THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TEACHING VERB BY USING TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE AT SEVENTH GRADE IN SMP N 8 MATARAM
IN ACADEMIC YEAR 2012/1013
1.1 Background of the Study
Language as a means of communication plays very important role in social relationship among human beings. English as one of the international language is very important since it requires as a bridge of comunication. In Indonesia, English is one of the compulsory subjcts which is taught in junior high school, senior high school and university as the first foreign language.
English is the first foreign language taught to the students of junior high school. Teaching English in junior high school especially in grade seventh at SMPN 8 Mataram has been accepted in Indonesia in line with the government’s plan on the nine-year-basic-education. In the junior high school, English is to be taught as one of the prime content. The aim of teaching English in the junior high school is to motivate them to be ready and have self-convident in larning English at higher level of education.
According to the KTSP curriculum, the objective of teaching English to the junior high school students as a prime content course of study that they are expected to have the skill of the language in simple sentence of English, with the emphasis to have speaking skill using selected topics related to their environmental needs such as tourism industry (Depdikbud, 2004: 2).
In this study, the writer will focus on teaching English verb considering that verb constitutes the knowledge of meaning which is one of the components of the language. Learning the language cannot be separated from studying verb. It is very essential to improve the four language skills that are very useful in conducting communication and studying other language.
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand). In the usual description of English, the basic form, with or without the particle to, is the infinitive. In many languages, verbs are inflected (modified in form) to encode tense, aspect, mood and voice. A verb may also agree with the person, gender, and/or number of some of its arguments, such as its subject, or object. In many languages, verbs have a present tense, to indicate that an action is being carried out; a past tense, to indicate that an action has been done; and a future tense, to indicate that an action will be done.
The verb is perhaps the most important part of the sentence. A verb or compound verb asserts something about the subject of the sentence and express actions, events, or states of being. The verb or compound verb is the critical element of the predicate of a sentence. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verb)
There are many methods used in teaching language to students. Total physical Response, is a method developed by James J Asher (1942), is one of methods in teaching language that may support to realize the expected situation. It can also be presented by using a game that is appropriate to the learners’ characters. The previous research which was conducted by Wulandari (2002) has proven that there is significant difference of the students’ achievement in mastering English verb by using TPR.
Total Physical Response (TPR) Developed by James Asher, TPR is a language learning method based on the coordination of speech and action. It is linked to the trace theory of memory, which holds that the more often or intensively a memory connection is traced, the stronger the memory will be. There are six principles Asher elaborates: Second language learning is parallel to first language learning and should reflect the same naturalistic processes Listening should develop before speaking Children respond physically to spoken language, and adult learners learn better if they do that too Once listening comprehension has been developed, speech develops naturally and effortlessly out of it. Adults should use right-brain motor activities, while the left hemisphere watches and learns Delaying speech reduces stress. Some of the objectives of Total Physical Response are: Teaching oral proficiency at a beginning level Using comprehension as a means to speaking using action-based drills in the imperative form TPR uses a sentence-based grammatical syllabus. TPR main learning techniques and activities are based on situations where a command is given in the imperative and the students obey the command.
By using the Total Physical Response Method, it is hoped that the teacher will be able to motivate them to learn and pay attention to the material presented by the teacher, and finally, they are able to master English well.
Based on the description above, this study is intended to investigate the application of Total Physical Response Method in teaching verb to the seventh grade of SMPN 8 Mataram.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The problem of investigation that is carried out in this particular present study is:
1. To what extent is The effectiveness of teaching verb by using Total Physical Response in seventh grade at SMPN 8 Mataram?
2. Is teaching English by using Total Physical Response effective in seventh grade at SMPN 8 Mataram?
1.3 Purpose of the Study
Based on the formulation of the problems mentioned above, the purpose of this study can be stated as follows.
1. To find out of The effectiveness of teaching verb by using Total Physical Response in seventh grade at SMPN 8 Mataram.
2. To describe whether using Total Physical Response have effective in teaching verb in seventh grade at SMPN 8 Mataram.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The result of this study is expected to give contribution theoretically and practically both for the writer and the students:
This study will be used as the primary additional knowledge or information for the teacher in developing his/her daily teaching practice.
Practically is the method in teaching verb in junior high school. It will be the considerable suggestion for the teacher to apply the Total Physical Response method in their teaching routines.
1.5 Limitation of the Study
This study is limited to seventh grade students of SMPN 8 Mataram. The limitation includes on the subject and object of the study as follows:
1. The subject of this research is effectiveness of teaching verb by using Total Physical Response.
2. The object of this research is Seventh grade students of SMPN 8 Mataram in Academic Year 2011/2012.
1.6 Assumption of the Study
From this study, the researcher considered it will important to draw assumption to avoid any factors which may cause bias in the result. The assumptions are:
1. In teaching verb, there are many various efforts have been used by the teacher to effectiveness using Total Physical Response for student.
2. There are some factors which may influence students’ achievement in teaching verb. It is caused by strategy, method and technique and also approach.
1.7 Hypothesis of the Study
The hypothesis of this study is prepared as a tentative answer for the research problem stated previously. In this case the alternative hypothesis (Ha) is read as follow.
“Total Physical Response have effect on teaching verb toward seventh grade at SMPN 8 Mataram 2011/2012.
Because of statistical computation the alternative hypothesis need to be changed into null hypothesis (Ho) as follow.
“Total Physical Response have not effect on teaching verb toward seventh grade at SMPN 8 Mataram in Academic year 2011/2012.
1.8 Definition of Key Terms
In order to avoid misinterpretation or misunderstanding on the side of readers, the writer should involve in this study are defined as follows.
The lexical meaning of the world “effect as presented by Hornby is taking effect. The application, the realization of one thing to certain target (Hornby, 1986:421). The writer termed that the effectiveness is the circumstance of learning process where there are student’s get more likely and struggler in their learning to increase their achievement.
Hornby in oxford Advanced learners dictionary defines “teaching” is give instruction, or give lesson to know or be able to do something. According to Webster teaching is 1. the act, practice, or profession of a teacher. 2: something taught
Verb is word or phrase that expresses an action (eg: eat), an event (eg: happen) or a state (eg: exist). (oxford), While according to (Marcella, 1972 : 47) the verb is the most complex part of speech, the verb has the grammatical properties of prson and number,properties which require agreement with the subject.
4. Total Physical Response.
Total Physical Response is a language learning method which is based on the coordination of speech and action (James Asher). It means that Total Physical Response is a method which usually asks the students to make a movement (learning by doing). Students are asked to be more active while studying.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Foreign Language Learning and Teaching
Language is a foreign language is not as easy as learning a native language. In learning a foreign language, the learners may meet all kinds of learning problems dealing with vocabulary, sound system and how to arrange the words into sentences that are quite different from those native languages. In line with this, Ramelan (1994: 4) states:
“If someone wants to learn a foreign language, he will obviously meet with all kind of learning problems. The difficulties have to do with the learning of sounds system, the learning of new vocabulary items, and the learning of the unfamiliar ways of arranging the foreign words into sentences”.
Like any other learners of English as a foreign language, Indonesian learners also meet difficulties in learning English since their native language is quite different from English. Learning a foreign language which is quite different from native language is very difficult for Indonesian learners. Consequently, the learners should have a great motivation. They should be serious in learning English because learning actually needs a total physical, intellectual, and emotional response.
In teaching a foreign language, a teacher should have an objective. The common objective of teaching a foreign language is to make learners to be able to communicate by using the target language orally and written form. According to Brown (2008: 8), teaching is guiding and facilitating learning, enabling, and setting the condition for learning.
There are some factors that should be considered before teaching a foreign language such as English. Those factors are “age, ability, aspiration and need, native language, and previous language experience” (Finocchiaro, 1974: 14). By that statement, it can be conclude that the material which is going to be presented should be based on the learners’ age, ability, aspiration and need, native language, and previous language experience.
2.1.1 Teaching Learning Process
Teaching Learning Process is the heart of education. On it depend the fulfillment of the aims & objectives of education. It is the most powerful instrument of education to bring about desired changes in the students. Teaching learning are related terms. In teaching learning process, the teacher, the learner, the curriculum& other variables are organized in a systematic way to attain some pre-determined goal. Let us first understand in short about learning, teaching and then teaching-learning relation. (www.scribd.com)
Teaching is an active process in which one person shares information with others to provide them with the information to make behavioral changes.
Learning is the process of assimilating information with a resultant change in behavior.
Teaching-learning process is a planned interaction that promotes behavioral change that is not a result of maturation or coincidence.
The present study examined whether the relative efficacy oftwo language teaching methods was predicted by pretreatmentsubject characteristics. Forty handicapped preschoolers wererandomly assigned to two language teaching methods (i.e., MilieuTeaching and the Communication Training Program). No main effectsof treatment were found. However, seven statistical interactionsbetween pretreatment subject characteristics and language teachingmethod indicated that lower-functioning children benefittedmore from the Milieu method and higher functioning children benefittedmore from the Communication Training Program. The results werediscussed in relation to the extant literature reporting subject-by-language-teaching methodinteractions. The importance of replicating the present resultsand specific suggestions for subject selection criteria andpretreatment subject characteristics likely to interact withlanguage teaching methods similar to those used in this studyare discussed.
2.1.2 Teaching and Learning Method
Many children define themselves as good or poor readers at first grade. First grade TPR teaching tricks help create a fun learning environmental for the kids. Most children define themselves as a good or poor readers in first grade. Total Physical Response (TPR) is a learning method that was originally developed by James Asher in the late 1960’s to help students acquire a second languages.
TPR teaching method relies on children responding physically to instructions and can be an effective teaching method for beginning learners, such as first-graders. First grade teacher adopt TPR teaching method in class to take advantage of the fact that first grade children are less self-conscious and more likely to responding physically by moving their bodies to instructions when learning.
1. The Principles
TPR Method follows the principle behind how children learn their mother tongue, that is, through parent-to-child language and body conversations. Parents give instructions, such as “Look at Mummy” and the child responds by physically looking at “Mummy”.
Teachers assume the role of parent in class when using TPR teaching method. They give simple instructions that require the children’s physical response and demonstrate how the action is completed, such as instructing “Clap your hands” and demonstrating how to do it. By showing how to clap the hands and letting the children repeat the action on their own, the teacher facilitates learning.
Teachers adapt TPR activities that suite different classroom situations to teach first grade lessons. They are required to provide physical fan activities that teach different first grade lessons in a practical way that is both fun and engaging for the kids to participate in. creativity and imagination is vital for the success of TPR teaching methods when teaching first-graders.
Among the lessons teachers can use TPR teaching methods to teach include typical classroom phrases and language, such as “Take out your pens, please?” Others are common classroom commands and imperatives, such as “clap for her” or “stand up;” language tenses, including present, past and future tenses, such as “I walked to school today” and “I pray every night” and vocabulary related to actions, such as “sit” or ”stand”.
TPR classroom activities that include playing traditional games such as Charade and Simon Says in class are used to teach first grade lessons. Teachers use TPR classroom activities to teach different things, such as parts of the body. They can achieve this by playing Simon Says with the children where the teacher gives simple commands beginning with the phrase “Simon says….,” such as “Simon says clap your hands” or “Simon says touch your toes.”
The teacher then demonstrates the action for the children to follow. When children clap their hands and touch their toes, they learn parts of their bodies. Other TPR classroom activities that teachers can use in class include singing play-songs, engaging in mime role-play and telling stories that have movements and mime.
TPR classroom activities can be diversified to include more complex commands that teach things such as directions and action verbs. Teachers can give instructions such as “Simon says turn right/left” and demonstrating the action to teach direction. Charade can be used to teach action verbs and sports. Teachers introduce flashcards with a sport/action on the flashcards for the children to identify the sport our loud.
This creates a fan way for teaching the actions on the flashcards. Teachers may, however, need to divide the class into teams for the kids to take turns pantomiming and identifying different sport/actions on the flash cards out loud to each other. TPR teaching method can facilitate long-term lessons retention and make it fun for children to learn and develop their academic abilities. (http://david-kiarie.suite101.com)
2.2 Theory of Effective Teaching
Virtually everyone would agree that effective teaching is extremely important, not just for individual children but for a society as a whole. There are many theories of effective teaching, and they can be highly complex.
Three basic features for effective teaching are summarized by education scholar Chris Kyriacou as attentiveness, receptiveness and appropriateness. Nearly all theories of effective teaching have these three ingredients in common. Attentiveness is preparing students to learn, making them excited about the process. Receptiveness is making the actual content of learning interesting and close to their interests. Appropriateness is the nature of the material and its closeness to students' present abilities and cognitive capacity.
The main function of theorizing about effective teaching is to provide a framework to make learning easier and teaching more rewarding. Lev Vygotsky (cited in Kyriacou) holds to a basic theory of the "Zone of Proximal Development." Put in simpler language, this approach stresses "appropriateness." This "zone" is that distance between a child's actual state and his potential state relative to his present cognitive abilities. This distance, this zone, is where the teacher will be the most effective. The Proximal Development theory helps keep the teacher focused on what is appropriate.
The ultimate benefit to theorizing about effective teaching is to make learning a lifelong vocation. For a student, school can be a harsh and unwelcoming place. Effective teaching and "classroom management" can reverse this problem, making school a place of discovery rather than authority and coercion. More specifically, students see learning as a constant development of their own store of knowledge, rather than disconnected assignments or memorization. (www.ehow.com)
The verb is the most complex part of speech. Its varying arrangements with nouns determine the different kinds of sentences-statements, questions, commands, exclamations. Like the noun, the verb has the grammatical properties of person and number, properties which require agreement with the subject.
2.3.1 Types of Verbs
According to Marcella, (1972: 47) the types of verb my define into 5 types as follows.
1. Predicating or Linking Verbs
A predicating verb is the chief word in the predicate that says something about the subject. The predicating word (or predicator) has traditionally been called a verb of “action” (babies cry; She wrote a letter), but has actually been interpreted to include most non-action verbs that are not linking verbs (for example, I remember him; She needs more money).
A linking verb is a verb of incomplete predication; it merely announces that the real predicate follows. The important word in the complement is usually an adjective (The girl is pretty) or a noun (She is a pretty girl). The -ly adverbs of manner (quickly, angrily) are not used with linking verbs. The more common linking verbs are appear, be, become, get (in the sense of become), look, remain, seem.
2. Transitive or Intransitive Verbs
A transitive verb takes a direct object (He is reading a book); an intransitive verb does not require an object (He is walking in the park). Only transitive verbs may be used in the passive voice (The book was returned by him quickly). All linking verbs are intransitive.
3. Reflexive Verbs
A reflexive verb requires one of the compounds with -self (reflexive pronoun) as its object-express oneself, wash oneself, pride oneself, avail oneself. Some verb may be used with or without the reflexive pronoun object-He washed (himself) and dressed (himself) quickly. Reflexive verbs often have a non-reflexive use also, and can take objects that do not refer back to the subject-She washed the child and then dressed him quickly.
4. Auxiliary or Lexical Verbs
Two or more words may be joined together into a single verb phrase that functions as the full verb of the predicate. The first part of the verb phrase is the auxiliary (or auxiliaries), and the second part is the lexical verb. The lexical verb carries the chief burden of semantic content.
5. Finite or Non-Finite Verbs
The form for these verbs in determined by the function which the verb has in a sentence. A finite verb is a lexical verb with or without auxiliaries that acts as the full verb in the predicate. Non-finite (or infinite) verbs are incomplete verb forms that function as other parts of speech than verbs.
2.3.2 Function of Verb
The verb functions as the grammatical center for the predication about the subject. As we have seen, it may be a grammatical center expressing mere linkage, or it may be the strongest predicating word in the central core of the sentence. The verb is so basic that other functions (subject, object, complement) are determined in relation to it. (Marcella, 1972: 51)
2.3.3 Position of Verbs
The verb is used after a subject, or before an object or complement. The verb appears before the subject in most questions, and in sentences or clauses that begin with certain types of negative adverbs. (Marcella, 1972: 52)
2.4 Total Physical Response
This section will only focus on the discussion of Total Physical Response method which will be applied in the researcher. It included the definition of Total Physical Response, the objective of Total Physical Response, the teacher and learner role in Total Physical Response, and the principles of Total Physical Response.
2.4.1 Definition of Total Physical Response
Total Physical Response (TPR) is one of new method developed by James Asher, a professor of psychology at San Jose State University, California, USA, to aid learning foreign language. TPR is a language learning method which is based on the coordination of speech and action. It is linked to the trace theory of memory, which holds that the more often or intensively a memory connection is traced, the stronger memory will be. In TPR classroom, students respond to commands that require physical movement.
Asher defines that the method of TPR relies on the assumption that when learning a second language or a foreign language, that language is internalized through a process that is similar to first language development and that the process allows for long period of listening and developing comprehension prior to production. (www.wikipedia.com)
Richard and Rodgers (2001: 87) state that TPR is a language teaching method built around the coordination of speech and action, it attempts to teach language through physical (motor) activity.
Garcia (2001: 1) explains that the two very important concepts in TPR are the notion of Total Physical Response involvement and the role played by the right hemisphere of the brain in learning a second language by action.
The first concept deals with the idea of introducing second language by giving action response which has been influenced by the way people acquire their first language. A baby would not memorize a list of words or try to speak immediately. They just listen first to the other family members and then act or do thing in response to their utterances. In the next period he would speak if he was ready to. Nevertheless at first, he would listen and carry out actions or respond physically to him. The second one relates to the brain hemisphere. Our brain is divided into two parts, left and right hemispheres. Scientist had found that the left and the right hemisphere were two independent neurological entities having different functions both account for different responsibilities (Garcia, 2001: 1).
Garcia explains further that the TPR approach is a right brain method of learning a language because the language is taught mainly through actions. In the other words, commands play as the core of the course.
TPR is based on the premise that the human has a biological program from acquiring any natural language in the world including the sign language of the deaf. The process is visible when we observe how infants internalize their first language (www.tprsource.com/asher.htm). Asher looks to the way that children combine both verbal and physical aspects. A child responds physically to the speech for the parent. The responses of the child are in turn positively reinforced by the speech of the parent. For many months the child absorbs the language without being able to speak. With TPR the teacher tries to mimic this process in class. (www.tprworld.com/organizing).
TPR is also named the comprehension approach since of the importance given to listening comprehension. In TPR, students listen and respond to the spoken target language commands of their teacher. If they can perform the teacher’s instructions it means that they know the meaning of the words.
From the explanation above, the writer concludes that TPR places more emphasis on the link between word and action. The activity, where a command is given in the imperative and the learners obey the command, is the main activity of TPR. Therefore, it will be easier for the students to recall the words they have learned if they use their body in learning verb items. The powerful method of TPR is best applied to introduce new verb and new grammatical feature at any level. TPR can be varied in any different activities such as storytelling, dialogue, games, or a pattern drill.
2.4.2 The Objective of Total Physical Response
A method or technique in teaching and learning process must be developed in order to get a better purpose for a better life. TPR was developed in order to improve the better result of teaching learning process of a new language. Teachers who use TPR believe in the importance of having the students enjoy their experience in learning to communicate a foreign language.
According to Larsen-Freeman (2000: 113), TPR was developed in order to reduce the stress people feel when studying foreign languages and thereby encourage students to persist in their study beyond a beginning level of proficiency.
Richard and Rodgers (2001: 91) say:
“The general objectives of Total Physical Response are to teach oral proficiency at a beginning level. Comprehension is a mean to a end, and the ultimate aim is to give basic speaking skills. TPR aims to produce learners who are capable of an uninhibited communication that is intelligible to a native speaker”.
From the statement above, there are some objectives of Total Physical Response:
1) Teaching oral proficiency at a beginning level.
2) Using comprehension as a means to speaking.
3) Using action-based drills in the imperative form.
2.4.3 The Teacher and Learner Role in Total Physical Response
In the teaching learning process using TPR method, the learners and the teacher play different roles.
1) Learners Role
Learners in TPR have the primary roles of listeners and performers. They listen attentively and respond both individually and collectively. They have little influence over the content of learning since the content is determined by the teacher who must follow the imperative form for lesson (Richard and Rodgers 2001: 93).
According to Larsen and Freeman (2000: 113), the students are imitators of the teacher’s nonverbal model. There will be a role reversal with individual students directing the teacher and the other students.
In TPR, learners monitor and evaluate their own progress. They are encouraged to speak when they feel ready to speak that is when a sufficient basis in the language has been internalized.
2) Teachers Role
In the teaching learning process using TPR method, teacher plays an active and direct role. According to Larsen and Freeman (2000: 113) teacher is the director of all students’ behaviors.
Asher (1977) as quoted by Richard and Rodgers, (2001: 93) states “The instructor is the director of a stage play in which the students are the actors”. It means that teacher is the one who decides what to teach, who models and presents the new material, and who selects supporting materials for classroom use. Teacher is encouraged to be well prepared and well organized so that the lesson flows smoothly and predictable.
2.4.4 The Principles of Total Physical Response
Before applying the TPR method for teaching a foreign language, in this case is English, a teacher should understand its principle well so he will be able to use it properly in the teaching learning process. Asher as the developer of TPR elaborates the principle of this method, they are:
a) Second language learning is parallel to first language learning and should reflect the same naturalistic process.
b) Listening should develop before speaking.
c) Children respond physically to spoken language, and adult learners learn better if they do that too.
d) Once listening comprehension has been develops naturally and effortlessly out of it.
e) Delaying speech reduces stress. (www.tprsource.com/asher.htm)
Moreover, Larsen and Freeman (2000: 111) describe several principles in teaching learning process by using TPR upon which the teacher’s behaviors is based.
The principles of TPR are as follow:
a) Meaning in the target language can often be conveyed through action. Memory is activated through learner’s response. The target language should not be presented in chunks; not just word by word.
b) The students’ understanding of the target language should be developed before speaking.
c) Students can initially learn one part of the language rapidly by moving their bodies.
d) The imperative is powerful linguistic device through which the teacher can direct student behavior.
e) Students can learn through observing actions as well as by performing the action themselves.
f) Feeling of success and low anxiety facilitate learning.
g) Students should not be made to memorize fixed routines.
h) Correction should be carried out in an unobtrusive manner.
i) Students must not develop flexibility in understanding a novel combination of target language chunks. They need to understand more than the exact sentences used in training.
j) Language learning is more effective when it is fun.
k) Spoken language should be emphasized over written language.
l) Students will begin to speak when they are ready.
m) Students are expected to make errors when they first begin speaking. Work on the fine details of the language should be postponed until students have become somewhat proficient.
According to the principles above, it can be concluded that students will understand the meaning of the vocabulary items easily if they use their bodies while they are learning. In the learning, students should feel successful and they do not feel pessimistic.
A teacher should be careful in correcting the students’ mistakes. Correcting the mistakes improperly will make the students feel desperate. Therefore, an English teacher must be able to create flexibility in the classroom. Another important thing is that the new method should be presented in a context not word by word.
2.4.5 Characteristics of Total Physical Response
1. Imperative drills are the prominent classroom activity in TPR.
2. Learners monitor and evaluate their own progress.
3. Learners feel free to speak out whenever they are ready.
4. Listening and comprehension are emphasized over production in language learning.
5. Vocabulary and grammar are more emphasized than other language.
2.4.6 Advantages and Disadvantages of Total Physical Response
· It is fun and easy. Students will enjoy getting up out of their chairs and moving around.
· Simple TPR activities do not require a great deal of preparation on the part of the teacher. However, some other more complex applications might.
· It is good for kinesthetic learners who need to be active in the class.
· It is a good tool for building vocabulary.
· It is memorable. Actions help strengthen the connexions in the brain.
· Class size need not be a problem.
· "TPR seems to work effectively for children and adults. There is no age barrier." according to Asher.
· Whilst it can be used at higher levels TPR is most useful for beginners. It is also at the higher levels where preparation becomes an issue for the teacher.
· Students are not generally given the opportunity to express their own thoughts in a creative way.
· It is easy to overuse TPR. "Any novelty, if carried on too long, will trigger adaptation." Asher writes, "No matter how exciting and productive the innovation, people will tire of it."
· The teacher may find that it is limited in terms of language scope. Certain target languages may not be suited to this method.
· It can be a challenge for shy students.
2.4.7 Strength and Weakness of Total Physical Response
a. Strength of Total Physical Response
· It is a lot of fun and learners enjoy it.
· It is not required a lot of preparation or materials using the TPR.
· It works well with mixed ability classes.
· It is very effective with teenager and young.
· It is good for kinesthetic learners who need to be active in the class.
· It is very memorable. It helps students to remember phrases and words well.
· It involves both left and right-brained learning.
b. Weakness of Total Physical Response
· It does not give students the opportunity to express their own thoughts in a creative way.
· It emphasized too much on imperative mood. Students will be considered rude when attempting to use this new method.
· TPR can be ineffective if the teacher uses it for a long period of time.
· Teacher will have troubles when teaching abstract vocabulary or expression.
· Learners feel tired of learning when teacher use to the some style.
2.4.8 Teaching Procedure of Total Physical Response
Steps in Total Physical Response
· Teacher says command and performs the action.
· Teacher says command and both teacher and students perform the action.
· Teacher says command students perform action.
· Teacher tells one students to perform action.
· Reverse the roles or students give each other commands.
2.4.9 Goal of Using Total Physical Response
· Total Physical Response was developed in order to reduce the stress people feel when studying foreign languages and thereby encourage students to persist in their study beyond in beginning level of proficiency.
· This method attempts to focus mainly on encouraging learners to listen and respond to the spoken target language command of their.
The methodology of the study related to Research Design, Population and Sample, Technique of data collection, Instrument of the study, Method of Data Collection, Techniques of Data Analysis.
3.1 Research Design
In research activity, the function of a method is very important to determine the problem, purpose and hypothesis of the investigation. This research is experimental research by using one group design. Descriptive studies involve collecting data to test the hypothesis or to answer the question concerning the current status of the subject of the study. For data collection, a test might be need, as research described the students’ comprehension.
In the sense of the research this study is teaching verb by using Total Physical Response, the writer needs to conduct on experimental method and the data will be analyzed statistically. The writer used experimental method because this study intent to find out does teaching verb by using Total Physical Response.
The study deals with two kinds of variables, namely Total Physical Response that represents the independent variable and Teaching verb which represent the dependent variable. For supporting this research, it is focused in seventh grade at SMPN 8 Mataram in Academic Year 2011/2012.
3.1.1 Research Setting
The research are conducted at the school of SMPN 8 Mataram, which addressed on Jendral Sudirman street No. 11 Rembiga Mataram.
3.2 Population and Sample
Population is the entire subject of research. If someone wants examine all the elements that exist within the study area, the research is the study population. (Arikunto, 2010: 173)
The subject of population in this study are all students in seventh grade at SMPN 8 Mataram in academic year 2011/2012.
Representative sample is partially or population studied. Named after the study sample if we intend to generalize the results of the study sample. That the intent is to generalize the conclusions raise as a research applicable to the population. (Arikunto, 2010: 174).
The sample in this study is one class is a VII class. The sampling method used is a random class. This method is used because of concerns the limitations of the researcher to conduct the randomization of all students in grade VII. So that only samples taken at random from the eight existing classes, namely VIIA class, VIIB class, VIIC class, VIID class, VIIE class, VIIF class, VIIG class and VIIH class. Sample is VIIC class totaling 44 students.
3.3 Techniques of Data Collection
Variable having the capacity of varying or changing, capable of alternation in any manner, changeable. There are two types of variable, as follows:
1. The dependent variable is the variable that is being measured in an experiment. For example: in a study on the effects of tutoring on test scores, the dependent variable would be the participants test scores. In a psychology experiment, researchers are looking at how changes in the independent variable cause changes in the dependent variable. The dependent variable is plotted along the vertical Y is teaching verb.
2. The independent variable is a factor that can be varied or manipulated in an experiment (e .g. time, temperature, concentration, etc). It is usually what will affect the dependent variable. The independent variable is plotted along the horizontal X is total physical response.
There are two types of independent variables, which are often treated differently in statistical analyses:
a. Quantitative variables that differ in amounts or scale and can be ordered (e. g. weight, temperature, time).
b.Qualitative variables which differ in types and cannot be ordered (e. g. gender, species, method).
3.4 Instrument of The Study
In this research the instrument is used a kind of the test. The test is used by the writer in this research is verb test. This case based on the consideration that test is appropriate instrument to get data.
Arikunto (in Asrul 2005: 27) states that research method is a manner that is applied to collect the data, but instrument is tool used to collect the data. Base on this opinion, the instrument which is used to collect data is verb test. This test is about common topic known by the students. The consideration in using the test is made the students explore their writing verb as much as possible.
3.5 Method of Data Collection
The process of setting goals, developing strategies, and outlining tasks and schedules to accomplish the goals.
In this study data means all information that is gathered from the subject. The data are the items obtained from the student after doing the test (instrument) given to them. The tests are made by researchers in the form of test.
In collecting, the writer use some steps as follows.
- The researcher give a test to the students to answer it.
- They are asked to write their identity.
- Before doing the test, the researcher explain the students to do answer.
- They are asked to finish the test individually.
- They are asked to fill in the blanks of paragraph with following some verbs, which write in the table by resercher.
Implementation is the carrying out, execution, or practice of a plan, a method, or any design for doing something.
a. Cycle 1
In this cycle, the students will be given some verbs, because in this research the writer will apply TPR, the writer will introduce the new verb in the form of command or short sentences not in a word by word. The writer explains briefly about the method use in teaching and learning process. The explanation is in two ways, students’ native language and English as the target language so that the students have some ideas about what they will do. She also provides some teaching aids to help the students to know what they are going to demonstrate with. The writer explain to her students with some example motion, and then the writer read the command of verbs randomly and all the students repeat what the writer read, the activity conducting 20 minutes.
b. Cycle 2
In this cycle, the students will be given a paragraph. The writer explains briefly about the method use in teaching and learning process. The explanation is in two ways, students’ native language and English as the target language so that the students have some ideas about what they will do. She also provides some teaching aids to help the students to know what they are going to demonstrate with. The writer give instruction the students how to answer the test, after that the students start to answer it carefully. The writer give 15 minutes to students for answer the test.
Evaluation is the comparison of actual impacts against strategic plans.
To find the degree of the student achievement in each test, the score of each student is conducted individually by using the following formula:
Students score = Scores of right answer x 100
Point about the difficulty level of classification.
80 - 100
60 - 80
20 - 40
0 - 20
After all of the test done, the writer calculates of the score from experimental and control group for to know the sum of ability of the students in answer verbs test by using Total Physical Response and without using Total Physical Response. So the writer can to know, are Total Physical Response have effect for the teaching verb or Total Physical Response have not effect for the teaching verb.
3.6 Techniques of Data Analysis
After obtaining individual scores of both groups, the writer processes the score with the following steps:
2. The writer calculated the means score of both experimental control group.
3. The writer draws standard deviation scores of two groups.
4. The writer testing the significance of two deviations
a. Find out the mean scores of two groups the writer applied the following formula:
MX = ∑X
MY = ∑Y
M : the mean score of the two groups
X : the student final scores for experimental group
Y : the student final score for control group
N : Is the number of sample
∑ : Is the sum of …
b. Find out standard deviations of two groups. The formula standard deviations as follows:
· Find out the standard deviation of experimental group.
The formula is:
Mx = ∑x = ∑x2 – (x)2
X : the standard deviation for experimental group
N : the number of sample
∑ : Is the sum of …
· Find out the standard deviation of control group.
The formula is:
My = ∑y = ∑y2 – (y)2
Y : the standard deviation for control group
N : the number of sample
∑ : Is the sum of …
c. Finally, the last deep to know the significance of the two variable being investigated by comparing the two mean scores and it’s each standard deviation by using the following formula:
Mx - My
M : the mean score of each group
N : the number of sample
X : the standard deviation score of experimental group
Y : the standard deviation score of control group
∑ : Is the sum of …
: Is the root of ….
( Arikunto, 1997: 306)
Method of Test
To find the degree of the students achievement in each test, the score of each student is conducted individually by using the following formula:
Students score = Scores of right answer x 100
Score of Testing Cycle 1
Score of Cycle 2
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