is descriptive method. Furthermore, data collection used were the technical test. After the data is collected, then analyzed using descriptive analysis with the percentage formula


REFERENCES

(Thomson,1986:91)
(Hornby, 1975:7)
Quirk,1973:6.1)
(Wishon,1980.288-289)
A.J.Thompson, in Oxford ( 1986:91 ).
 (Frank, 1972: 164-168)

CONCLUTION

Preposition is one of function words in English. It had introduced from junior high school till university, one way to introduced and learned the preposition is by asking students to make a writing paper. Prepositions are words normally placed before nouns or pronouns and can also be followed by verbs but, except after but and except, the verb must be in the gerund form. In the most general terms, a preposition expressed a relation between two entities, one being that represented by the preposition complement. Of the various types of relational meaning, those of place and time are the most prominent to identify. The student has two main problems with preposition. He has to know whether in any construction a preposition is required or not which it especially troublesome to a European student and which preposition to use when one is required.



THE ASSIGNMENT OF OBSERVATION “OF USING PREPOSITION” IN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL

0 comments:

Post a Comment