A STUDY ON TEACHING ENGLISH USING GAMES TO THE ELEVENTH YEAR STUDENTS OF SMK BRAWIJAYA KEPUNG-PARE IN 2011-2012
1.1 Background of the Problem
It is known that English is an International language which has been received by countries all over the world. The function of it as a means of communication in meeting business or other activities among government over the world. Beside that English is used at science of knowledge, new invention in field of modern technology, pharmaceutical, medical, etc.
As a developing country, Indonesia really needs English because Indonesia government is trying to improve all aspects which are usually faced by all countries. One of these aspects is education, which is essential. As an English teacher to be the writer focuses her attention to the teaching English as the language of the world.
In Indonesia, English is learnt and taught to junior high school, Senior high school even at university. English means that something important for the student to be taught at school based on situation and condition of the object area. But there are some problems that faced by the students. It is realized that most students get bad mark. So, it proves that English is really difficult for the students. There are four skills in learning English they are listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Speaking is very important because speaking and human being cannot be separated from each other. Speaking is used to express their ideas and to communicate to people in civilized world. That is way speaking is important. But the students of SMP or graduated of it still get hard to be a good speaker. The problems are:
First, the students feel ashamed and afraid to speak English, so they never practice and use target language and they always use mother tongue in the classroom.
Second, for the teacher, they did not use variety of teaching such as visual aids. The teacher has to motivate the students to learn English in the class, and create the method of teaching. So the students will feel relaxed, and freely in using English in the classroom. The teacher must make afford to understand the material well. In learning English, The students are expected to reach four skills. Among those, speaking is the most difficult to master.
Teaching speaking can be done through dialogues, picture, games, etc. The teacher should choose a suitable ways such as: using games. If the teacher uses it, the students will have a lot of opportunity to practice pronunciation and communication or in other words it means that the students will get knowledge or input from games. Games which introduced to the students are Domino Instruction, What do I need? Sweet Reason, Dream sequences.
1.2. Problem of the Study
After analyzing what the writer discussed in the problems above, the following step is to make of the study problems. The writer tries to formulate what she wants, in order to achieve the target. Based on the problem above can be formulated as follow:
1. Is there any relationship between games activities and improving the speaking ability to the second year of the students SMPN 3 Pare-Kediri?
2. How is reaction of students after given the material using games?
3. What kind of games activities should be used?
1.3. Purpose of the Research
Each research must have purpose, it depends on the topic, which carries out, consist of:
- The writer wants to describe and analyze whether games are suitable to improve the speaking ability at the second year of the students at SMPN 3 Pare-Kediri.
- The writer wants to describe and analyze whether games can give students encourage to learn speaking.
1.4. Significance of the Study
The research is used for:
- The writer: to fulfill the participle program of the studying at IKIP BUDI UTOMO MALANG, one of requirement of which is to write a thesis in order to get Strata one Degree in English studies.
- The students: this research can be used to increase the student English achievement.
- The teacher: this research can be used as an item to enrich the inventory of English library.
1.5. Limitation of the Study
To avoid misunderstanding to estimate what the writer has explained, the writer will give object; ones will arrange the thesis organize each problem more easily. The focuses are more intensively on the problems that have been in this research. The writer will discuss:
- Among the four skills, the writer teaches speaking only.
- The writer uses games in teaching speaking.
- Games which introduction are Domino Instruction, what do I need? , Sweet Reason and dream sequences.
1.6. Definition of Key Term
The writer includes some definition of key term to support the readers understanding this thesis easily. They are as follow:
- Teaching is the action to organize something which has contact with learning, so created the situation than can motivate the students to study effectively.
- Speaking is to express taught a loud using the voice or talk.
- Game is activity in the classroom with rules a goal and element of fun.
REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE
Speaking is one of the skills in English. So, it plays an important rule in studying the subject, because as we know that English is an international language. Since most of books are written in English, so Indonesians student have opportunity to practice this language in the class. In this case, the teachers must be able to help them to master the language in the limited time. Beside that the students themselves should study hard in order to be able to understand it well. There are the definitions of some words of theme:
2.1.1 Definition of speaking
Speaking is to express thoughts a loud using the voice or talk (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English) David P. Harris, in his book “Testing English as a Second Language” defines speaking.
Speaking is a complex skill requiring the simultaneous use of number of different abilities which often develop at different rates. Either four or five components are generally recognized in analyses of speech process: pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, fluency and comprehension.
He further says that the definition of speaking as second language:
Student’s skill in speaking a second language our fundamental concern with his ability to communicate informally on everyday subject with sufficient ease and fluency to hold the attention of his listener.
2.1.2. Speaking Ability
Talking about speaking ability, Robert Lado (1987: 126) says that:
Speaking ability is described as the ability to express one self in life situation, or the ability to report act by using the expression that is in accordance with situation.
Further Jack C.R.S. Rodgers(1963: 92) states that:
Speaking is an important ability for the students who study English as a second language based on four skills in English: Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing.
2.2. Definition of Game
According to Jill Hedfield (1984: 27) in his book “A collection of games and activities for intermediate and advance students of English”, a game is activity with rules a goal and element of fun.
He further classifies the game; they are competitive game and co-operative game.
Competitive game is in which players or team race to be the first to reach the goal and Co-operative game is in which players or team work together toward a common goal.
Further he also states about the game:
The emphasis in the game is on successful communication therefore are to be found at the fluency-accuracy spectrum.
He further states that:
…they provide an opportunity for real communication, albeit within artificially defined limits, and thus constitute a bridge between the classroom and the real words.
2.3. The Role of the Game in Language Program
According to Jill Hedfield (1984: 45) about that:
“The inclusion of games as an integral part of any language syllabus provides an opportunity for intensive language, practice offers a context in which language is used meaningfully and as a means, and act as diagnostic tool for the teacher, for using games is simply that they are immensely enjoyable for both teacher and student.
2.4. The Role of Teacher
The role of the teacher in this game is very important. In this case, teacher is a centre in the classroom. He/she as a monitor, guided during the activities to be done.
The teacher should never interrupt a game which is flowing successfully in order to correct a mistake in language use. From than with the exchange of ideas. It is better for to the teacher to note the errors and to comment on it later.
Further Jill Hedfield (1984: 53) states that :
The teacher role’s role in these activities is that of monitor and resource center moving group to group. Listening, supplying and necessary language, nothing errors but not interrupting or correcting. It is a good idea to carry paper and pen and note any persistent errors area of difficulty.
Collin w.(1993: 12) in play game with English also said that:
… the teacher role, once the group listening in, contributing and if necessary correcting.
2.5 Some Techniques are Used in Giving Games
The game makes use of a variety of techniques. Variety of technique is important in language teaching. Techniques used include Guessing, Matching, Role play, Card game, Information gap.
Talking about that Jill H. states:
Guessing games are a familiar variant on principle. The players with the information deliberately with holds it, while other guess what it may be.
Matching games are based on different principle but also involve a transfer of information. These games involves matching identical pairs of cards or picture may be played as while class activity, where players must choose pictures or card from selection to match those by their partner from the same selection or as a card game
Role plays are many games includes an element of role play. Players are given the name and some characteristics plays in true sense, as the role play element is always subordinate to the game for the purpose of language use.
Simulation is the imitation in classroom of a total situation where the classroom becomes a street, a hotel, a supermarket which practice interaction as shops, tourist officers.
2.6. Some Points of Practical
It is absolutely that learners are totally familiar with the games they are asked to play game are normally in the following way:
4. Explanation by the teacher
5. Demonstration of pairs of the game by the teachers and one or two learners
6. Trial by the group in front of the class.
7. Any key language and instruction written on the board.
8. Remove from the board.
2.7. Kinds of Game
2.7.1 Domino Instruction
Type of activity
Giving instruction exponent
Sequences, firstly, next, then, after that, finally, etc.
Kettle, receive, dialing tone, dial ringing tone, insert, pour, add, etc.
2.7.2 The Use of Game
Divide the class into groups of three or four and give each group a set of pictures card.
The group should shuffle the cards and deal them all out. They may look at the cards, but should not show them to the other players.
The first players begin by lying down the first card in any sequence (marked with a star) and giving the accompanying instruction.
If he / she do not have the right card, the passes to the next player, and if he / she lay down a later stage by mistake, he / she may be challenged by the player with the real stage 2.
The game continues in this way until the sequence is completed.
2.7.3 The Rules of Game
1. Play the game in groups of three or four.
2. Shuffle the cards and deal them equally.
3. You may look at your cards, but do not show them to other players.
4. The card show stage in four activities (making tea, using telephone box, resuscitation and making an omelet)
5. Player 1 begins by choosing a card marked with a star and lying it down on the table giving an instruction, for example, first, fill the kettle.
6. If player 2 has the picture card showing the text stage in activity, he/she may lay it down next to the first card, giving the next instruction, for example, then, and switch the kettle on.
7. If the player 2 does not have the next card in the sequence, the turn passes to player 3.
8. If player 2 lays down the wrong card (stage 3 or 4, for example, instead of stage 2) he / she may be challenged by the player with the real stage 2.
Player 2 must then take back his / her card and turn passes to the player with the stage 2 .
9. The game continues in this way until the sequence is completed. Another sequence may then be started.
10. The winner is the player who gets rid of all his / her cards first.
2.7.4 Sweet Reason
Type of activity
Because, as, since, owing, to, because of lexical areas
Not subject specific
Chlorophyll, ignite, friction, strike
2.7.5 The use of game
1. Divide the class into groups of three or four and copy one set of cards for each group.
2. The cards should be shuffled and dealt out equally to each member of group.
3. The cards are divided into R cards (Reason Card) and C card (consequence card).
4. The first player begins by selecting one of the C cards, and reading it out,
for example, I lit the fire.
5. Any other players may then complete the sentence by choosing an appropriate R card and linking it to the first half- sentence with an appropriate connective, for example, … because it was cold.
The first player to complete the sentence appropriately may collect the two matching cards as a thick.
2.7.6 The Rules of Game
1. Play the game in groups of three or four.
2. The cards are in two sets: reason card and consequence card (c) cards.
3. Shuffle the two sets together and deal out the card equally.
4. Look at your cards but not show them to other players.
5. Player 1 chooses a C card from the card he / she holds and reads it out, for example, I the fire …
6. Any other players can complete the sentence with a suitable R card, for example … because it was cold.
7. The first player to complete the sentence appropriately may collect the two cards as a trick.
8. Then it is the second player’s turn.
9. At the end the player with the most trick is a winner.
2.7.7 What Do I Need?
Type of activity
Do you need … ?
Do you have to use … ?
Is it essential / necessary to … ?
It is essential/useful/optional/necessary/advisable, etc.
You need/don’t have to a …
Household task, sport
2.7.8 The Use of Game
Divide the class into groups of three or four and copy one set of cards for each group.
The cards should be placed face down in a pile in the centre of the table.
Each group should send one person out of the room and then take the top card off the pile and look at it.
The students who was sent out should return, and try to guess what activities the group are engaged in by asking what materials, equipment, or tools they need for the activity.
The other players may not show him / her card and may not give additional information being answering the questions when the first players has guessed correctly, a second player may be sent out of the room and the next card turned up.
This game may be played in amore competitive version the following way:
Divide the class into four group (or two or three if you have small class) and copy one set of cards for each group, but keep them yourself at the front of the class. Assign a definite “home base “ to each group and ask one person to each group to come up to the front. Give each of them a card and tell them to go back to their group. This time, it is the rest of the group who has the card must not show the rest the card, is not allowed to give any extra information.
When the group guessed correctly, they may send another student up to the front to collect another card from their pile. And so on. The teacher remains at the front each charge of cards.
2.7.9 The Rules of Game
1. Play this game in groups of three or four.
2. Place the cards face down in pile on the table.
3. Send one person out of the room.
4. Take the top card off the pile and look at it.
5. Ask the student to return. He / she must guess.
6. What activities is pictured on the card by asking what things are useful or necessary for that activity, for example, Do I need a hammer? Is oven necessary?
7. The other players must answer his / her card or give additional information.
8. When the student suggested correctly, it is another students’ turn go out the room.
2.7.10 Dreaming Sequences
Type of activity
Pair work / small group
Combining narrative and description
Sequence connectives: after, then, as soon as, when, etc.
Landscape, appearance of people and object problem vocabulary
Locked, wings, waves, chased, fountain, cellar, rainbow, galloping, wolf, burden, shadow, snake, ladder, owl, bat.
2.7.11 The Use of Game
Copy one sets of cards for each person in the class.
Divide the students into pairs gives each students a set of cards.
They should place a book or file between them, so that neither can see what the other doing.
Ask them to look the pictures, which represent image from a dream.
They should choose a number of images which appeal to them and arrange them in order to form a dream sequence.
When they have finished, they should tell a dream to the partner, who should select the image described and arrange them in order.
The game may be played another way, if preferred:
Divide the class into groups of three or four and copy one set of cards for each group.
The cards should be dealt out equally to all members of group.
The first player begins by choosing a card from her / his hand and lying it down on the table as the first event of a dream, describing as he / she does so what happened in the dream.
The next player should them choose a suitable card to follow on as the next stage in the dream.
When all groups have finished their dream, they can visit each other tables and explain the dreams each other.
2.7.12 The Rules of Game
1. Play this game in groups of three or four.
2. Deal out the cards equally to each player.
3. Look at your picture cards. These pictures represent the events in a dream.
4. The first player chooses any card and lays it down on the table, describing the first event in the dream, for example, I found myself in a garden with huge flowers …
5. The next player chooses card and lays it down next to the first card, describing what happened next, for example, I walked through the garden and came to a locked door …
6. The aim of the game is to build up a co-operative dream.
3.1 Research Design
According to Sutrisno Hadi (1965: 98) in his book “Methodology research”
Variabel adalah semua obyek yang menjadi ssaran penyelidikan yang menunjukkan variasi dalam jenisnya maupun tingkatannya.
(Variable is the whole of object becomes the target of a research that indicates of variation, either in kind or in stage)
Musyafikul Ahmad (1983: 19) in his book”Penelitian pendidikan” Variabel adalah segala sesuatu yang menjadi obyek penelitian.
(Variable is everything which becomes object of research or some factors which are researched)
From the explanation above the writer concluded this thesis consists of one variable, that is “A study on teaching using games”
3.2 Location and Time of Research
Place is the main factor to do research, because of that, we know the population and the problem that will be researched and then we can be formulate the problem which is faced.
The writer did the research at SMPN 3 Pare-Kediri. The started getting the data from 22 to 30 Maret 2008.
Talking about the sample, Sutrisno Hadi (1965: 54) in his book “ Methodology Research” says:
Sampel adalah sebagian dari keseluruhan individu / subyek populasi yang diteliti, yang dapat mewakili populasi tersebut.
(Population is a part of the whole object / individual which be researched, which able to represent the population).
Because there are so too many students it will have to observe or get the data, so, it is quite difficult for the writer to take all of the numbers of population. That is way, the writer just took one class as a sample. That is class IX-E and those are 40 students. The reason choosing class IX-E as a sample are the students of class IX-E have the same ability. Beside that, the English teacher of SMPN 3 Pare only allows the writer to use the class.
The writer choose three instruments to obtain the data, they were Questionnaires, Observation and Interview.
The first step done by the writer is she gives a set of constructed questions to the subjects to be answering in writing. Relating to this, Sutrisno Hadi, in Methodology Research, says:
Questionnaire means the question and answer between the researcher and respondent which are given lists of written question form.
Based on the definition above, it can be concluded that questionnaire method is the method used get the data by giving a list of written questions. The Questionnaires are used by the teachers in teaching speaking lesson and the problems faced by the teachers in teaching speaking.
The interview was given to all of the English teachers of class IX. This was used to get the data concerning the serious problem faced by the teachers.
In order to get the data, the writer came to the school. The first step is ask permission to the head master, after the head master gave permission, she asked to meet the English teacher of class IX. Then the writer asked for time to do observation. During the observation the writer gave the games which are given consist of four types and each game needs 2 hours. So, the writer holds the research for 4 days. Beside that, the writer gave the interview and questionnaires to the teachers.
3.5 The Techniques of Collecting the Data
Beside giving the questionnaires, the writer also did observation through teaching and learning speaking lesson using games. The purpose of Questionnaire and interview to the teacher are:
- To know far the teacher gives speaking lesson to the students
- To know how far the teacher uses the variety of teaching speaking lesson.
By observation, the writer come to the class and taught the students. After giving games, the writer found some problems, they are:
9. How far is games can influence to the speaking skill?
10. What problems which faced by the writer during activities?
3.6 The Technique of Data Analysis
During the activities of teaching speaking using games in the class room, the writer analyzed the result of the activities. In this case, there are some aspects of speaking skill include pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar and fluency, and then the writer concludes the data systematically.
3.7 The Techniques of Teaching
The activities done by the writer in teaching speaking using games are:
- Explain the kind of game and how to use them
- Give the key language and vocabulary of area
- Ask a group of three or four to come up
- Ask them to demonstrate the game
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Data Presentation
The writer will show her activities in presenting the data. In her activities, in teaching speaking using games, she only used games in the class room activities. First of all, she gave material of game and gave explanation about them.
Second, she demonstrative by asking 2 students to come up.
Third, introduced the key language to use the games.
After students acted out the game the writer had some questions, they are
11. How is the students’ reaction to the games?
12. How far influence of games to the student’s ability?
13. What problems that are faced by the writer in the class room during the activities?
The game that are introduced:
1. Domino Instruction
The teacher asked to make a group. She gave material a set of picture cards to each students.
She gave explanation about the game and used of it.
She asked the students to start the game.
For the first player by lying down the first card in any sequence, and giving the appropriate instruction.
And then continued by second player, if the second player had stage 2 of the sequence he / she should lay it down next to the first card, and gave appropriate instruction.
If she / he did not have the right card, then turned pass to the next player.
And he / she lay down a later stage by mistake, he / she may be challenged by the player with the real the stage two.
The game continued until finished.
Teaching Learning Process
The game is held on March 22, 2007 on the first and second period. This Game needs two hours. The classes divided into group of four. There are 10 groups in the class. Before the activities are done the teacher gives an explanation to each group, until the sequence card finished. And then the teacher monitored and guided the others group.
During the activities the teacher found the problems they are:
- Situation in the classroom
During the teaching learning process situation in the classroom is very noisy, because all of students are practicing speaking and it is quite difficult to control the noisy and crowded class.
Most students are poor in their mastery of vocabulary which it is very limited, and they find difficulties when they asked to express their ideas through picture. So that, they can not carry out the game well.
2. Sweet Reason
The teacher asked the students to make a group.
The teacher gave material a set of cards for each group.
The cards divided into R (reason cards) and C (consequence cards).
The teacher gave explanation about the game and used of it.
The teacher asked the student to start the game.
The player began by selecting one of C card and then read it out.
And the other player may be completed R card with appropriate sentence.
Teaching Learning process
The game is held on March 22, 2007 on the third and the fourth period. This class is divided into group five, so there are 8 groups. Before the game is begun the writer gave the explanation about the game to each group. During the activities the teacher guided to each of group. In doing this game, the students found difficulties to arrange the sentence according to the right structure, when the students are practice speaking, it seems that they are still poor in pronunciation.
3. What Do I Need?
The teacher asked the students to make a group.
She gave a set of card s for each group.
And then she gave explanation about the use of game.
She asked the students to start the game.
The teacher asked each group to sent one person out of the room.
And then took the top card off the pile and looked at it.
The teacher asked the student who was sent out should return, and tried to guess what activity the group are engaged in by asking what materials, equipment or tools they need for that activity. The other player must be answered it. When the students have guessed correctly, the teacher asked another student turn to go out the room.
Teaching learning process.
The game is held on March 22, 2007, on first and second period. This game needs two hours. The classes divided into group of five. There are 8 groups in the class. The gave and how to use it to each group. During the activities the teacher as facilitator, monitor, guided and also note the activities about any mistakes. When the teacher applied this game most students feel relaxed and enjoy to act out of it, because this game is very interesting. The students are brave enough to express their ideas their ideas to express their ideas through this game with their partner. But in fact, there are several problems that are faced. The arising problems are:
- When the students practiced speaking situation in the class in the class is very noisy.
- In doing games based on the teachers’ instruction, the students had difficulties in preparing what they would have to say while performing. So they couldn’t act out well. The student hesitated to act out, they felt nervous when they were saying the sentence.
4. Dream Sequences
The teacher asked the students to make a group. The teacher gave a set of cards.
The teacher gave explanation about the game and the used of it.
And the teacher asked the students to start the game.
Then she asked the first player to choose any cards and lay it down on the table, describing the first event in the dream.
Teaching Learning Process
The game is held on March, 2007 on first and second period. This game needs 2 hours. The class is divided into group of four, so there are 10 groups. The teacher gave explanation about the game and use of it before the students starting playing the game. In doing this game the students found difficulties to arrange the sentence according the right structure. The students’ knowledge of structure is still low.
4.2 The Arising Problems.
The writer will report of the problems that faced the writer during the activities by doing teaching learning process in giving speaking lesson giving games.
The problems are:
- When the students are practice speaking, it seems that they are still poor in pronunciation. Although they can speak fluently but their pronunciation is not so good and something wrong.
- During the teaching learning process, situation in the class is very noisy. Because all of students practice speaking and it is quite difficult to control the noisy and crowded class.
3. Most students are poor in their mastery of vocabulary. The students’ mastering vocabulary is limited: And they find difficulties when they are asked to express their ideas through picture. So that, they cannot, carry out well.
4. Preparing the game
- In doing games based on the writer’s instruction, the student has difficulties in preparing what they would have to say while performing. So they couldn’t act out well. The student hesitated to act out, they felt nervous when they were saying the sentence.
- The students found difficulties to arrange the sentence according to the right structure although they speak fluently the English grammar sometimes wrong.
4.3 The Problems Faced by the Teachers in Teaching Speaking Lesson.
From the data which is got through questionnaires, that are many problems faced by the teachers in teaching speaking lesson. They are:
It is known that the classes in this school are too big. There are more than 40 students in the class. So that, the situation is not ideal to study foreign language. In this case, it is very difficult for the teacher to control 40-45 students in the classes.
2. Time a location
It is also important to determine the amount of time needed to present the materials to the learner. Because if the time is not suitable with the number of the materials that must be given to the students. So the teacher can not teach easily. From the interview indicated that the students were taught English 4 hours in every week.
As we know in teaching English, the teacher does not only teach speaking, but they also teach structure, reading, vocabulary and writing. So, they must be able to use time to present all of the materials. To present material of speaking, the teacher must teach pronunciation, the way of act out it includes as a role play. From the interview it is known that the entire teacher also taught structure, vocabulary, reading, writing and speaking only use dialogue.
CONCLUSION AND SUGESSTION
Based on the result of the research, the writer would like to make some conclusion:
1. The writer gave 4 kinds of game. Those are: Domino Instruction, Sweet reason, what do I need? Dream sequences.
2. The object of domino instruction is for the players to get rid of all their cards. Whoever does so first is the winner.
3. The object of sweet reason is to collect most “trick”.
4. The object of what do I need? Is to guess correctly what the activity is.
5. The object of dream sequences is for each student to select images described by his partner and arrange them in the order narrative.
6. The games are given by the writer focuses in speaking, so through the games all of students practice speaking with their friends in a group. They express their ideas through the games. It’s a chance for the students to communicate with others in real communication.
7. The games given to the students can help the students gain motivation to use oral language. Because the games give the attention in speaking skill. In this case, all of students must speak English. So the students have to speak up.
To develop and improve the teaching and learning process in SMK Brawijaya, the writer has some suggestions to the English teachers and the students.
They are as follow:
5.2.1 For the Teacher
The student’s pronunciation was sometimes wrong and not clear. So, the teacher should write some difficult words on the blackboard and give examples on how to pronounce them in the beginning of the teaching and learning process.
5.2.2 For the Students
1. It was quite difficult to control the noisy and crowded classroom, so the teacher should find ways to overcome this negative class situation.
2. The students hesitated to act out the games. The teacher should give enough time to the students to prepare the games. When this game is done hopefully they will be able to practice it seriously.
3. The students had difficulties in preparing what they would have to say while performing. The teacher should make them understand this instruction and motivate them to play the game lively; they should really “act” as they in real situation.
4. The teacher should write the vocabulary area will use in the game. For difficult words the teacher asks the students to look for them from dictionary.
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