Sunday, December 16, 2012

skripsi bahasa inggris THE USE OF CARTOON FILM TO IMPROVE THE VOCABULARY MASTERY


 THE USE OF CARTOON FILM
TO IMPROVE THE VOCABULARY MASTERY
OF FIFTH GRADE STUDENTS
OF SD N 2 CANGKRINGREMBANG KARANGANYAR DEMAK
IN ACADEMIC YEAR 2008/2009



CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study
English is one of foreign languages that are more popular that any other languages in the world. It means that language is humans’ tool to communicate to each other and their way to express or say the idea and thinking. An Indonesian person does not use English language commonly in a daily life. Therefore, to consider the important role of English, English is taught from the elementary till university, furthermore English itself Indonesian as second language.
 English is introduced into curriculum and it is a compulsory subject in kindergarten, elementary school, junior high school, senior high school and university. The Indonesian government always makes effort to improve the quality of education by improving the quality of the teachers and other teaching components, which are involved in the educational processes (Rachmadie, 1985:54) the quality of someone’s English skill is obviously depending on the quality and quantity of the vocabulary he or she has.
Besides, every learning process will go on well if there is motivation. It is expected that each student come to school having the motivation to study. Therefore, teacher has to make students productively involved using the work in the class. This step requires teacher’s creativity to create the most appropriate ways for their students. Teaching English is always oriented to master the four language skills: Listening; Speaking, Reading, and Writing. All the four skills are very important in teaching English. The language components, such as structure, vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation are taught to support developing of the four language skills. These skills are learned trough selected material based on their development level. However, in a teaching and learning process, a teacher must develop the four language skills interactively. Qualified teacher, good environment, facilities and media also support the success of language learning. We also have a language component, which is called vocabulary. Vocabulary is very crucial in language learning and one of the important factors in learning English especially in teaching elementary school students. Hornby (1974:954) states that vocabulary is total number of words which with rules for combining them make up a language. According to Manzo and Sherk (1971:72) “Vocabulary is central of formation, acculturation, reticulation apparently all learning”. Therefore, it is important for teaches to study methods and techniques in improving students vocabulary so that they can learn as effectively as possible.
In the world of education, students are expected to master enough vocabulary to support their English skill. When the students have known enough vocabulary, it will help them make their learning process go easier with the maximum result. However, the main problem faced by many students, is that they still master a small number of vocabularies that influence their English skill.  
As a teacher, it is necessary to find new teaching media to overcome the problems and not to forget to motivate the students. Some teachers have used games, pictures, songs, real object and cartoon as their teaching media to grow the student creativity in learning process.
In the KTSP (kurikilum tingkatan satuan pendidikan) based competency, vocabulary is taught in SD N 2 CangkringRembang, Karanganyar, Demak beside the four skills. For examples in the writing skill, the students will write easily when they can master new vocabulary especially difficult word that is applied in English sentence. According to English teacher in SD N 2 CangkringRembang, Karanganyar, Demak, many students still have difficulties to give contribution of new English words. One of the problems is pronunciation. In the curriculum, the teacher can give motivation to study with a way are games, pictures, real object and songs.
In this study, cartoon is chosen as a media for teaching vocabulary. This media enables the students to explorer when they are learning in an enjoyable atmosphere and it helps the students can memorize English vocabulary more easily.
By using cartoon as media, it is hoped that the students memorize English vocabulary in this case, the writer chooses the students in SD N 2 CangkringRembang, Karanganyar, Demak as the research subject to know their mastery of English vocabulary.
Because of the reason, the writer is interested in taking up the title of the research: “The Mastery of English Vocabulary of the Fifth Grade Students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang, Karanganyar, Demak in Academic Year 2008/2009 Taught by Using Cartoon”.


1.2. Statement of the Problem
  Based on the background of the study above, the problems can be stated in such formulation below:
1.  How is the mastery of English vocabulary of the Fifth Grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang, Karanganyar, Demak in Academic Year 2008/2009 before being taught by using cartoon?
2.  How is the mastery of English vocabulary of the Fifth Grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang, Karanganyar, Demak in Academic Year 2008/2009 after being taught by using cartoon?
  1. Is there any significant different between the mastery of English vocabulary of the Fifth Grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang, Karanganyar, Demak in Academic Year 2008/2009 before and after being taught by using cartoon?
     
1.3 The Purpose of Research
From the statements of the problem, the writer got to determine purpose of the research of follows:
1.  To know the mastery of English vocabulary of the Fifth Grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang, Karanganyar, Demak in Academic Year 2008/2009 before being taught by using cartoon.
2.  To know the mastery of English vocabulary of the Fifth Grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang, Karanganyar, Demak in Academic Year 2008/2009 after being taught by using cartoon.
3.   There is any significant different between the mastery of English vocabulary of the Fifth Grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang, Karanganyar, Demak in Academic Year 2008/2009 before and after being taught by using cartoon.

1.4. Significant of the Study
 This study is to show whether there is any significant different between the mastery of English vocabulary of the Fifth Grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang, Karanganyar, Demak in Academic Year 2008/2009 before and after being taught by using cartoon. This study can be useful for:
1.  The Teacher
  The teacher will gradually know the mastery of English vocabulary of the Fifth      Grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang, Karanganyar, Demak in Academic Year 2008/2009 before and after being taught by using cartoon can be used to improve the student’s ability in understanding or teaching and learning process.
2.  The Students
  The students can to memorize English vocabulary more easily and they are learning in an enjoyable atmosphere.




1.5. Scope of the study
 In learning language, students will obviously find many of problems in teaching vocabulary. Teaching English vocabulary is teaching that is done to teach words in the English materials.
  One of the media in teaching English vocabulary is by using cartoon. In this study, the writer uses cartoon as media to teach English vocabulary. Cartoon is a film made by photographing a series of cartoon drawings to give the illusion of movement when projected in rapid sequence (http://www.thefreedictionary.com/cartoon).
 The limitation of this research focuses only in the mastery of English vocabulary of the Fifth Grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang, Karanganyar, Demak in Academic Year 2008/2009 before and after being taught by using cartoon.
 The subject in this research is the fifth grade of SD N 2 CangkringRembang, Karanganyar, Demak in Academic Year 2008/2009.

1.6. The Definition of key Term
 The definition of terms, which is necessary to clarify briefly in order to avoid different thinking, can be mentioned as follow:
1. The mastery of English vocabulary is the knowledge of vocabulary by understanding the meaning of the words.
2.  Cartoon is a film made by photographing a series of cartoon drawings to give the illusion of movement when projected in rapid sequence (http://www.thefreedictionary.com/cartoon).
3.  The students in this research are the students who are studying in the fifth grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang, Karanganyar, Demak in Academic Year 2008/2009.
4. SD N 2 is an elementary schools, it is located in CangkringRembang, Karanganyar, Demak.

CAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Chapter two deals with the review of underlying theory or literature. The writer presents theory and definitions supported by some experts. These will discuss about teaching English in SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak the mastery of English vocabulary and teaching English vocabulary by using “Cartoon Film” as a media.

2.1 Teaching English in SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak
Teaching English in Elementary school have four language skills namely listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The components of language such as vocabulary, structure, spelling and pronunciations are taught and integrated with the teaching of four language skills.
In order to teaching English in elementary school appropriately, there are many things that the teacher should pay attention to. They are among others the English curriculum in elementary school, purpose of teaching English, and the materials of teaching English.

2.1.1 The Curriculum of Teaching English in SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak
Curriculum is interpreted to mean all of the organized courses, activities, and experiences which pupils have under direction of the school, whether in the classroom or not, (Hamalik, 1993:18). Based on the English curriculum, English has in the position of the first foreign language to be learnt in Indonesia and it has important roles not only in developing science, technology, and culture but also in making good relationship among countries. Teaching English at SD N 2 focuses on the four skills namely listening, speaking, reading, and writing which are targeted to simple English.
In addition, English is now not only taught to Junior High School and Senior High Scholl. Rather English teaching is also given to Kindergarten and Elementary School with the reason that the earlier the students learn English the more knowledge and skills in English they will have.
 In the KTSP (kurikilum tingkatan satuan pendidikan) based competency, vocabulary is taught in SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak beside the four skills. The writer in this study emphasis on learning English cannot be separated from learning vocabulary of that language. Learning vocabulary is the first step of learning language. Teaching English vocabulary is the process of giving knowledge of shapes, transportation, health and hospital, occupation, library, and weather and seasons with based on the curriculum.

2.1.2 Purpose of the Teaching of English in SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak
Based on the English curriculum, the purpose of teaching English at SD N 2 is to develop communication ability in English in the form of oral and writing. These communication abilities include listening, speaking, reading, and writing. To develop the awareness on essence and the important English as one of foreign language as the main tool of learning. The last purpose is the students will have developed English language to interrelation between language and culture and broaden the culture concepts so the student got the cross cultural knowledge and involved in the culture diversities.

2.1.3 The Material of Teaching English in SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak
Actually the materials which should be given of SD N 2 students to be able to reproduce the vocabulary are the materials which are needed by students at this time generally in order to compete with other students. According to English curriculum, the material of teaching English vocabulary for the fifth grade students is about shapes, transportation, health and hospital, occupation, library, weather and seasons (English Curriculum).
1. Shapes
 The students must mention and describe the names of the part of the shapes.
 Example: - This is a cube
                    - This is a cone
                    - This is a cylinder
2. Transportation
 The students must mention and describe the kinds of transportation.
 Example: - This is a car
                    - This is air plan
                    - This is a motorcycle
3. Health and Hospital
 The students must mention and describe the kinds of health and hospital.
 Example: - I had a toothache
                    - I had a fever
        - She has a stomach-ache
4. Occupation
 The students must mention and describe the kinds of occupation.
 Example: - Andi is a doctor
                    - Sinta is a nurse
                    - Rudi is architect
5. Library
 The students must mention and describe the names of the part of the library.
 Example: - I borrow this book
                    - I bring this dictionary
6. Weather and Seasons
 The students must mention and describe the names of the part of weather and seasons.
 Example: - It is sunny
                    - Today is dry season
                    - It is cloudy

2.1.4 The Method of Teaching English in SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak
Teaching process of English vocabulary in SD N 2 CangkringRembang, Karanganyar, Demak is not placed as the particular object. It usually brings together with reading comprehension.
Usually the teaching process English vocabulary in SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak begins when the teacher find difficult words from the text in the dialogue given and the teacher write the list of the words. Then the teacher asks the students to find their meaning by using dictionary and memorize them.

2.1.4.1 The Steps of Teaching English in SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak
            1. Introduction
The teacher greeting and address the students, checking attendance list, and arousing the student’s motivation by giving questions about the material.
  1. Whilst Activity
The teacher to know material for the students, explain about the material, asking the students about the material, giving test for the students about material, asking the students to do the test and  the students to submit their answers, discussing the test together.

  1. Post Activity
The teacher giving conclusion about the material, giving opportunity for the students to ask about the material, and closing the lesson.
In this study some teachers have used games, pictures, songs, real object, puzzle, and bingo as their teaching media to grow the student creativity in learning process.

2.2 The Mastery of English Vocabulary
In order to master English vocabulary, the teacher should give pay attention for several things. They are the definition of vocabulary, kinds of vocabulary, and the mastery of English vocabulary.

2.2.1 Definition of English Vocabulary
When learning a language, learners will be introduced to the components of that language, such as structure, spelling, pronunciation, and vocabulary. Vocabulary as one of the language components is badly needed in order to master a language. There are some definitions of English vocabulary. Murcia and Olshtain in Mc Cartny, (2000:73) define vocabulary is the largest single element in taking a new language for the learner and it would be irresponsible to suggest that it take care discourse driven. 
Richards (2004:4) says that vocabulary is one of the components of language and one of the first things applied linguists turned their attention to. Meanwhile, Hornby (1974:959) defines vocabulary is a total number of words which make up a language with definition or translations. From the definitions, it can be concluded that vocabulary is a list of words express a wide range of meaning.
Vocabulary, which constitutes the knowledge of meaning, plays a significant role in supporting the mastery of language skills namely listening, speaking, reading and writing. The more vocabulary the learners have, the easier for them to improve their skills. In writing, for example, by having many vocabularies, the students are easier to improve their English skills. They can express their ideas, opinion, and feeling cohesively. Thus, they can construct readable written text. So, the teaching learning process of English vocabulary is successfully done.

2.2.2 Kinds of English Vocabulary
Teaching vocabulary is important in language acquisition. Vocabulary is one element that links the four skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing all together. One of the requirements to communicate well in a foreign language, students should have an adequate number of words. According Celca-Murcia (2000:76) there are two kinds of vocabulary, as follows:
1. Productive versus Receptive Vocabulary
Productive vocabulary is the lexical terms which the students can remember and use appropriately in speaking and writing. Receptive vocabulary in the lexical items which the students familiar and understand when they meet them in the context of reading and listening materials.
  Productive vocabulary is used to speaking and writing, the stage of teaching and learning must end with vocabulary practice, where the students get an opportunity to try to use the vocabulary in context. Different from productive vocabulary, receptive vocabulary is only presented until the students’ know the meaning to understand the context of reading or listening.
2. Content Words versus Function Words
Content words and function words are a useful one in analyzing vocabulary. Content words are those vocabulary items that must to the large and open words classes. Content words that are the words that are easy accept new words and not use old ones but are not longer useful. For example: nouns, verbs, adjectives, and some adverbs.
Function words are those vocabulary items that must to closed words classes. Function words that are the words do not easy new items or lose old ones. For example: pronouns, auxiliary verbs, prepositions, determiners, and many adverbs. Function words should be taught as part of grammar and content words as part of vocabulary.
There are two kinds of vocabulary according to Proyek Peningkatan Mutu Tenaga Kependidikan dan non Kependidikan Pendidikan Menengah (2002). Materi Pelatihan Guru Bidang Studi Ebtanas (Bahasa Inggris) Jawa Tengah. Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.
1. Familiar (old) and Unfamiliar (new) vocabulary
The term ‘familiar –unfamiliar’ is preferred to ‘old-new’ since the latter is sometime confusing familiar vocabulary is the vocabulary which the students have been familiar. They have known the meaning and the use of the vocabulary in context. When the students meet a word and they do not know its meaning yet, then the word belongs to unfamiliar vocabulary, although they are familiar with its pronunciation or spelling.
Being asked what vocabulary to teach, most teachers will quickly answer, ‘unfamiliar vocabulary’. The answer is only partly true, because they usually forget that familiar vocabulary must also be taught. Familiar vocabulary is taught in order to establish the students’, acquisition, while unfamiliar vocabulary is taught to their knowledge.
2. Productive and Receptive vocabulary
Productive vocabulary is the lexical terms which the students can remember and use appropriately in speaking and writing. Receptive vocabulary is the lexical items which the students can familiar and understand when they meet them in the context of reading and listening materials.
Since productive vocabulary is used to speaking and writing, the stages of teaching and learning must end with vocabulary practice, where the students get an opportunity to try to use the vocabulary in context. Different from productive, receptive vocabulary is only presented until the students’ know the meaning to understand the context of reading or listening.
Sherpend (1952:22) says that there are some kinds of English vocabulary: a new vocabulary, and expressional vocabulary.
1. New Vocabulary
New vocabulary is vocabulary that is known when a person listens or read and when a person listen idea from another people. Vocabulary can accept by another people base vocabulary. A person used some words in communication and written of words that is known when he listens or read.
2. Expressional vocabulary
When a person communicate to write, he actual quickly or explain the opinion with another people even though easy and efficiently to improve mastery of vocabulary. A person becomes competent with repeating words in vocabulary that he has get it. The qualities of mastering vocabulary are to increase of language ability.

2.3 Cartoon film as a Media of Teaching English
Carefulness in selecting of media applied in the process of teaching and learning is needed in order to reach the satisfactory result of it. One of the media of teaching English vocabulary is by using cartoon film. Cartoon film is chosen as a media of teaching English vocabulary in this study. The explanation about Teaching English vocabulary by using “cartoon film” as a media as follows:

2.3.1 Definition of Media of Teaching
Media in a process of teaching is not a new thing for the teacher. Most of the teachers use media to help them giving particular information to the students. For the teachers of elementary school, the using of media is very important before we talk more about media; especially we have to know what media is.
Media come from the word medium. It means all of them and the channel used to inform of message. In the field of education media can be called as instrument, method and technique used to communicate and influence effectively between the teacher and the students in the teaching and learning process in the school (Hamalik:1982).
In this study, I use Cartoon Film as media of Teaching English Vocabulary. In teaching vocabulary, teachers should not give it separately, word by word. It will make the students know the meaning of the words only and they still find difficulties in applying the word into sentences or paragraph.
Teaching SD N or Elementary Students is considered as teaching children. Teachers should try to give as clearly as possible the explanation of the meaning of the words taught by showing picture, illustrating, or giving the similar meaning with their native languages as media.

2.3.2 Kinds of Media of Teaching
From some scientists we were learning we found that they used difference definition of media. Hamalik (1980:50-51), defines that teaching media consist of several kinds, such as:
1. Supplementary materials including reading materials: book, comic, newspaper,        magazine, bulletin, folder, pamphlet.
2. Audio visual media:
a. Non projector media; blackboard/whiteboard, diagram, graphic, poster, cartoon, comic, picture.
b. Three dimension media; model/natural thing like diorama, doll, mask, map, globe, school museum.
c. Machined media; slides, filmstrip, film, record, radio, television, computer.
3. Society source: people, industry, history, area, custom, politic.
4. Material collection: chemist, seed, and leaves.
5. Gesture: all action by the teacher in the class like moving hands, foot, body, and facial expression.
While Suparno (1988:50) defines kinds of teaching media that can be used in the process of teaching and learning process into four types, they are:
1. Non-projector viewing media: the viewing media that cannot be projector object to other surface. For example: flash card, pictures, etc.
2. Projector-viewing media: the viewing media that can be projected of the object of transparency to other surface example OHP (Over Head Projector).
3. Auditory media: the teaching media that confide the message by sound. For example: tape, recorder, etc.
4. Audiovisual media: the teaching media which confide the message though around and also its picture or action can be seen followed its sound. For example: TV, VCD, etc.
5. Game: the teaching media by game which is done by individual, group, or in pairs. For example: puzzles, guessing, the words, etc.
In this study, cartoon film is chosen as a media of teaching English vocabulary. I use Dora the Explorer Cartoon Film as media to teach English vocabulary. The Dora the Explorer is an animated television series that is a wonderful show for children. The lessons are hidden in Dora's adventures and not force fed. Another one of the best parts of Dora the Explorer show is the bilingual aspect. Characters speak both English and Spanish. Dora's adventures are fun and interesting, with an emphasis on sharing, compromise, and interactivity. Two stage versions of Dora the Explorer toured North America, the first being "City of Lost Toys," and the second being "Dora's Pirate Adventure." Produced by Nickelodeon and Live Nation, these productions consider as most important live actors play the roles of Dora and her friends, including Boots the monkey, Benny the bull, the fiesta trio (a bug band), Señor Tucán, Tico, Swiper the Fox and Dora's Map and Backpack (which have faces and personalities), Diego, and Isa the iguana. Many of the characters wore difficult foam costumes designed to resemble the Dora characters. Each production featured a structure similar to an episode of the television series. Dora helps children in the learn colors, counting, and words in Spanish and English.  Young viewers are wanted to participate in a variety of ways including shouting out words and reminding the characters of certain tasks (http://www.cartoonwatcher.com/dora-the-explorer/).
So, cartoon film is a film made by photographing a series of cartoon drawing to give the illusion of movement when projected in rapid sequence (http://www.thefreedictionary.com/cartoon). According Hornby (1974:129) carton film is cinema film made by photographing a series of drawing or drawing dealing with current (est. political) events in an amusing or satirical way. Meanwhile, Longman cartoon film is a humors drawing, often dealing in an amusing (satirical) way with something of interest in the news or a cinema film made by photographing a set of drawings.

2.4 Teaching English Vocabulary by Using Cartoon Film
Numerous of media can be applied in teaching vocabulary. However, it is a must for teachers to be careful about choosing them so that the process of teaching and learning vocabulary success with the satisfactory result.
One of the media of teaching English vocabulary is by using vocabulary cartoons film. Cartoon films are suitable for students at SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganya, Demak. They can lower anxiety of English to get involved and participate in the learning activities. The important thing is that cartoon films are appropriate media concerned with SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak students’ characteristic and need. They like watching cartoon films. Their world is still full of enjoyable activities.
In this study, cartoon film is chosen as a media for teaching English vocabulary. The write assumes that this media is appropriate for elementary school and as expected by the English curriculum in which the teaching at elementary school can be more cheerful and encouraging.

2.4.1 The Steps of Teaching English Vocabulary by Using Cartoon Film
In this study, cartoon film is chosen as a media of teaching English vocabulary. I use Dora the Explorer Cartoon Film as media to teach English vocabulary. The Dora Explorer is an animated television series that is a wonderful show for children. The lessons are hidden in Dora's adventures and not force fed. Another one of the best parts of Dora the Explorer show is the bilingual aspect. Dora's adventures are fun and interesting, with an emphasis on sharing, compromise, and interactivity. The Steps of Teaching English Vocabulary by Using Cartoon Film is:
  1. Pre Activity
The teacher greeting and address the students, checking attendance list, and arousing the student’s motivation by giving questions about the material.
  1. Whilst Activity
Plying the Dora the explorer cartoon film for the students,  asking them to mention the name of the picture from the Dora the explorer cartoon film, explain the Dora the explorer cartoon film in English, giving the students a chance for asking questions, appointing some students which is active, explain difficult or new vocabulary, Explain again about the material with simple, so that the students more understand, and Giving a test about the material.
  1. Post Activity
The teacher asking the students to do the test, asking the students to submit their answers, discussing the test together, gives the students chance to ask, the teacher give homework, and closing the lesson.


2.5 Hypothesis
Based of the statements of the problems above, the hypothesis of this study can be formulated as follows:
There is significant difference between the mastery of English vocabulary of the Fifth Grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak in Academic Year 2008/2009 before and after being taught by using cartoon film.

CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY OF THE RESEARCH

The methodology of the research is very important in every research as a guideline to attain the objective of the study. Chapter three provides information about methodology of the research that the writer applies in has study. They are design of the research, population and sample, instrument of the research, procedure of collecting data and technique of analyzing data.

3.1 Design of the Research
This research is an experimental research. Experimental research which purpose to examine the cause and the effect after the treatment will been done toward experimental group and control group (Ali, 1984:132). Meanwhile, Arikunto (1993:41) the research design aims to give the responsibility for setting the next steps to make the result more accurate and objective.  And the subject of this research is the fifth grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak which consist of 1 class. In this study, there are two variables, they are:
1. Independent variable is ““The use of Cartoon film” as a media of teaching English”.
2. Dependent variable is “The mastery of English vocabulary”.
The experiment research uses one group pre-test, post-test design, because it is done in one group only without other control group. So, that this experiment is called quasi experiment. There are three sages in one-group pretest-posttest design (Ali, 1984:136):
1. The researcher holds a pretest to find out the student’s vocabulary mastery before being taught by using cartoon film. The pretest is formulated as T1.
2. The researcher applies the experimental treatment to the subjects. The students are taught by using cartoon film. The experimental treatment is formulated as X.
3. The researcher conducts a posttest to measure the student’s vocabulary mastery after being taught by using cartoon film. It is formulated as T2.

            T1        = Pre-test for experimental group

do the experimental research for the fifth grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak in the academic year 2008/2009. I do four times treatment and two test, that are Pre-test to find the students’ vocabulary mastery before being taught by using cartoon film and Posttest to find out the students’ vocabulary mastery after being taught by using cartoon film.

3.2 Population and Sample
Population and sample are important elements in research. “Population is total member of research respondent.” (Arikunto, 2006:130). In addition, http://www.thefreedictionary.com/population mention that population is the entire aggregation of items from which sample can be draw, a branch of applied mathematics concerned with the collection and interpretation of quantitative data and the use of probability theory to estimate population parameters.
In this case, the population is the entire of the fifth grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak in the academic year 2008/2009. The number of population is 20 students.
After determining the population, I obtain a sample, which is obviously important step in conducting a research. I use a sample research to represents the population. Arikunto (1998:117) says that a sample is a part of population, which is investigated. In this sample research I have a purpose to generalize the result of study. The number of population that is used in this study is 20 students. Because of the limitation number of population which is only 20 students, I take the whole population as the sample of the research. Arikunto (2006:134) says that if the population is less than 100 people, we could use all of them as the sample. If the population is more 100 people, we could take 10-15% or more than 20-25% of its sample. Because the number of the fifth grade students of SD N 2 cangkringrembans Karanganyar Demak is less than 100 students, so the number of sample is 20 students.

3.3 Instrument of the Research
According to Arikunto(2006:160), research instrument is a device used by the research while collecting the data to make his work become easier and to get better result, complete and systematic in order to make the data easy to process.
I use multiple choice tests with 20 questions as a research instrument. According to Brown (2004:3), a test is a method of measuring a person’s ability, knowledge, or performance in a given domain.
Arikunto (2006:150) explains that test is a series of question or exercises used to measure skills, knowledge, intelligences, abilities or talents possessed by individual or group. Meanwhile, Hornby (1342), test is an experiment to discover whether or how well something words or find out more information about it.
Arikunto (2006:150) categorized of two types of instruments, test and non test. He also explained that test is a series of questions or exercises used to measure skills, knowledge, intelligences, abilities, or talents possessed by individual or group. While non-test includes giving questionnaire, interview, observation, rating skill, and documentation.
However, before the test items are being tested to the students, the writer must measure their validity and reliability to get the accurate data.
1. Validity
What is meant by validity is the accuracy stage of an instrument to test the things in a certain group (Ali, 1984:101). Meanwhile, Suprihadi (2001:22) says that validity is the extent to which it measure what it is supposed to measure. It means that the test item must be appropriate to the material that had been taught to the students. To measure the test validity, I uses table of specification containing the standard competency, the indicators, the materials, and the item numbers.
2. Reliability
According to Ali (1984:101), reliability means the stability of a test item to measure certain task that can be used everywhere and every place. To make sure that the test is reliable, before using the test items for the pretest and posttest, I tried out test. She took 20 students of the fifth grade students in SD N 3 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak as the subject of try out test. Then, the result of the try out test is calculated to find the test reliability by using the formula as stated by Arikunto (1998:185) as follow:

Note          :
Rxy           : item of test reliability

N               : the number of respondents
Σ x             : the sum of x scores
Σy              : the sum of y scores
Σ xy           : the sum of the score of x and y score for each student
Σ x²            : the sum of scores of x square
Σy²             : the sum of y scores of y square
After computing Rxy then this will be calculated by the application of the Spearman-Brown formulate:



 
Note          :
Rıı             : The obtained reliability of entire test
Rxy                        : The obtained reliability of half test
The criteria of reliability value are as follows:
r     : 0,00-0,20 : there is no reliable
r     : 0,21-0,40 : very low reliability
r     : 0,41-0,60 : enough reliability
r     : 0,61-0,80 : high reliability
r     : 0,81-1,00 : very high reliability
The writer did the try out to know the reliability of the test for the fifth grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak is 0.667. The criteria of reliability value are high reliability.
3.4 Technique of Collecting Data
To collect data, I conduct several steps:
1. Asking permission to headmaster of SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak to do the experiment that would take 2 weeks.
2. Giving pre-test to explore the data of vocabulary mastery of students before being taught by using cartoon film.
3. Teaching vocabulary by using cartoon film to explore the response of the students when they are taught by using cartoon film. It took four meetings.
4. Giving post-test to find out the data result of the vocabulary mastery after being taught by using cartoon film.

3.5 Technique of Analyzing Data
The writer analyzes the data using following steps:
1. Calculating the mean of pretest score and posttest score
2. Calculating the Standard Deviation of pretest score and posttest score
3. Calculating the t-test of pretest and posttest score to find out the difference between them
Method of analyzing data is a method to process the findings data into a research. The technique of analyzing the data is using the T-test. In analyzing the scores using t-test, the writer should find out the Mean and the Standard Deviation of both the pretest and the posttest score. Here are the formulas of calculating the Mean and the Standard Deviation.
The formula of calculating the mean:
Mean (X) :              
Notes:       
X : the mean
F : frequency
X : middle score of the interval class
N : the number of sample
The formula of calculating the standard deviation

Standard Deviation = SD = i

Notes:
S : standard deviation
i : the width of interval
f : frequency
x¹ : coding
x¹² : score of x¹²
N: the number of sample
Meanwhile, to know the vocabulary mastery of fifth grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak in the academic year 2008/2009 taught by using cartoon film. The writer would like to make criteria of the English reading from score. The score is got from the sum of the total correct answer, the writer uses this formula:
Score     = S x 5
              = 20 x 5
              = 100
Therefore, the highest score will be 100 and the lowest score will be zero. The data description of the students’ test scores will be classified into five criteria. According to Arikunto (1998:251), the criteria of measuring the test score is as follows:
Score
Category
80-100
Excellent
66-79
Good
56-65
Sufficient
40-55
Low
> 4o
Poor

Based on the data that has been gathered, this research uses a method to analyze the data, namely t-test formula. This formula is arranged by Ali (1984: 200) as follows:T-test formula: 
to          :
Note:
To: t score
Xı: Mean of an experiment member
X : Mean of comparing member
 σ : variant
N : number of experiment sample
N : number of comparing sampleFormula to compute the Variants (S²)
 Note : Xı : the Mean of posttest score
      X : the Mean of Pretest score
      N : the number of sample
      σ2 : Variants
      SD : Standard Deviation
To examine, if there is any significant difference between the independent variable (X) and dependent variable (Y), the hypothesis testing is done by the statistic hypothesis as follows:
Ho : ABCF = BBCF
Ha : ABCF ≠ BBCF
Ho       : There is no significant difference between the vocabulary mastery of fifth grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak in the academic year 2008/2009 before and after being taught by using cartoon film.
Ha       : There is any significant difference between the vocabulary mastery of fifth grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak in the academic year 2008/2009 before and after being taught by using cartoon film.
ABCF :  The vocabulary mastery of fifth grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak in the academic year 2008/2009 after being taught by using cartoon film.
BBCF  :  The vocabulary mastery of fifth grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demark in the academic year 2008/2009 before being taught by using cartoon film.



CHAPTER IV
RESEARCH FINDING AND DISCUSSION

In this chapter, I describe and discuss the data to find the answer to the statements of the problem in the chapter 1, she got the data of English Vocabulary assignments that consist of the assignments result before and after being Taught by Using Cartoon Film.

4.1 Data Description
The data are taken from the result of the mastery of English vocabulary test to the fifth grade students in academic year 2008/2009. It gets the data as follows:

4.1.1 The Mastery of English Vocabulary for the Fifth Grade Students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak in Academic Year 2008/2009 before being Taught by Using Cartoon Film
The mastery of English vocabulary test for the fifth grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak in academic year 2008/2009 is obtained highest score is 85 the lowest score is 60. The mean is 67,25, median is 64,75, modus is 65,55, and standard deviation 5,76. It means that the mastery of English vocabulary for the fifth grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak in academic year 2008/2009 before being taught by using “Cartoon Film” is good. The frequency distribution of the data is presented at table 4.1.1 and polygon is given at figure 4.1.2. The complete computation of the mean, median, modus, and standard deviation is presented in appendix 9.
Table 4.1.1 The Frequency Distribution of The Mastery of English Vocabulary for the Fifth Grade Students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak in Academic Year 2008/2009 Before Being Taught by Using “Cartoon Film”
No
Score
F
%
1.
81-85
1
5
2.
76-80
1
5
3.
71-75
3
15
4.
66-70
4
20
5.
61-65
11
55


20
100

Figure 4.1.2 The Polygon of the Distribution of The Mastery of English Vocabulary for the Fifth Grade Students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak in Academic Year 2008/2009 Before being Taught by Using “Cartoon Film.
4.2.1 The Mastery of English Vocabulary for the Fifth Grade Students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak in Academic Year 2008/2009 after being Taught by Using Cartoon Film

After I have conducted English vocabulary test for the fifth grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak in academic 2008/2009, it is obtained that the highest score is 90 the lowest score is 65. The mean is 77,45, median is 89,48, modus is 86,3, and standard deviation is 8,29. The mastery of English vocabulary for the fifth grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak in academic 2008/2009 after being taught by using “Cartoon Film” is good. The frequency distribution of the data is presented at the table 4.2.1 and the polygon is given at figure 4.2.2. The complete computation of the mean, median, modus, and standard deviation is presented in appendix 11.
Table 4.2.1 The Frequency Distribution of The mastery of English vocabulary for the fifth grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak in Academic Year 2008/2009 After Being Taught by Using “Cartoon Film”
No
Score
F
%
1.
85-90
6
30
2.
79-84
3
15
3.
73-78
4
20
4.
67-72
5
25
5.
61-66
2
10


20
100


Figure 4.2.2 The polygon of the Distribution of The mastery of English vocabulary for the fifth grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak in Academic Year 2008/2009 After Being Taught by Using “Cartoon Film”

4.2 Hypothesis Testing
This research uses quantitative data, so the hypothesis testing is done by the formula null hypothesis (Ho) which states that there is no significant difference between the two variables. If there is a significant difference, null hypothesis will be accepted and alternative hypothesis (Ha) will be confirmed.
In finding a significant difference of the two variables I use t-test in the level of significance 0,05 from the degree of freedom (Db) 38 which is gained from NI + N2 - 2. If to is similar or more than t-table (t1), Null hypothesis which states that there is no significant difference between the two means from both samples will be accepted. If to is smaller than t-table (t1), Null hypothesis will be confirmed. It indicates the mean difference is no significant and the research is accepted.
The data show that the mean of the students’ score for the mastery of English vocabulary before being taught by using “Cartoon Film” as media is 67,25 while the mean of students’ score for the mastery of English vocabulary after being taught by using “Cartoon Film” is 77,45. It can concluded that the mastery of English vocabulary for the fifth grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak in academic year 2008/2009 before being taught by using “Cartoon Film” is lowers than those are after being taught by using “Cartoon Film”.
From the t-test formula, I find the to = 12,172 and the t-table (t1) 2,021 on the level of significance 0,05 and (Db) 38. It means that to is higher than t-table (t1). The complete description is presented in appendix 13.
Therefore, Null hypothesis which states that there is no significant difference between the mastery of English vocabulary for the fifth grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak in academic year 2008/2009 after being taught by using “Cartoon Film” is accepted. Further, the alternative hypothesis (Ha) which states that there is any significant difference between the mastery of English vocabulary for the fifth grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak in academic year 2008/2009 before being taught by using “Cartoon Film”, and that of those who are after being taught by using “Cartoon Film” is confirmed.

4.3 Discussion
In this research, the hypothesis of the research states that there is any significant difference between the mastery of English vocabulary for the fifth grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak in academic year 2008/2009 before and after being taught by using “Cartoon Film”. And, the result of the experiment as follows:

4.3.1 The mastery of English vocabulary for the fifth grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak in academic year 2008/2009 before being taught by using “Cartoon Film”
The result of the mastery of English vocabulary for the fifth grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak in academic year 2008/2009 before being taught by using “Cartoon Film” is good. It is showed by mean of the test that is 67,25, median is 64,75, modus is 65,55 and the standard deviation is 5,76. It means that the mastery of English vocabulary for the fifth grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak in academic year 2008/2009 before being taught by using “Cartoon Film” is good. In this situation the students have to find the meaning of English vocabulary by using dictionary. So, the students find it boring and they become reluctant to learn and memorize the English vocabulary.

4.3.2 The mastery of English vocabulary for the fifth grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak in academic year 2008/2009 before being taught by using “Cartoon Film”
The result of the mastery of English vocabulary for the fifth grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak in academic year 2008/2009 after being taught by using cartoon film is good. It is showed by the mean of the test that is 77,45, median is 89,48, modus is 86,3, and the standard deviation is 8,29. After being taught by using “Cartoon Film” as media, students get new technique in solving their problem in focuses of English vocabulary. “Cartoon film” as media is one of the English vocabulary teaching media when they are learning vocabulary. And this media are commonly fun and bring in relaxation. The students who are taught after being taught by using “cartoon film” as media are motivated doing the steps ordered by teacher. During the teaching process, teacher expects that students are able to memorize English words. So, the students can memorize English vocabulary more easily.

4.3.3 The mastery of English vocabulary for the fifth grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak in academic year 2008/2009 before and after being taught by using “Cartoon Film”
After the experiment had been done, the hypothesis of the experiment is confirmed. It based of t-test computation (to12,172) on the level of significant 0,05 from the degree of freedom (Db) 38 t-table = 2,021. It is clearly seen that (to)>(t1). Null hypothesis (Ho) states that there is accepted significant difference between the mastery of English vocabulary for the fifth grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak in academic year 2008/2009 before being taught by using cartoon film is good and after being taught by using cartoon film is good. Than the students who are after being taught by using cartoon film as a media. It means that there is any significant difference between the mastery of English vocabulary for the fifth grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak in academic year 2008/2009 before and after being taught by using cartoon film.


CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION


5.1 Conclusion
Based on the statement of the problem and the result of the research, I conclude as follows:
1. The mastery of English vocabulary for the fifth grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak in academic year 2008/2009 before being taught by using cartoon film as media is good. It is showed by the mean of the test that is 67,25, median is 64,75, modus is 65,55, and the standard deviation is 5,76.
2. The mastery of English vocabulary for the fifth grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak in academic year 2008/2009 after being taught by using cartoon film as media is very good. It is showed by the mean of the test that is 77,45, median is 89,48, modus is 86,3, and the standard deviation is 8,29.
3. There is any significant difference between the mastery of English vocabulary for the fifth grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak in academic year 2008/2009 before and after being taught by using cartoon film as media (to- 12,172 > tt- 2,021).

5.2 Suggestion
In this sub chapter, as the end of the chapter, I have some suggestion as follows:
  1. The teacher also should use “Cartoon Film” in the appropriate time according students feeling. The teacher will be successful to use “Cartoon Film” if the students have the same feeling with the teacher.
  2. The school should give the wider opportunity for the teacher to use “Cartoon Film” as media of teaching English vocabulary. It is important because this research found any significant difference between the mastery of English vocabulary for the fifth grade students of SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak in academic year 2008/2009 before and after being taught by using cartoon film.


BIBLIOGRAPHY


Ali, Mohammad. 1984. Penelitian Kependidikan Prosedur dan Strategi. Bandung: Angkasa.

Arikunto, Suharsimi. 1997. Dasar-Dasar Evaluasi Pendidikan. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara.

Arikunto, Suharsimi. 1998. Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktek. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.

Brown, H. Douglas. 2001. Teaching by Principles An Interactive Approach to Language Metodology. New York: Addition Wesley Longman, Inc.

Cameron, Lynne. 2001. Teching Languages to Young Learners. Cambrige: University Press.

---Curriculum of SD N 2 CangkringRembang Karanganyar Demak. 2008.

Hadi, Sutrisno. 1982. Metodologi Research. Yogyakarta: Yayasan Penerbitan Fakultas Psikologi UGM.

Hamalik, Oemar. 1993. Pengembangan Kurikulum Lembaga Pendidikan dan Pelatihan. Bandung: PT Trigenda Raya.

Harmer, Jeremy. 2001. The Practice of English Language Teaching. England: Pearson Education Ltd.

Hornby, A.S. 1974. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. Oxford: Uniiversity Press.

http://www.cartoonwatcher.com/dora-the-explorer/

http://www.thefreedictionary.com/cartoon.

http://www.thefreedictionary.com/population.

Longman. 2003. Dictionary of Contemporary English: The Living Dictionary. England: Longman.

Murcia Elite Olstain – Marianne Celce. 2000. Discourse and Context in Language Teching. Cambridge: University Press.

Moleong, Lexy J. 19981. Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif. Bandung: Remaja Rosdakarya.
Nasir, Muhammad. 1985. Metode Penelitian. Jakarta: Galia Indonesia.

Nunan, David. 1992. Research Method in Language learning. Cambridge: University Press.

Richard, Jack C. 1989. Curriculum Development in Language Teaching. Cambridge: University Press.

Riduwan. 2004. Skala Pengukuran Variabel-Variabel Penelitian. Bandung: Alfabeta.

Soeparno. 1988. Madia Pengajaran Bahasa. Yogyakarta: PT Intan Pariwara.

Sujdana. 2001. Madia Pengajaran. Bandung: Sinar Baru.

Sukardi. 2003. Metodologi Penelitian Pendidikan. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara.

Suryabrata, Sumadi. 1992. Metodologi Penelitian. Jakarta: CV Rajawali.

Tarigan, Henri Guntur. 1986. Pengajaran Kosakata. Bandung: Angkasa.






THE USE OF CARTOON FILM TO IMPROVE THE VOCABULARY MASTERY OF FIFTH GRADE STUDENTS

1 comment:

  1. Thanks for sharing this post.A great way to become a great English communicator is to learn how to increase English vocabulary.

    ReplyDelete