Saturday, December 29, 2012

SKRIPSI BAHASA INGGRIS KOMPLIT A STUDY IN ENGLISH VARIETIES USED BY VENDORS IN BANYUMULEK

A STUDY IN ENGLISH VARIETIES USED
BY VENDORS IN BANYUMULEK
(Case Study In Desa Banyumulek Kediri Lombok Barat )



CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION


A.  Background        
Language is one of the instrument of the human intellectual means of communication of is used to formulate thought and convey message to other. It plays an important role in analyzing human activity, in reasoning, solving problem, and planning actions; language also used to convey memories of the past and beliefs about the future to at also language other to event that have not taken place, and to express the relation between event (Caplan, 2001:1). People also use language in inform others task or give information, to get things done, to request, to ask or give direction, to comment to report, and many other ordinary verbal actions in daily interaction. So it impossible for us to understand other well without a language of without having language people will cripple in their family or social interaction. There is a lot of definition about language given by many experts. But in writing the writer just take some definition given by Financiaro (1974:3) they are:
1.      Language is the means by which result of human thought an action are based on
2.      Language is a system of rules by which items are stored in the mind and manipulated so as to form infinite items sets of communications
3.      Language is learn behavior
4.      Language is cultural product subject to lows and principle that are particularly unique to it and partially reflective of general properties of the human mind
5.      Language is a system or arbitrary vocal symbol which permits all people in a given culture, or other people who have learned the system of that culture to communication or to interact
From the explanation above, it can concluded that language can express or covey ones emotional needs, thought, desires, and attitudes, control, and many other communicative, purposes. But only others through commutations as stated in wabsteris only can understand all of them. (Hawkins, m. Joyce oxford mini dictionary, 1191:287), the language is words and their use. System of this used by a national or group.
Communication is a process of mutual sharing or use of information collectively in connection with the received and the sender in an information process (Kincaid and scram, 1977: 6) dealing with the definition, communication as a process of delivering information have to be support by each component of communication (Sastro petro, 1972:22). States that there are their main component of communication namely.
1.     Source is one who communicates or connect a massage to other
2.     Receiver is one who receive a massage
3.     Massage is a form of idea .opinion off exacta that is changed trough communication symbol and transmit or other receivers.
Moreover he elaborates that source or sender transmission is a massage to receiver and then the receiver turns into a source or sender and sends the massage again and so on. What does receiver called feed beck send. White feed back, the source or sender has a chance to evaluate whether the communication is successful or failed.
The success of failure of communication depends on how good on coveys his or her ideas to other. Successful communication occurs when speaker and listener reach a common understanding. For this happened, each participant must be able to applay his or her communicative skill effectively especially two fundamental communicative skill of listening and speaking if not communication break down will occur.
As stated previously, language is a medium of communication in fact; many other languages exist in the world. People speak different language in different palace. English spoken in America, England and Australian. While Japan spoken in japan, Spanish is Spanish, German in Germany, among these languages English spoken by great number of people in the world and to become an international language.
Considering the important role of English as an international language, mastering English, as median of c communication in international interaction is necessary because the number of people who speak English has growing rapidly. This condition creates English variety may be established because of their influence of local and culture condition. Local condition
According stated halide (in by Richard, 1974) is grammar belong to standard for the people where is spoken as a second language (richard, 194). It quite different from the countries where English learn to the local condition, but it follows an overseas English to which it referred to a model.
To be able to communacate with the native speaker, local; peope who speak english as a second or a first language have to a quire the standard s from the language any varieties may exist as long as the standard English is understandable. Because the most basic language varieties of social language is used in ordinary conversation. In the sense what we learn in order to interact with throughout our life (freeborn all, 1986). It is the general condition that dialect or variety from is characterized by structural and morphological implication. Generally, certain non standard varieties of English may be viewed as inter language pattern of social interaction (Richard, 1974:76)
Banyumulek village is one of the handicraft villages, where local people make the many things with the clay, secured clay is the most important material needed in Banyumulek village.
Many goods can be produced in Banyumulek village. Those goods are not for local need only, but also for tourism souvenir. That’s why nowadays Banyumulek village is becoming the most important destination of the tours in Lombok.
To be able to know the varieties of English is speech, we should identify the difference accurate and use Standard English as the form. The are some features of the language that device our English into standard of varieties, such as: a. our vocabulary; b. grammar, that is the form of word, taken and how the words are ordered into standard or statement in sentence, and c. pronunciation is speech (freeborn, 1986).
Based of the above features, Banyumulek village, the vendors seem to use some varieties of English in their speech with the tourist where they tend to speak a vendor non-standard apparently.
There is some factor which influence their varieties of English in their speech, such as: education background, situation in the communication take place, and the order.
We will not discuss all of the factors involved, because of the limitation of time, access, ability, and many others reason.

B. Statement Of The Problem         
The aim of this research is to overview the general problem that is found in this research. The writer needs so set out the problem that considers appears in this research, such as:
1.      What are the characteristics of English varieties used by the vendors at Banyumulek village?
2.      What factor contributes to their use?

C. Purpose Of Writing        
This writing as aimed to describe:
1.      The characteristics of English varieties used by the vendors at Banyumulek village.
2.      The situation in which the language is used and tasters contribute the use

D. Assumption Of Writing  
Based the statement of the problem above the assumption are:
1.      Vendors at Banyumulek village used some characteristics of English varieties
2.      Vendors at Banyumulek village used characteristics of English varieties when they instruct with the buyer especially from the foreign country.

E. Definition Of They Key Term
To avoid misunderstanding other readers in definition these writing terms, it is important so the explain a few terms that concern with the writing. The terms that are important to be explained are:
1.      English varieties
The state of varying, difference of condition or quality; a group collection. Containing different sort of something or people; a type whish is different from others in a group to which it belong (Ame also vaudeville) a number of musing shorts performance are given (long man dictionary, 1978)
2.      Vendors
Vendors are mobile seller (dictionary), vendors at Banyumulek village especially who are, in charge in dealing the transaction with the client in the art shop. They can be the owner directly, or some one who provides service shop.
3.      Banyumulek Village
Banyumulek village is parking of gerabah pottery . Banyumulek Is part of west Lombok. Banyumulek is one of craft village, handcraft from they clay in Lombok. Located about 15 kilometers from the capital of West Nusa Tenggara Province (south world). And much tourist is come to Banyumulek village, in the high season their client are foreigner about 70% (July, august, sep), but when the school is the free; most of their clients are domestic 70%. The foreigner use English, as the way of interaction between buyer and seller here is a vendor.

F. Scope Of Writing 
In this writing the writer limits the discussion on:
1.     The characteristic of English varieties used by vendor sat Bayumulek village. The writer characteristic the varieties of code of English are often influenced by local words of the others. Direct speech the interference of native language structure is the model of their speech. Educational of morphological and lexical system and simplification direct speech are characteristic of English varieties. The first goal of their conversation is to get close and understanding even with very simple sentences. They convey their speech with their paralanguage /gesture.
2.     The situation in which the conversation takes places
The use of variety –discussed thought its context refers to situation. As a seller says is, a situation is defined by the related condition to such other particularcomuncating is particular topic, n the particular setting. Is short the characteristic of situation are:
a.       The factors that course the code switching in Banyumulek village the code switching happened at Banyumulek village between buyer and seller has some aims as follows
b.      Topic of the speech
There are various topics that the writer and vendors conserve about at the same time. The writer analyses about the English varieties used by vendors at Banyumulek village a sisytem of spoken long tahat considers the background of the speaker that has come characteristic to face their utterance. Code normally shown reality of the communicator feeling in society.
According to ( Poedjosodarmo in Rahardi, 2001:22). Code is variants in hierarchy of linguistics. Some language has various codes. While hardtack stated that code has a neutral position because most of the code will not arose the emotional. Wardauck stated “the code is just a system that used by two people in communication
The way of interlocutor’s s related to each other (relationship of roles of interlocutor).
Context of situation is very important is communication, language is primarily used to make meaning socially (Tally, in Fadjri, 1993) the manifestation of the communication in its context is called discourse (Houkes, 1988:64). Discourse shows an utterance follows another in a rational, rule governed meaner (Labov in Montgomery, 1986)
3.     The jargon used
The communicates of Banyumulek village mostly have no significance knowledge of English. That’s why of conversing their meaning by the closed correspondent tin their own language.
V: “Hello sir, please come here!”
T: “Hallo can I buy your bowl?”
V: ”yes, please”/
T: how much is it?”
V: “I give you morning price sir.”
T: “what is it?”
V: very cheep, sir” to open business. Only 50 thousand rupiahs.
The situation is happening in the morning /opening profit, when the vendor just open his/her gallery/shop. The vendor tries to ensure the buyer that the price is a special.


G. Signification Of Writing
1.     Studying the kind of English varieties will help us to be much aware of how we adopt appropriate one in certain situation.
-       To analysis the language that used by vendor at Banyumulek village grammatically, and the use of correct English from.
-       To analysis’s the situation communication that happen between vendor (local people) and the buyer (foreigner)
2.     Those facts recognize that language used in any aspect that should be based on the situation or setting in which it occurs and, grammatically and semantically appropriate.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


A. Some Definition of Language    
Language is an indispensable part of human culture. It has instruments that allow us to immortalize all our activities and event that haven taken place in the past. It also has rules, which enable us to express and organize our ideas. And without language, jurisprudence, commerce, science and other human endeavors could not exist in the forms we know premises given by Finocciaro (1974:2) some of the are:
1.     Language is universal. All normal human being in a community understand and speak well enough to carry out every activity of human life
2.     Every language has its own system or code; that is own characteristic way of putting sound together to talk about situation or event in the present past, are future
3.     All language has devices, which allow speaker total about themselves and others, to ask question, and to express denial and acceptance. All have rules, which enable speakers to express and organize their ideas into linier sequences of sounds.
There are many definition of language given by many linguists with all kind of point of vies. Some of them have been mentioned it the previous chapter. In this chapter, the writer would like to avail himself of them opportunity to make use of another definition in to get a clear picture about language itself. Wording (in Alwasilah, 1993:3) says, “language is a system or arbitrary vocal symbol used by human for Communication “(due to wording s definition about language). Alwasilah (1993:85) say, “Arbitrary means selected at random and without reason”. All sound are arbitrary and are selected at random and without reason.” All sounds are selected at random and without reason to arrange meaningful arrangements of sounds in speech .the sounds, which are used to form the words, which, in turn, are used in speech utterances, are always arranged in particular ways or designs, which convey the meaning to all speakers of the language. Gradually, those worlds become conventional, so finally they will become a system all speakers of them language will speak in accordance with the system because a breach against the system means a breach against language norm. It means all the speakers of the language do know and can use the general terms associated with the common object or concept in their environment or world. Next the world vocal means that we make sounds in our mouth using be tongue, the teeth, lips and other organs too, such as the vocal cord and the lungs to producer or make the sound of the language (Finocciaro, 1994:5). Lastly the human language is symbol of feeling, desire, hope et cetera. In short language is human life symbol and every language has its own arbitrary symbol or word to express the meaning of an object or an idea.
Another linguistic, Sapir (in Alwasilah, 1993:3) states that language is a purely human and non-instinctive method of Communicating ideas, emotion, and desire by means of voluntary produced symbols.
Form that definition, Alwasilah highlight that there are five important points. They are:
1.     Language is human
Only human beings have a system that allows them to communicate with other. It is right that animal can also communicate because they have a system of sound, but a system in not words. If that is the case, they not have language. People have had linguistics competence since prehistoric time to the date. This language development is one of factors that differentiate between human beings from other creature
2.     Language is non-instinctive
People are not able to speak by the time they were born; they need to acquire the language in their community or group in order to get in touch with others. This notions is commensurate with Chomskys (in Chaedar Alwasilah, 1993:7) that:
“One reason for studying language and for me personally the most compelling–is that is tempting to regard language, in the traditional phrase, as a mirror of mind”…
Thus language is a mirror of mine in a deep and significant sense. It is a product of human intelligence, created a new in each individual by operations that lie for beyond reach of will on consciousness” Chomsky suggests that linguistic competence is the principle of human intelligence.
 
3.     Language is a system
In investigating linguistic competence, some linguistics focuses on the mental system that allows humans to for and interpreter the word and sentence of their language. This system is called grammar which enable to express any proposition that human can produce. Since all language are spoken, they must have phonetic (the articulating and perception of speech sound) and phonology I the pattering of speech sounds) system; since they all have word and sentence they also must have a morphology (word formation) and syntax (sentence formation); and since these word and sentence have semantic meaning there obviously be semantic (the interpretation of word and sentence) principle will.
4.     Language is voluntary produced (arbitrary)
People produce sounds voluntary and arrange them in particular ways to be meaningful arrangement of sound. They produce one word to symbolize one object, for example in Indonesia certain animal is called dog, in English is called dog and in Arabic is called Kalbun. The same for sentence, combination is different from one language to another language, for instance, in Indonesia adjective are placed after nouns while in English adjective are positioned before nouns. All of those examples are voluntary produced.
5.     Language is a symbol
Human language is a set of arbitrary symbol that conveys the same meaning to all speaker of the language. Man uses those symbol s to communicate wit other because man equally have feeling, idea and desire. So in conversation, we interpret others on the basis of our own experience. For example someone says, “ I am hungry” we will make out the speech because we our selves have had that experience. We can also talk about the fast, the present or the future, because human language has a symbolic power to deal with whatever concept. And this case also causes human have a reasoning power.

B. The Nature Of Language           
In our daily activities language has an important role that is, as a medium of communication. Human beings use language to communicate with other. Language can be studied from numerous points of views. Some linguist defines it differently. Sapir (in Anderson and stage berg, 1966) says that language is purely human and non instinctive method of communicate ideas, emotion and desire by mean a system of voluntary human and non instinctive method of communicate ideas, emotion and desire by means a system of voluntary produced symbol. This opinion to be supported by Pinnonciaro (in Fadji, 1993) that language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbol which permit all people in a given culture, to communicate or interact.
Those definitions have some key point: system of arbitrary vocal symbol. System in language is recurring patterns to its speaker (ibid). The term of arbitrary in the definition does not mean that everything about the language is unpredictable. It means that there is no reason way we use certain words to symbolize certain object.
And the lest key term is symbol then to then refers to the fact that there is a connection between the sound the people use the object to which these sound refers to (Sahidu, 1991).
Related to the last key term of the defilation above Langkar (1986) define language as a set principles destabilizing correlation between meaning and sound sequences. Language then, has so many interrelationships with various aspect of human life, although the linguists define it from numerous points of view. Language has important role emotions, desire and ideas.
The existence of language in the world just to help people communicate among them. It means the language means of communication, either spoken or written.
Language is medium of communication allows to said think to each other to express their communicative need.
Some people believed that language is society because it helps people to live, work, or play together and tell truth or lies.
A language also allows its speaker to talk about anything with real of their knowledge (Said, 1991)

C. Varieties Of English
      The intonation or study English has increased since English become the language of politically, economical and educational affairs, from elementary school to university. However, most students cannot English in real communication and institution. It is related to English teacher’s situation. Is related to English teacher situation in Indonesia, taught the foreign language. A foreign language, according to Crashen (in Nababan, 1991) is learned as subject in school without having the other function both in school and the society, means that people only learning the form of language not the use of language.
As an international language English is spoken by large number of people. In India, Pakistan, commonwealth, Africa, Malaysia, and Philippines. English is not spoken natively but is widely use medium of interaction and official communication. Moreover, English is official language used in school; language has pacific characteristics, such as in pronunciation, choice word and words.
It reflects the influences go the native language and local culture and social condition of the speaker. This condition creates local varieties English. As holiday stated local varieties is the grammar belongs to standard English a little bit different from normal usage, and accent noticeable and identifiable local (in Richard, 1974).
The contact English and local language and local social setting create standard from varieties from In English. Many other characteristic of local varieties of English reflect assimilation of English to the local of the country (Richard, 1974)
The condition is quite different in the countries where English is learned is foreign language, English is taught in school in elementary school to university. But it does not play in essential role in national or social life. In Indonesia, Japan, German, Spain, Brazil are the sample countries where English is spoken as a foreign language. As medium of communication and interaction, people in those countries use their own language.
In this condition no local varieties exist because it is not bounded to the local culture condition. Their English does not reflect their cultural identity, in the communicates non-native speakers the interaction between them and their customers is using commercial English. Most of their aims are giving their clients to be able to buy their goods.
Is discussing English variety we have to know that dialect in defined by some linguistics differently as bellow:
1.      A dialect it self variety of a language associated with particular group of speakers and mutuality intelligible with other varieties (wardaughin Alwaslia, 1985)
2.      A regional, temporal or social variety of language difference of pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary from the standard, which is in it self a social favorite dialect. If the variant deferrer only on pronunciation, it is often called accent (Hartman, ibid).
Related to those definition English varieties is the from of English that refers to certain dialect of English.
Considering the varieties of English as an international language, there is still no clear description about varieties of standard of English. In fact we find that English spoken in India, Malaysia, and Philippines is quite different from America or British. English of this kind are accepted as standard English (Fadjri, 1993). There are there situations which it make clear that the varieties of standard English are shown as below:
1.      Situation one refers to native speaker communication among them selves native situation. The native speaker those who speak in English as firs language, such America, Australia, and English people.
2.      Situation to refer to native speaker communicating non-native speakers in a native situation and non-native situation.
3.      Situation there rover to noon native speaker communicating or non native communicating other nonnative speakers in:
a.       Native situation
b.      An non native situation
Base on the explanation above the varieties of English according to Kachu, (in Fadjri, 1993) are not just Standard English and non Standard English varieties.
Native Standard English exist on the countries where English is learnt as a foreign language overseas English or native Standard English is reverences as model so in this writing use English as a from. Code setting is pacing the aims of speaking into the conditional meaning rather that contextual meaning. Internal code apple (in Chaer and Agustina, 1995:141) defined that the code switching as the phenomenon of the using language because of the changing of situation. But according to the Alwasilah assumed that the code switching is transformation of the dialogue in one the soma long. By that definition that code switching can be happened among the long, variant and the language. The factor of code switching is can be happened not only in the language pattern but or of contextual language. Like the speaker an utterance and condition where the conversation take place. It cans product sense of humor; anger a some other mentally terms.
a.       Native situation
b.      And non-native situation
Based on the explanation above the varieties of English according to Kachnu (in Fadjri, 1993) are not just Standard English varieties.
Native Standard English exists on the countries where English is spoken natively. In the countries where English is learnt as a foreign language overseas English or native standard English is refreezes as model so in this writing the writer use standard English as a from

D. Language and Communication 
Talking about Communication means that we talk about language. Human history has kept a record that all people of the word use language in their social interaction. Because through the use of spoken language, human can communicate and exchange ideas, feeling, understanding and relating to what some one says. This point is I line with finocchiaro’s view point (I Alwasilah, 1993:2) that language is a system of arbitrary, vocal symbols which permit all people in a given culture, to Communicate or to interact, “the words Communicate and interact used in the definition signify to be understand and to speak; to be able to hear and to respond or react to the spoken word. They imply, too, he ability to talk about something that happened to the past, that is happening at the present time, or that may happen at sometime in the future.
Language, in many ways, directly related to the human perception because it illustration how human creates the word and spices it with symbols. What and how people say is based indeed by what they look at the world. Language is medium for them to think and speak about their experience and ideas, so it can be said that knowledge is language. What was said through language is a symbol of the real world, whiter the world that we see concretely or reflection of another abstract concepts. For human, language is a main factor to produce perception, opinion and knowledge. Since language is the medium by which people express their experiences an \ideas of the world I which they live, it carries within it what can be called “cultural meaning. People who have been brought up I the culture or who have shard experiences in the cultural are a ware of differences or shades in meaning which gestured, words or expression may convey (Pinnochiaro, 1994:6)
For the sake of verbal Communication, language is also believed a device for human to describe a certain concept, and to express ideas and feelings by the use of conventionalized signs and symbols, the way stated in Webster’s news collegiate dictionary (in Alwasilah, 1993:3) that “language is a systematic means of Communicating ideas or feeling by the use of conventionalized sign, sound, gestures, or mark having understood meanings”. Linguist gives whatever definitions of language. At long run, they will end up in Communication process. In detail, it is advisable to learn about some definition of Communication contributed by some expert (in Suhartin, 1989:1), namely:
1.     Communication is sending or exchanging of information, ideas, and act. (Oxford dictionary)
2.     Communication is prose’s penyampaian pengertian dan mengandung semua unsur prosedur yang dapat mempertemukan suatu pikiran dengan pikiran lainya (Benny Lakulu).
3.     Communication is the process of passing information and understanding form one person to another (Keith Devis)
4.     Komuikasi adalah proses pengehdaran lambang-lambang yang mengandung arti (Phil Astrid Susanto)
5.     Communication is prose’s that has there components
a.    The first is a Communicator, some with a meaning to transmit
b.   The second is a symbol to transmit the meaning
c.    And the third is receptor is someone receiver the symbol and transmit into meaning (air university –USA)
From that definition on one side an effective Communication depends on human ability to use those signs and symbol that are resented by word, while on the other side to comprehend words, meaning.
Discussion about word always reminds us about signs and symbolic Communication. Generally every language has a system of vocal symbol used in communication. In communication verbal message that are represented by word have to be used grammar accurately, if not the Communication will be cripple. One of the barriers that are able to put a serious crimp in Communication because we use word only as sign without thinking term as symbols. We have to keep in mind that sign is different from symbol. Symbol is related to an object and the relationship between symbol and object are arbitrary. While sign is related directly to it object and every one will give the some concept to sign as a result of a convention. Symbol is kind of sign s but to very ting is a symbol. For examples, not is arbitrary, so, that is a symbol. Sobbing indicates sorrow, blushing indicates shame and paleness indicates scare. Emotional feeling causes those sign, so those are not arbitrary and the they are not symbols. Symbol can also define as a sing to interpret something. One meaning concept can be interpret something. One meaning concept can be interpret something. One meaning concept can be indicated by symbols. Ring is a symbols of marriage, military uniform is a symbol of unity, flag is a symbol state et cetera.
In a nutshell, sign have one meaning for all people and symbol have many learning depending on whom interpreting. In communication, people can also enter their experiences is symbolic description whether in verbal, written massage or non verbal others, written massage, if you written words non verbal communication occurs, if you make use of body language and facial expression it is call gesture. Component of communication:
1.     People who are involved in communicator. Discussing communication and receptor.
2.     Information being communicated
3.     And the medium of communication
Every communication always involves that there component. The usage of language in communication varies according to some factors; the occasion and the topics we use different styles of language depend upon the topic, the audience, and the formality of the occasion.

E. Language Of Situation    
Since English become an international language the enthusiasm to study it has decreased, but most people think that language learning it nothing more than attending mastery of grammar and vocabulary, so many of them cannot use the language in real the situation, as brown says:
The culmination of language learning, however is not simply the mastery of form in other accomplishes the communicative function of language. Mastery of vocabulary and structure result nothing if the learner cannot use that from purpose of transmission and receiving thought, ideas, and feeling between speakers and hearer, or writer and reader (brown, 1987).
This opinion supported by hymens that in order to communicate language, a language affectively a speaker need to know not just the standard grammar that also. Language function (hymens in make Bynham, 1985). It means that also of language has to be appropriate to the situation.
A situation is divided by coinsurance of two (more) interlocutors related to each other in particular setting (Fishman in Gibliolib, 1972) then we may take in example in two the same people, the topic of the talk and the role of interlocutors are likely to be different.
Collard (1985) In his book “a introduction to discourse analysis” revolts bloom and gulpers investigation in Norwegian village that all resident speak standard language, bookman and local dialectical “Ranamal”.
The use of language depends on the topic, setting and the relationship between speaker and listener. When the talk of the family affair, even the standard language situation they must local dialect. Then the conversation about he business transaction, standard language may be conducted, but I the conversation about he friend even the topic about the politic or national matter, they would never use standard language.
This explanation seems to support fish man opinion in communication, I order to speak appropriately we have to consider the audience to whom we talk, the topic of the talk and setting in which conversation takes place. As Langauker says in communication on the speaker has tomake the language fir to the situation (Languaker, 1968)

F. Definition Of Sociolinguistics      
Socioliguistic it two defiance word become one meaning. This is: session community and linguistic is the language. So socio and linguistic is the 1960. This not means to imply that the study of language I relation to society is an invention of the 1960-on the contrary, there is a long tradition in the study o dialect and in the general study of the relations between word meaning and culture, both of which counts as sociolinguistic by our definition.
The diglots situation could be happened in multi language society, in this situation there is a big possibilities two or more long involved in it. And every person becomes bilingual whether active or even passive. Because in the repertoire found more that one language. Bilingual’s ca chooses the fungsional language that used when they doing the infection. Language choice can be happened depending on some factors like: participant, situation, topic etc. according to fish man if diglosia is leaked one language harm other language in the use (Sumarsono and Paina Partama: 199)

G. The Kinds Of Language
Sociolinguistic as the study of language, considering language choose in the use. In multi language society contain some language choice as the dominant among the language it their habitat. Shortly language choice missed up together with the exultancy of multi language.


There are kinds of language choice (Sumarsono and Paina Partama: 200).
1.      Code Switching
It is come factors as situation, utterance, topic, etc. conclude is depending on the felling of the speaker in facing the situation like upset, happy and shock
2.      Code Mixing
It is rivers to the politeness to utterance, participant or condition. As Indonesian respect their older listener use the word “you” rather then kami anda, or kau.because “you” is commonly accepted by all people.
3.      Variation with in the same language.
This kind of language choice is refer to the to the pronunciation, dialect, action of the same language compare to the use of it other countries. For instance most of the lecturer god their, master I Australia, so the use Australian English as the dominant.

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODE


Research in a general procedure to investigate and analyze a problem (moekijat, 1994:2). The objective or research is to fie out an answer to a question. Research is a keen investigation to every finding problem marked by doubt and uncertainly. Research covers the application of logical and systematic thoughts that have purpose too find out fact and principle used to solve the problem.
A. Research Method
Method is a way of doing anything or a define procedure or way of investigation (Webster, s new world dictionary, 1994:854). Wiersma (1980:5) describe that scientific method is implemented.
To analyzing English English varieties use by vendors at Banyumulek village the research uses of the descriptive method, a direct observation to setting and not the phenomenon of the problem of observation, expecting to observe to clear situation.

B. Population and Sample          
This research is an analysis or population research that is all of the population becomes the subject in the research. The research is taken to the population of Banyumulek village as the subject. Not all of them taken as the research sample, only 10% involved in this study.
C. Data Collection Procedure     
The researcher completes their steps of the research, observation, interview, and documentation. In the research data needed are the speech produced by the tourist and the vendors in order to know the characteristic of English varieties use by vendors and the situation where or when the conversation takes place. In the case, the research notes that the relationship between the speaker and setting in which the conversation take place. The technique that used by the researcher is hidden recording on tape.

D. Instrument       
This research used tape recorder to record the speech produced by the tourism and vendors, then the communication scripted as the data.

E. Data Analysis  
The data analyzed firstly by describing the characteristic of English variety\ties the use of sociolinguistics of Standard English as a norm:
1.      Grammatical Analysis
The researcher will analyses the grammatical that spoken by the vendor when he/she speak in English with the buyer.
2.      English Form Analysis
The researcher will analyses the form of English that spoke by the vendor when he/she speak in English the buyer

3.      Communication Analysis
The researcher wills analyses the communication that happens between the vendors and the buyer. The researcher tries to find out the miss communication or gap that happened because of the different ability in producing English. Moreover, f the miss communication or gap happened, the researcher tries to find out the cause of its

CHAPTER IV
RESEARCH METHODE


A. Description of Banyumulek Village       
When people visit place to spend their vacation, they always want to have or to buy something as a souvenir to remind about the place that they has visited. Some tourism places provide many souvenir markets as the center of the local goods productions. As what see in Lombok, most of tourism object provide special area to buy local handicraft, moreover, in some case the palace it self become the tourism object, we can see many visitor s want see the process of handcrafting. For example in west Lombok, there is a palace that famous with its handcraft. Located in south of this region, Kediri visitor can see the handcrafting process at Banyumulek village.
Banyumulek package is one of village produce handcraft in Lombok. The distance from the capital city, Mataram to Banyumulek is about ten kilometers, the same way if the visitor want to go to harbor, which is located in Lembar + 10 km from Banyumulek). It is a very appropriate place to see the process of handcrafting or to buy the pottery. In Bayumulek village, many art shops demonstrate the way of making the handcraft; so most tourism come with their travel agency for a day or an hour tour. The art shops sell many kinds of goods, such as bowl, plate, lamp, cap, candleholder, bottle, flowerpot.
The people there always making contact with foreigner every day, making communication in foreign language for explaining, bargaining, and offering their goods. Nevertheless, they are not good speaker of foreign language. The common language that used is English, but the seller still has limited ability in expressing their mind using English. They just know Avery little about English, and they learn English in autodidactic. This personal we fine mostly in vocabulary cinder (in Eicher, 1974) it has proposed the name iodeosin critic varieties from personal characteristic. Some time this characteristic when people visit place to spend their vacation, they always want to have or to buy something as a souvenir to remind about the place that they has visited. Some tourism places provide many souvenir markets as the center of the local goods productions. As what see in Lombok, most of tourism object provide special area to buy local handicraft, moreover, in some case the palace it self become the tourism object, we can see many visitor s want see the process of handcrafting. For example in west Lombok, there is a palace that famous with its handcraft. Located in south of this region, Kediri visitor can see the handcrafting process at Banyumulek village.
Banyumulek package is one of village produce handcraft in Lombok. The distance from the capital city, Mataram to Banyumulek is about ten kilometers, the same way if the visitor want to go to harbor, which is located in Lembar + 10 km from Banyumulek). It is a very appropriate place to see the process of handcrafting or to buy the pottery. In Bayumulek village, many art shops demonstrate the way of making the handcraft; so most tourism come with their travel agency for a day or an hour tour. The art shops sell many kinds of goods, such as bowl, plate, lamp, cap, candleholder, bottle, flowerpot.
The people there always making contact with foreigner every day, making communication in foreign language for explaining, bargaining, and offering their goods. Nevertheless, they are not good speaker of foreign language. The common language that used is English, but the seller still has limited ability in expressing their mind using English. They just know every little about English, and they learn English in autodidactic. This personal we fine mostly in vocabulary cinder (in Eicher, 1974) it has proposed the name iodeosin critic varieties from personal characteristic. Some time this characteristic unstable because he does not use it constantly.
That data have been collected will shoe\w the level of their English. Event it is not perfectly correct, they can run their business and make a lot of transaction every day.

B. Discussion
After listening to the cassette, we made the transcription the we make list of varieties feature I the communication between seller and buyer. The varieties feature the problem of communication that happened between seller (vendor) and the buyer. That data will feature the error that found in the oral c communication. As wee know before, the error should be come from the vendors, side; the following tables in this chapter will perform the dialogue and the discussion of each vendor’s mistakes;


Analysis of Speaking
1.     Not can
Notice: no sir 100000
Not can sir
We often used his for informal communication
The word is a varieties of English form, the standard from of is Up lah sir
To ask for:”cannot down, up lah sir!”
The vendor always use this sentence is. The buyer (foreigner) often bargains the goods very cheep. The word is variety of English form. The meaning from of it is. “Please up your bargaining!”
2.     You can bargain sir
Notice:
“You can bargain sir”. Vendor often uses this for to knowledge the buyer is the goods is not price. The word is a variety of English form the meaning from of it is: not so fixed price
3.     Morning place
Notice:
-       How much?
-       90.000 sir ok it deal
-       Ok morning price sir
-       90.000 ok
We often this sentence for transaction in the morning if the seller come at the first time and want to buy the goods similar to the sentences above, the word is a varieties of English form, the standard from of it “this is my special offer, just for you sir!”
4.     The use of adverb “only” in negotiating price
This form usually used by the vendor (seller) he/ she used the word combined with the price I order to ensure that the price cannot bargained anymore, when the buyer bargain for the goods
For example:
Notice:” how much is this?”
100.000 only sir!”
80.000 given you only sir”
The standard of form: “only 100.000 (simple adverb)
5.     You want business sir
Ask: you want business sir
We often used this for ask the buyer (foreigner) is the buyer want to buy the goods in bulk. Eve thought, the buyer always to understand what the meaning of the seller need because the word is a varieties of form, the standard from of it is, buy in bulk
6.     Color
The case above happened because the low background of the seller in learning English. So they just spell or pronounce as what they can do, compared to their mother tongue. In this case, the buyer tries to understand the seller expression related to the situation.

CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION


A. Conclusion           
Heaving read the discussion about the characteristic of English varieties used by vendors at Banyumulek village and situation in which they used English varieties, we conclude:
1.  A. Most vendor, when they are trying to reflecting their explanation to the buyer (foreigner (still influenced by their mother tongue (bahasa sasak) ant their 2nd language (Bahasa Indonesia)
b.   The buyer tries to understand the language that used by the vendor considering the situation and the background of the vendor. In fact, the buyer not faces any my significant problem to comprehend the vendor’s explanation
2.  A. So far, communication between vendor and the buyer are running well. There is no length gap between tem, because the vendor tries to speak as good as they can and the buyer tries to understand as good as they can either .if, the gap happens, the tour guide tries to be mediator between buyer and vendor
     b.  Miscommunication and gap between vendor and the buyer sometimes happened, because of some problems:
1.      The limited ability of vendor in producing English influenced his/her pronunciation and diction
2.      The buyer is not English native speaker, so the buyer quite hard to understand the vendor’s explanation

B. Suggestion
Having those phenomena, the writer suggests:
1.     All of the vendors who have live at Banyumulek village, west lombok, afford to make the tourist or guest sure and feel comfortable stay and Lombok especially for the vendor so that show the good characteristic an then about the information so available accommodation.
2.     Especially of education skill of vendors \course, make her student fluently in explain skill and then about the rate qualities students.
3.     All of them should be able to use language ideal situation. The vendors should increase their ability to communicate in English by joining some English short course for the vendor or by learning from the books (self learning)


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A STUDY IN ENGLISH VARIETIES USED BY VENDORS IN BANYUMULEK

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