Tuesday, December 18, 2012

kumpulan skripsi bahasa inggris THE STUDENTS ABILITY IN COMPEREHENDING ENGLISH SHORT STORY


THE STUDENTS ABILITY IN COMPEREHENDING ENGLISH SHORT STORY AT SECOND YEAR STUDENT’S OF MTS. DARUSSALAM BEREMI IN ACADEMIC YEAR 2010/2011


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A.      Background of the study
In this globalization era people live in one world and will interact with order member of other community with different languages. This certainly would cause difficulty in understanding each other. Mastering English as an international language is essential. A part from being the medium of communication, English needed in the world's job as well. When we read job vacancy on newspapers or the mass media, mastering English is one of its qualifications. How lucky they are those who master English today and they have keys to a huge and luxurious building: they can open and see glamorous rooms. No wonder many countries in the world use English as their language. In Indonesia, for example English language is treated as the first foreign language. Even in the Indonesian Education System, government has made a set of curriculum, which includes teaching of English as one of the required subjects learnt from Junior High School to Senior High School. Why nowadays English language as compulsory subject at both Junior High School and Senior High School in 1994 curriculum.
In government education program English is treated very special and it becomes one of the qualification in passing the National Examination. English instruction is emphasized on the four skills such as; reading, listening writing, and vocabulary, which are thought, integrate. Because English first foreign language in Indonesia students. The students need much time to learn and practice it. The students must study hard not only at school but also outside, like at home by attending English course or going tourism objects to practice their English with native speakers. While, there are many ways taken by the teachers in their teaching learning process. They are all applied in various kinds of strategies, techniques, methods or approaches based on the field of learning discussed. However, the results are usually unsatisfactory.
Reading is one of the skills developed for students in order to get information and knowledge. The main function of teaching in Indonesia is as an instrument to gain science and technology, and as a device of international affair. This means that the major function of teaching learning of English in Indonesia is as an instrument of improving higher science and technology, which is absolutely needed in Indonesia specifically and world generally.
Focusing on the student reading ability, there are important issues to concern with namely; components ways to read effectively and reading speed (Arwijati, 1993: 3) to be able to understand a text optimally, it is important to know how to read effectively, the following steps are suggested by Arwijati, as these:
1.      To be aware of the nature of what you are reading
2.      To be aware of the purpose you are reading
3.      To decide on a reading approach or strategies suitable for your purpose
4.      To be able to use different reading strategies as reading, skimming, and memorizing (Arwijati, 1993: 1-2)
From the statement above we know that in teaching English as a foreign language, reading is one of the elements which is very crucial by knowing how to catch the ideas of reading material which is hopefully could add up our knowledge easily. The while teaching in Comprehending Short Story at MTs DARUSSALAM is emphasized as well as priority.
In generally, the purpose of reading is classified in (a) Getting general information from the next; (b) Getting specific information from the text; (c) Reading for pleasure (Dough, 1984) here, the understanding or compression of reading printed words correctly and recognizing printer meaning  word by word, As well Tarrigan (1979)  states that reading is substance of phenomena which intended to the reader in order to understand the meaning meant by author. It means that reading required someone thinks, feels and images.
According to English curriculum, the teaching of reading is established on the basis of knowledge and skill of language,  which are divided into parts namely:
1.      Aspect of language.
2.      Language activities
The first, consist of pronunciation, structure and vocabulary. The later involves listening, reading, speaking, (dialog and writing).
It is stated in curriculum the general objective of reading is that the student are able to understand and interpret the content of reading texts through observation, interpretation and application. The technique of teaching reading comprehension are the important part in student’s activities, therefore the teacher should know a good  technique to be presented in teaching reading.
The writer believes that success of foreign language study depends on several factors such as: The student’s motivation in language, the material selected to be used and last but not least is a clearly defined objective of the foreign language study.
We can say that reading is important skill for the student and it should be taught effectively and purposely. In this thesis the writer is interested in investigating the second year student’s ability in comprehending short story of MTs DARUSSALAM.         
B.       Problem of the Study
Based on the background, it is necessary to conduct the study on the comprehending analysis in using Short Story, the problems need to be answered are is follow:
1.    What are the students’ ability in comprehending short story of the second year students at MTS DARUSSALAM in academic year 2010-2011.
2.    What factors that many contribute to comprehending short story of the second year students of MTs. Darussalam in academic year 2010-2011?



C.      Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of this study is as follow:
1.    To investigate the students’ ability in comprehending  short story of  the second year students’ at MTs SARUSSALAM in academic year 2010-2011.
2.    To know the factors that may contributing in ability short story. 
D.      Significance of the Study
The writer expects in this study will be able to contribute the results of the study; the writer gives the explanation of the significant of the study:
1.    The writer hopes that the result of this investigation could be some of the uses for the development of students in comprehending short story.
2.    The writer also expects that will be of great help or teachers and students in teaching and learning process.
E.       Scope of the Study
The scope of the study actuates to make study neither too broad nor to narrow. In this study, the writer makes the scope that is the subject of study is ability in comprehending of short story.
F.       Limitation of the Study
The research conducted is limited to the following point:
1.    The ability of the second year students at MTs DARUSSALAM in comprehending short story.
2.    The investigation just for the second year students at MTs DARUSSALAM in academic year 2010-2011.
G.      Hypothesis of the Study
Hypothesis of study is a powerful tool on scientific inquiry, because it is a tentative answer. It enables us to find the real answer by doing research and relating it to the theory.
The hypothesis set forth the current study is worth considering. However, they still need to be proved under the results of finding later. There are two kinds of hypothesis: null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis.
Based on the theoretical point of view, the hypothesis of this research can be formulated as follows:
1.    The alternative hypothesis (Ha)
The second year students of  MTs DARUSSALAM are able to comprehend in short story.
2.    The null hypothesis (Ho)
The second year students of MTs DARUSSALAM are not able to comprehend short story.
H.      Definition of the Key Term
The definition of the key terms will by given as follows:
1.      Ability
According to Hornby ability is to do something the fact that somebody is able to do something. Ability is power or capacity to act physically, mentally, legally, morally or competence in activity or occupation (laurance ET. AL. 1968: 3). The ability here means the students scanning reading ability possessed by the second year students at MTs. DARUSSALAM in academic year 2010-2011.
2.      Comprehending
Comprehending is a power understanding (hornby, 1968).
3.      Short story
Short story refers to a work of fiction that is usually written in prose, usually in narrative format. This format or medium tends to by pointed. A story usually about imaginary characters and events that is short enough to be read from beginning to end without stopping. (hornby, 2000: 1235).
In this study the term story telling refers to the student’s activity in which they read a given short and simple story and are assigned to retell the story to their partner by using their own word with answer the question. In other word, story telling is a technique in teaching speaking where the students retell the story to their partners for to know the students ability in comprehend short story.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERTURE
A.      Reading as a Language Skill
a.         What is reading
The definition of reading is developmental process. The firs stage is learning sound-symbol correspondences, either directly or by reading aloud sentences  and the words and sentence pattern in new combination (Allen and Vallette, 1972: 249).
The complicated process of learning how to read is reflected in the many definitions and theories of reading that are debated and discussed in the professional literature. Because each definition and model of reading represents a different theoretical position or philosophy, Spache and Spache in Wallace, Cohan and Polloway (1987) believe that no one definition of reading will be accepted unanimously. These authors describe reading as a multifaceted process which can be viewed at various developmental stages in terms of skill developmental, as a visual art, a perceptual process, a communication component, a reflection of economic and cultural background, or a psycholinguistic process, as information processing, or as a thinking process.
According to Strang (1978) reading is more than pronouncing printed words and recognizing the meaning of isolated words. It requires someone to think, feel and image.
Reading is a process of getting information, from context and combining disparate elements into a new whole from an interactive point of view, information processing is often triggered by the knowledge their already process (Vacca, ET. AI, 1991: Mc.Neil, 1992).
Reading encompassed all of things, the differences in current reading program use today lie in the relative importance assigned to each of these four definition; zints and Maggart (1989 : 8) are :
1)      Reading is understanding the language of the author of a printed passage.
2)      Reading is the decoding so that they can be produced orally.
3)      Reading is the ability anticipate the meaning in lines of printed so that the reader is not concerned whit the mechanical detail but with grasping ideas from the groups of word that convey meaning.
4)      Reading involves a complicated set of interaction between reader and a text in order to describe meaning.
Another Scholar, Burn (1984 : 10) also cites that reading is thinking process. In this extent, the reader must be able to use the information to make inferences and read critically and creatively to understand the figurative language, determine of the author’s purpose, evaluate the ideas convoyed and apply the idea to actual situations.
In order to read rapidly, some expert from different specialization views reading, reading contribution and definition of reading carefully. Actually, they have been conducting extensively research as in a nature of reading and sequential development of reading skills.
Among the discoveries of the researches, as stated by Logan ET.Al (1973 : 223) in his writing on that article, he listed several integrated phenomenon concerning reading in nature, those are (1) Reading is rooted in experience (2) Reading is responding (3) Reading is reaction (4) Reading is native language process (5) Reading is complex (6) Reading is tool of communication (7) Reading is creativity (8) Reading is specific purpose and the last (9) Reading is development in nature.
In other words, reading is substance of phenomenon which, firstly the experiences already processed by the reader and will determine his understanding of the meaning intended by the author. Secondly, reading is reaction to the graphic of representation to the graphic of sound symbols in term of recognition and understanding. Thirdly, in the reading process then teacher begins with familiar material student's senses relations of the language expressions. And next, reading is creativity, means that the creative reader brings to the material the skill of the comparison and synthesis, the ability to see new relationship and at definitely conclusion, and so on.     
b.    Reason for reading
There are many contributing factors to reading. These include the physical environment, where the reading take place, the lighting, the noise, anther distraction and psychological factor such as poor eye sight or inability to sit in one place for any length of time, but perhaps the most principal factors is the psychological factor (Martin, 1987). The psychological factor that would be completely discussed here are motivation and interest.
Firstly, motivation. Martin M. Broadway defines motivation as “The degree of desire learns, to study, to cooperate, etc” (1978 : 57). The desire to read is hopeful in understanding the reading material so that the motivation is an important part of reading material, motivated students who are highly curious about materials that will be read. Thus motivation in reading is concerned whit the arousal of desire to engage in reading. Interest and motivation often work in a cause affect relationship. Students who are interested in a reading material become motivated in reading material become not motivated in reading it. Hence, it is difficult to separate interest and motivated since they are very closely related.
Secondly, interest is an essential media of motivation because the activity of learning process will be running well if the existence of interest is availably (Sadirman, 2001) while according to (Tabrani Rusyan, 1990) some activities will be running well if interest and motivation will arise great interest.
According to Burn, Roe, and Rose (1984) that interest plus attitudes, and self-concepts are three effective aspect of the reading process. These aspects influence how hard children will work at the reading task. For example, children who interested in the materials presented to them will put forth much more effort in the reading process than will children who have no interest in the available reading materials.
If we find ways of keeping interest high, we may have solved the problem of motivation. Therefore, interest is also necessary ingredient in reading. We learn more readily when we are interested in subject under the discussion. Similarly children will learn more efficient if they are interested in their reading materials Fry in Burns, Roe and Ross (1984).
Thirdly, attention. Attention is closely related to interest and motivation since interest and motivation cause arousal of attention. Student’s interest in reading can attract their attention when they do reading activities as what is stated by Maryann that “interest is a powerful attention factors” (1981). Attention is an important ingredient in reading. Therefore attention is one of the factors that can influence the success of reading. Without, attention there will be little learning that take place when they are reading.
Generally, the author’s reason for reading as stated by Nuptal (1982 : 3) is because someone wants to get something from the writing fact, ideas, enjoyment, event feelings of family community (from a letter) whatever it is someone wants to get the message that writer has expressed.
Interesting to the reason for the people in heaving reading activities, Marry Finnochioro and Christhoper (1983 : 142) as the writer concerted from them that development of the reading activities will also help learners reinforce their listening, and speaking abilities. Moreover, interesting reading experiences and those related to one’s professional and occasional field will provide topic for oral discussion and also for writing.                
c.    The best way to read
It has been suggested that the development of reading process from a context-bound response to a mastery of using textual clues alone. Skill reading is the refinement of reading behavior so that the reader can process a wide variety of texts easily and can adopt reading behavior to achieve specific aims.
We know turn to a consideration of how skill reading can be achieved either in the classroom.
Reading may classified into two simple categories, intensive and extensive reading (Rivers, 1968 and Finnochiaro, 1983 : 146-147).
Firstly, intensive reading according to Rivers (1968) that a reading activity is related to further progress in language learning under the teacher’s is guidance. He views that in this type of reading a control from a teacher is compulsory and it provided a basis for elucidation of difficulties of structure, and for the extension of vocabulary. To the same extent, Finochioro (1983 : 146) also states that the intensive reading when the student’s attention should be focused an all expression, nations sounds, structures and cultural allusions will be unfamiliar to them in the passage.
When we view the reading approach from-oral program, it can be inferred that intensive reading is complex process which employ a series of steps, gradually and systematically progressing from audio and visual perceptions through intensive aural practice, to control oral and written production (Stanish Law, 1986 : 23).
Secondly, extensive reading develops the students own pace according to their individual ability (Rivers, 1968 : 229). In the extent, the activity is not completely controlled by the teacher’s role. The extensive reading activity is mostly concerned with the purpose of training students to read directly and fluently for his/her own employment without the aid of the teacher. Structure in the text will be already familiar to him and new vocabulary will be introduced slowly in such a way that is meaning can be deduced from the context.
Tarigan, (1979 : 31) states that the extensive reading means reading widely. The object of this type of reading program consist  of as many as possible text in shortest time. He wrote that the students comprehension and understanding beyond the passage is in minimum. Then, he divides the type of extensive reading into three major categories namely Scanning, survey reading, and superficial reading.
Scanning in kind of reading as to identify the topic sentences and its supporting sentence, to draw up a summary of a given text, to grasp the organization on the text, (Drs. Damianus Talong 1991 : 78).
To some extent, Hendry Tarigan (1979 : 32) writes about Scanning is kind of reading which intends of our eyes more rapidly, to find, to recognize, or to explore the information from the written texts.
He, then stated several major purpose in Scanning reading as the writer considered from him (a) to get general impression from a book, article, or short narrative, (b) to find certain particular thing from the written production, and (c) to find/to put material needed in the library (Albert et, Al, in Hendry Tarigan, 1979 :37).
In order to read rapidly some experts suggest that a reader can use scanning and skimming techniques. Wiryacahtra (1982 :20) writes that a proficient reader must coordinate a number of skills. He must read rapidly and through the understanding of subject matter.           
B.       Reading Comprehension
When we come to the testing of reading comprehension, we are dealing whit the testing of students who have passed beyond the purely audio lingual state of language learning in which “reading” and “writing” are used simply to reinforce the oral learning, and have proceeded to a stage in which reading and writing are taught as a skill or more properly, as complex skills which is recognized as useful, because of the importance of this point.
In most modern foreign language courses, instruction begins with the teaching of the sound system and the most frequent and our useful grammatical pattern of the spoken language. Vocabulary is at the first quite limited, but as the students gains control over the sounds and structures of the language, he is “fed” with more and vocabularies chosen for their usefulness in oral communication. During this stage, such reading which is presented to the students is designed primarily to strange then his control of the oral skill. Reading and lexical item will be needed by the students. When the teacher considers that his class gained a good functional control of the spoken language, he may introduce reading as an end itself. At this point the class enters an area where some students will undoubtedly advance much faster and much further than others.
In the process of learning of foreign language, traditionally reading is usually looked as second skill is the most important one in mastering foreign language. In the context of everyday life of occasion to use the written language learners frequent than oral language. Reading and understanding a passage that is written by native speaker of what language are the reading goal using a foreign language.
Reading involves recognizing the symbols of tones that is used to express the words and then the recognition of the words in its relation and function to the other thing of the reading passages. In other words, in reading a learner has to master and catch meaning of the words in their lexical meaning, words in their cultural meaning.
According to Heaton (1975 : 103) it is stated that the wide range of reading material especially written or adapted for English language learning purpose, there is yet now comprehensive systematic program which has been constructed analysis of the skill required for efficient reading. Most exercise material is still limited to short reading extracts on which are based on general “comprehension question”. Since one of the chief concerns of the constructor of any test must always be divined the precise nature of what he is measuring it would make them here a positive contribution which testing can make to development of the reading skill.
Furthermore, David P. Harris (1969 : 59) state that the abilities needed in reading a language includes at least the following:
a)      Language and graphic symbols
1.         Comprehending a large percentage of the lexical item occurring in no specialized writing and being able to derive the meaning of the familiar (on special uses of common items) from the context in which thy occur.
2.         Understanding the syntactical patterns and morphological forms characteristic.
3.         Responding correctly to the graphic symbols of writing (e.g. punctuation, capitalization, paragraphing, and utilizing) used to convey and clarify meaning. 
b)      Ideas
1.         Identifying the writer’s purpose and central ideas.
2.         Understanding the subordinate ideas which support the thesis.
3.         Drawing correct conclusion and valid inferences from what is given.   
c)      Tone and style
1.         Recognizing the author’s attitude towards the subject and the readers understanding the tone of writing.
2.         Identifying the method and stylistic devices which the author conveys his ideas.
In relation to reading comprehension, Lin Louhed (1967 :213) offers there techniques for reading any articles of book more efficiently. It si called SQ3R, P2R, and S-RUN. The SQ3R is a systematic method designed for studying a textbook and an effective reading system which has been successfully used by many students.
1)          The names of SQ3R are survey, question, read, recall, and review. He further provides the following explanation.
Step I. Survey
On this step we look the title, subhead linings, illustration and graph and get an overview of the reading passage. This helps us determinate the author’s direction, for example if he is going to write about the world economy.
Will he discuss general theory? Will he discuss economics from a historical perspective? Or will discuss it from a current.
Step II. Question
After we survey, we should have a general ideas of what reading passage is about. Now we need to have a purpose of reading when we read with we read a specific purpose, we will understand and remember more of what we read. As question based on survey and then to see if we can answer our question.
Step III. Read
When we read a reading passage, try to read all the way to the end without stopping. Do not stop and look up the unfamiliar words, try to understand such word from a context. We may look up those words later if we are still uncertain or want confirmation.
Step IV. Recall
After we finish reading we try to answer the question we ask ourselves before reading, if we do not have all the answer, scan the reading passage to find them.
Step V. Review
Several days after reading passage try to remind passage ourselves of that reading passage was about. The more frequently we review the reading passage the larger the information that will stay with us.
2)          In P2R technique, namely preview, read, review. He also provides the following explanation.
Step I. Preview
Begin by reading the introduction or if there is none, the first couple of paragraphs. Next page through the book and read the headings. Glance at any charters, graphs, diagrams, or pictures. Finally, read the last paragraphs or two. The goal of this step is to get an overview of the material and develop a sense of the progression of ideas.
Step II. Read
Now mark ten pages of reading and read the material, taking notes or highlighting important information. The number of pages you read can be adapted to the particular book you are reading.

Step III. Review
After reading ten pages, review the information. You can do this in a number of ways:
·           Summarize, in your own words, the author’s main points
·           Write down three or four sentences summarizing what you’ve read
·           Close the book and recite the key information under each heading
·           Quiz yourself on question or problems at the end of the chapter
·           Create question you may see on the exam about this material and answer them. 
3)          In S-RUN technique, namely, survey, read, underline, note taking. He also further provides the following explanation.
Step I. Survey
First, survey the chapter. Read the title and the introduction, as well as all headings, charts, diagrams, and graphs
Step II. Read
In this steps we can read the section, what the explain in the chapter
Step III. Underline
Underline material that explains the section’s heading
Step IV. Note taking
After completing the previous steps, takes notes on the material. Summarize the main points of the section.
In order to be able to catch the ideas or message from a reading passage, we have to try to make ourselves to be a good reader. According to Tarigan (1986 : 44). The characteristic of a good reader are as follows:
1.      A good reader know what he read, in this case the are two general objectives, i.e. to seek the information and to enjoy the reading.
2.      A good reader understanding what he reads, in this case the reader must have a strong concentration of vocabulary mastery and the ability to response the organization of the passage.
3.      A good reader has to be skillful in speed reading. in this case the reader must be able to choose and appropriate basis on the reading passage.
4.      A good reader has to know about the printer materials, in this case the reader must be able to identify which one is paper back, magazine, newspaper, etc. there are characteristic of poor reader stated by Freeman (1979 : 103) as follows:
1.        A failure to adjust reading speed to the material
2.        Mouthing the words (sub vocalization)
3.        Too many eye fixations
4.        Regressive eye fixation backtracking
5.        The case maybe eyesight-see and option.
C.       Three System in Reading
in order for reading to occur, three systems must be in operation to provide information for the reader (Goodman 1969).

1.           Graph phonic system
This system is concern with the written symbols of language, and the way should sound. A reader uses knowledge of spelling patters and relates them to experience of spoken language. Smith (1971) points out that the graph phonic system is not a right correspondence between letter and sound, but a more flexible relationship between spelling patterns and sound sequences.   
2.           Syntactic system
Is a system concerns with the grammar of language. Through knowledge of the grammar of spoken language the reader expects that written language will follow similar rules, and thereby uses system to anticipate message.
3.           Semantic system
This system in concern with the understanding of the message from the writer by the reader. The reader brings past experience to the reading situation and uses it to make of the message.
When all these three systems are working effectively, the reader is achieving the aim of reading: that is, gaining meaning.
If any of the system operates alone, the reader may not be reading. For example, meaning words on a list uses the graph phonic system, such as place, read, and join, sown. Each word can be used in at least two different ways, and in two cases words have different pronunciation as well. These words have meaning only when they are used in context, when the other systems, syntactic and semantic, are utilized. Some children use the graph phonic system predominantly when they read. This often results in slow, hesitant, word-by-word-reading which is usually at the expense of reading. such children should be helped to recognize and use the other two systems.
If he (the reader) is sensitive to meaningful and predictable sequences rather than becoming a slave to the graphic stimulus, he will develop the ability to project language and meaning from minimal visual samples. (Ryan, 1975, 15).
Goodman (1965), in a study of children reading word lists and than reading the same words in sentences, found that fourth-grade children could correctly read within the context of a story two-thirds of the items they had missed on word lists.
The interrelationship of the three systems stresses again the importance of making reading meaningful for children. By observing this interrelationship, children develop reading strategies to help them again meaning from reading.
D.      Reading Strategies
The reading strategies, they can be categorized into several kind as well as the kinds of reading. they are reading for information, reading for purpose, reading for pleasure, effective reading, survey reading, intensive reading and strategies with bottom-up and top-down reading understanding system.
a.           Reading for information
The reading for information is the reading to understand evaluating and utilizing of information and ideas gains through and attention between the reader and the author (Smith, at al. 1980 : 205)
b.          Reading for purpose
The reading for purpose could be very specific like looking up a telephone directory for somebody’s number or address. The purpose will usually determine the appropriate type of reading and the relevant reading skills to be used (Abott, at al. 1981)
c.           Reading for pleasure
The reading for pleasure means reading that aims at giving the reader pleasure thought and imaginative experience and letters upon human concerns such as love, ambition, war, family, life, etc.
Its purpose into enable and enrich the reader by helping his emotional life sharpening his sensitively of life values (Bilafore, 1989)
d.          Effective reading
The effective reading means be able to read accurately and efficiently, and to understand as much of the passage as you need in order to achieve your purpose (Greenal, at al. 1986)
e.         Survey reading
The survey reading is done when a reader needs to explore any deep information or detail from the written productions. That is why before one starts reading the text he needs to analysis first that phenomena will be analysis in the reading process. To do this, Tarigan (1979 : 31-32) proposed necessary steps in survey reading as follows:
a.         Glancing, exploring the index, or vocabulary choices in the texts.
b.        Glancing, and viewing at the topics, subs topics, branch topics, and the like of the books or article.
c.         Glancing, viewing and recognizing the schema, cards and outlines of the books or article.
Furthermore, he said that the speed of appropriateness of survey, reading materials is necessary in helping the reader’ mastery the text faced later. 
f.          Intensive reading
The intensive reading strategy is study reading. This involves close study of the text. As amount of comprehension should be high. The speed of reading is correspondent slower (Aboot, at al. 1981)
g.           Strategies with bottom
Other kinds of reading strategies are bottom-up and top-down reading strategies. The bottom-up reading strategies is viewed as process of decoding written symbols, working for smaller units (individual letters) to larger ones (words, clauses, and sentences). In other words, we strategize to decode written from in order to arrive at meaning (Nunan, 1989). Smith in Nunan (1989).
States that in face, argues that reading actually works in the reverse order from that proposed by the bottom-up approach. So, we need to comprehend meanings in order identify word and that we generally need to identify word in order to identify letters. Thus, top-down reading strategy is a process in which the reader brings to the text an essay of information ideas, and beliefs about the text. The reader initiates the process by making predictions about the meaning of the text as her or she employs knowledge vocabulary, syntax, discourse, and the word (Ramires, 1995)
E.        Scanning
We read differently defending on our goal for reading. Sometimes we only need to locate a particular piece of information. For example, we might read the newspaper to discover the final score of a sport event, or to find out when and where a lecture will be held. To scan is to read quickly in order to locate specific information. The steps in scanning are the following:
1.        Decide exactly what information you are looking and think about the form it may take. For example, if you want to know when something happened, you would look for a date. If you want to find out who did something, you would look a name.
2.        Decide where you need to look to find the information you want. You probably would not for sports scores on the front page of the newspaper, or look under the letter S for the telephone number of Sam Potter.
3.        Move your eyes quickly as possible down the page until you find the information you need, do not read carefully.
4.        When you find what you need, do not read further.
Scanning helps the student’s search quickly for the specific information; he wishes to get from the materials such as finding the meaning of a word in a dictionary. In this technique, the students think of clues to help him find the specific information such as one scans pages of a newspaper to find a particular article to be read.
F.       Skimming
Skimming, according to wiriyacahtra (1982 : 20) means looking quickly to get only the main idea or to find a certain detail. Furthermore, the methods of skimming can be (1) preview, (2) over view, and (3) survey. By previewing, the students can fiend out whether the books or articles are written by a specialist in certain field or whether it contains the information he is seeking. In over viewing the students can discover the purpose and scope of the materials and can find section that are of special interest to him. Through a survey the students will get the general idea of the materials contain. Skimming is, the skills that help the student read quickly and selectively in order to obtain a general idea of the materials.
It is sometimes useful to obtain a general impression of a book, article, or story before deciding whether or not to read more carefully. To skim is to read quickly in order to get a general idea of a requires to note only information and clues that provide an idea of the central theme or topic of a piece of prose.
When you skim, it is necessary to read only selected sentences in order to get the main idea. You should also use textual clues such as italicized or underlined words, headlines or subtitles, spacing, paragraphing, etc. do not read every word or sentence.
Once you have a general idea about an article, you may decided to read the entire selection is a question concerning a research topic. You must skim each passage to decide if a careful reading would provide information on the topic given; indicate your by checking Yes of No.
Goodman (1972) has outline four main strategies that readers must develop to successfully.
1.        Prediction
The success of this strategy depends on the syntactic (grammatical) knowledge of the reader and her/his past experience.
The greater of the reader’s knowledge about grammatical uses, the faster she/he can respond to written material and thereby successfully predict meaning. Also, if the reader’s past experience is relevant to a particular piece of reading material, it will generally be easier to understand than something which is totally outside the experience of the reader, especially if the language is esoteric.
2.       Testing
After predicting the meaning of some written material, the reader tests the prediction by asking question like, “Does it make sense?” “Is it language?” “What does the word like?”
3.        Confirming
The reader has to make a decision as to whether the predicting and testing strategies have proved correct. 
4.           Correction
If a prediction is not confirmed, then the reader uses her/his knowledge of the three systems, syntactic, graph phonic, and semantic, to correct.
Clay points out:
Close study of early reading behavior suggests that is major shift, close to the beginning of reading, which marks the point where the child can detect that he has made an error, can retrace his steps, and correct him self. This self-correction strategy means that he can learn from his mistakes (if they are few) and gain from reading he is not being instructed. (Clay, 1976 : 338).
G.      Teaching Reading at SMA/SMK/MA
Now days, teaching English at SMA/SMK/MA is more stressed on reading skill. Reading is a goal of teaching English and at is considered as the most important subject in senior high school. Therefore, it should be thought longer than the other language skill.
The objective of teaching reading is to develop the students reading skill so they can read English text effectively and efficiently the student should have particular purpose in their mind before they interact with the text. Thus, the effective reading is always purposeful as McDonough and Shaw (1993 : 102) claim that, much of the current thinking tend to focus primarily on the purpose of the activities, even if reading is done for pleasure, it is still purposeful.
The teaching of reading comprehension is conducted through the three steps and these steps are elaborated at last following:
1.      Pre-reading
a.       To introduce and arouse interest in topic.
b.      To motivate learners by giving a reason for reading.
c.       To provide some language preparation for the text.
2.      While-reading
a.       To help understanding the writer purpose.
b.      To help understanding the text structure.
c.       To clarify the text content.
3.      Post-reading
a.       To consolidate or reflect what has bee read.
b.      To relate the text to the learners own knowledge interest or views.
According to the communication language learning there are three techniques of teaching reading namely: pre-reading activities, while-reading activities, and post-reading activities.
In pre-reading activities, the teacher explicit new vocabularies (key words) by asking students through pictures, games, flash card, question, answer or give definition.
In while-reading activities the teacher give some tasks the task may skimming for the list, meaning for the specific information, dedicating task, which the task will enlarge, enrich, develop or apply the students knowledge and skill. Adriano Doff (1988 : 64-65). Refers to the activities after reading discussion question. Reproducing the task, role-play and gap-filling. Through the post-reading activities are hopefully more active than before.   

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHOD

A.      Research Design
The research is aimed to know the students ability in comprehending short story for the second year student at MTs DARUSSALAM in Academic Year 2010/2011. The method used for this study is descriptive study. It describes what the writer found in this research, the writer tris to find out the the student’s ability in comprehend short story toward their interest.
B.       Population and Sample
1.           Population
The population of this study is all of the second year students of MTs DARUSSALAM in Academic Year 2010/2011. There are 180 students as the population of this studis the they are  second year students of MTs DARUSSALAM which consists of 4 classes.
2.        Sample
The number of sample in this study is not big enough. The writer us random sampling technique to choose the sample of study from population of 180 students at the second year students of MTs DARUSSALAM which consists of 4 classes, the writer taken 30% of the population. There are 40 students are as the sample od study  taken. Furthermore, Arikunto (1998) states that, if the population lass than 100 it would be better to be taken all and it is categorized as population research, but if the population is 100 or more it should be taken 10-15% from all.
C.      Data Collection Procedures
To get the actual data from the test held out, several steps bellow are done accordingly:
1.           The students samples are asked to read the text of short story to collect data (Arikunto, 1985).
2.           They are asked to answer the question under passage to test their individual achievement with the text of short stories.
D.      Research Instrument
The instrument of this study is a reading text, which consists of some short stories. The test consists of 20 questions, which in multiple choices. The students are asked to choose one of the correct answers based on the text by choosing the most correct answer A, B, C, or D option.
Each of the test, then collected and manually. The ability test, which is constructed in multiple choice forms, is not so difficult to score for the students are only required to write down their answer sheet provide. Each of the 20 test items of the multiple choice test weight 5.0 score, so the highest possible scores of the students are 100 and the lowest possible score is 0.
E.       Data Analysis Procedures
This investigation uses the descriptive method. The data that the writer collected from the result of the student’s test. To determine whether the students are regarded successful, at least 75% must get score of 60 or more. But if less than 75% of the students receive this score, they are considered to have failed.
After collecting the data, the next step is to analyze the mean score. Computing them into this formula does the analysis are as this:
    
Where :     ∑S       = Number of students get score ≥ 60
                 ∑F       = Number of students get score < 60
                 N         = Number of students as sample
(Depdikbud. Dirjen Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah, 1983:64)

To obtain the information concern with the ability of the students, the study determines a table of percentage scale and qualification as follows:
Percentage scale
Qualification
75-100
50-74
0-49
Good
Sufficient
Low 
(Depdikbud. Dirjen Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah, 1983:64)

CHAPTER IV
RESEARCH FINDING AND DISCUSION

A.    Result of Study
The data collected after investigation is showmn in the table. The result of the student’s ability in comprehending short story of the second year students of MTs. Darussalam Beremi Academic Year 2010/2011 on Monday march 21th 2011 are completed in the following table.
There are two texts of reading passage and 20 questions in the text and total scores of each are different, and there are 17 questionnaires for the student’s to known the difficulties in comprehending short story.
Data Analysis
Before the writer analyzing the data for proving the alternative hypothesis, the second year students of MTs. Darussalam are good in comprehending short story. In this case, the writer changes it to be Null hypothesis. The writer formulates it that the second year students of MTs. Darussalam are not good in comprehending short story.
To analyze the data achieved from the test, the writer uses several ways:
1.      The writer gives a test that consists of 20 items to the students.
2.      The students are asked to answer the questions under passage to evaluate their individual achievement with the text of short story.
3.      After fetting the data, the writer counts the students qualitative score.
4.      The writer found out the percentage for the test of students score > 60          and <60 by :
Where :      ∑S       = Number of students get score > 60
                  ∑F       = Number of students get score < 60
                  N         = Number of students as sample
5.      The writer gives a questionnaire that consists of 17 items to the students

Table 1. The Students Score
No
Name of Students
Score
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
AGSAT
ANDWA
ASHAS
AZDIN
AZWAN
BMARY
BPRAS
BULNS
DAFRH
FRMSH
FTRWT
HARDN
HIDJUS
HIRAD
IDEAR
JMZRI
KRWDI
KILAD
KWIPP
LANDW
LBARA
LDFWP
LMIWI
LREWA
MAYDI
MRHRI
MROZAK
MMRID
NOVEN
NRHDT
PGSPI
PWSDI
RTZRD
RZCHD
SNLTF
SWRNI
YUIRM
ZHRAI
ZLKFI
ZTMHD
76
66
82
64
70
82
48
74
76
76
62
68
76
62
38
74
80
74
92
84
62
50
72
68
68
36
78
82
46
66
74
36
82
48
82
62
94
42
88
74


=

=
Where : ∑S      = Number of students get score > 60 is 80% (32 students)
              ∑F     = Number of students get score < 60 is 20% (8 students)
              N       = Number of students as sample are 40 students
Basedon the collected data above, only 80% (32 students) got > 60 and 20% (8 students) got <60.
Inferences are taken from the result of the means score of the students ability in comprehending short story. Based on the means score above, it can be concluded that : The students got > 60 are a good in comprehending short story and the students got score < 60 still poor in comprehending short story.
As stated by Depdikbud, Dirjen Dikti, 1983/1994, PPS, & 15 with its quidelines “to determine whether students are regarded successful, at least 75% must get score 60 or more if less then 75% studnets get thisscore, they are considered to have failed”. So in this research, the writer concluded that the second year students of MTs Darussalam are not good in comprehending short story. See the table below the scores and qualification of MTs. Darussalam Beremi Academic Year 2010/2011 in Comprehending Short Story.




Tabel II. Student’s Score and Qualification
No
Name of Students
Score
Qualification
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
AGSAT
ANDWA
ASHAS
AZDIN
AZWAN
BMARY
BPRAS
BULNS
DAFRH
FRMSH
FTRWT
HARDN
HIDJUS
HIRAD
IDEAR
JMZRI
KRWDI
KILAD
KWIPP
LANDW
LBARA
LDFWP
LMIWI
LREWA
MAYDI
MRHRI
MROZAK
MMRID
NOVEN
NRHDT
PGSPI
PWSDI
RTZRD
RZCHD
SNLTF
SWRNI
YUIRM
ZHRAI
ZLKFI
ZTMHD
76
66
82
64
70
82
48
74
76
76
62
68
76
62
38
74
80
74
92
84
62
50
72
68
68
36
78
82
46
66
74
36
82
48
82
62
94
42
88
74
Good
Sufficient
Good
Sufficient
Sufficient
Good
Low
Sufficient
Good
Good
Sufficient
Sufficient
Good
Sufficient
Low
Sufficient
Good
Sufficient
Good
Good
Sufficient
Sufficient
Sufficient
Sufficient
Sufficient
Low
Good
Good
Low
Sufficient
Sufficient
Low
Good
Low
Good
Sufficient
Good
Low
Good
Sufficient


In brief, the result of the study can be summarized as below:
1.      The student’s highest score for the test is 94 abd lowest is 36.
2.      There are 32 students (80%) got > 60 abd 8 students (20%) got < 60
3.      There are 15 (37,5%) students whose qualifications are good.
4.      There are 18 (45%) students whose qualification is sufficient or the students can answer the test. They are still in difficulty in understanding the text.
5.      There are 7 (7,5%) students whose qualification are low or the students can’t answer the test. See in the table below:
Score
Qualification
Number of students
Percentage
75-100
Good
15
15/40x100%=37,5%
50-74
Sufficient
18
18/40x100%= 45%
0-49
Low
7
7/70x100% = 7,5%

From this percentage, the mean score was calculated by dividing the sum of all the student’s of sample. To get the mean score of the students, in this research the writer used the following formula :
M =
Where : M       = Mean score
                        ∑X      = Total of student’s score
                        ∑N      = Total of students
                                    (Arikunto : 1995 : 138)

To calculate using this formula, for example :
Table above, it is identified that :
∑X = 2734
N    = 40
M =
    =
   = 68.35
From the mean score result the writer known that the student’s ability in comprehending short story is sufficient.
B.     Discussion of Study
Discussion of test result
By looking at the percentage scale table above the writer may state that the percentage of the students ability of the second year students of MTs. Darussalam n academic year 2010/2011 in comprehending short story are (37,5%) in the qualification is good, (45%) in the qualificationn sufficient, and (7,5%) in the qualification is low.
It is seen from the fact that attainment level of students of MTs. Darussalam is good. It is seen in the percentage that the students who got the score > 60 is 32 students and students got score < 60 is only 8 students from 40 students as sample.
In this study, the writer may state the attainment level students of MTs. Darussalam Academic Year 2010/2011 in comprehending short story are good.
  1. Students ability in comprehending short story are :
1.      Students finding the main idea in short story
2.      Students usually try to identifying short story
3.      Students try to inferencing the message of each short story.
  1. A number of factors might influence the ability are :
1.      Student's interest in learning English in general is enough; this is indicated by their attention during the class activity.
2.      Student’s motivation, they are motivated to learn English.
3.      The teacher have much strategies in teaching English, so that the students are motivated enough to learn English.
4.      The teacher sometimes use media for teaching, so it is make the students interested in learning English.

Discussion on the Questionnaire Answers
Discussion of Questionnaires
The explanations on the Questionnaire Answers  from question  number  1 until Number  17 as follow:
1.      Question number 1
Try to know students have short story  book to increase students ability in comprehending short story  and 35 students answered ‘YES’ and 5 students answered ‘NO’ from the result of research student’s have short story book can influence the ability of students in comprehending short story and we can know from the result of test that show the students in Mts Darussalam in second years were good so students have short story book in  a factors might influence to increase students ability in comprehending short story.
2.      Question number 2
Try to know whether students like to read short story book and 25 students answered ‘YES’ and 15 students answered ‘NO’.  activity in reading short story book is case of good students way to understand the short story, beside that students have to know a new vocabulary to increase the students ability in comprehending short story , from the result of research the students of Mts Darussalam at second years were good , so often to read  short story book is very influence of their.


3.      Question number  3
Try to know how long the students  can read short story book and 16 students answered ‘YES’ and 24 students answered ‘NO’. the activity in reading short story for a view hour is not good for the students because to make students boor so students should to read in a view minutes , so reading short story in a view hours is not good factor to influence ability in comprehending short story.
4.                  Question number  4
Try to know how to increase the students  vocabulary when they read short story and 17 students answered ‘YES’ and 23 students answered ‘NO’. from this cribbing of result questioner for number 4 show that almost all students have not dictionary , that influence when students found a new word in short story otherwise students confused to understand it.
5.                  Question number  5
Try to make students in understanding of short story reading and 30 students answered ‘YES’ and 10 students answered ‘NO’. the students are able to understand the short story because their often to read it and they also have dictionary otherwise if we show from result of questioner number 5 students are able to increase their ability in reading short story book .


6.      Question number  6
Try to know whether students can to analysis main idea in short story  and 35 students answered ‘YES’ and 5 students ‘NO’. from the result of questioner number 6 so that almost all of students have CD / Film in English language which very influence to help the students in comprehending short story in specific way, so using CD / Film in English language was very useful to comprehending short story.
7.      Question number  7
Try to make students motivations  in reading short story  and 27 students answered ‘YES’ and 13 students answered ‘NO’. from the result of questioner number 7 so that controlling from their parents and teacher is very influence in ability of students to comprehending short story.
8.      Question number  8
Try to know the ability of students  to understand what  the teacher explained in short story and 10  students answered ‘ YES’ and 30 students answered ‘NO’. the result of question number 8 , so a lot of students is not given the homework by their teacher otherwise students in able to know their knowledge in comprehending short story.
9.      Question number  9
Try  to know the influence of students learning specially in short story  and 20 students answered ‘YES’ and 20 students answered  ‘NO’ .the result of research show that teacher present an very influence in developing students in specially students activity to develop their knowledge in learning specially in short story.
10.              Question number  10
Try to know the students ability to do the homework specially in short story and 13 students answered ‘YES’ and 27 students answered ‘NO’. homework is one of media to know students knowledge in comprehending short story and from result of my research homework it is can be supporting students to study every day otherwise students know their knowledge in comprehending short story.
11.  Question number  11
Try to know the students ability in short story individually and 17 students answered ‘YES’ and 23 students answered ‘NO’. in questioner number 11 show that students unable to do the homework by them self because kind of the factor as follow :
-          Students can not to understand short story
-          Students have not supporting book like dictionary, notebook, cd, film and etc.
-          Students less in vocabulary .
Otherwise students can not to do homework by them self




12.              Question number  12
Try to know the students understand in teacher explanation regarding a short story and 30 students answered ‘YES’ and 10 students answered ‘NO’ consultations is one of the way is done by students to make easy in comprehending short story otherwise students make easier to do the homework.
13.              Question number  13
Try  to increase the students motivation to study about short story and 25 students answered ‘YES’ and 15 students answered ‘ NO’. homework should be check by the teacher when they give students homework to the students because to got motivations from it otherwise students more enthusiast when learning English language specially in short story.

14.              Question number  14
Try to know what the students ambitions to study English and 16 students answered ‘YES’ and 24 students answered ‘NO’. students learning English language to make the students know about English language, because English language is Universal language, and it is motivations for the students to understand English language



15.              Question number  15
Try to know the students knowledge in learning short story and 10 students answered ‘ YES’ and 30 students answered ‘NO’. score is not a priority aim to study English language but students study about English language because they want to able communicate with English language because English language is universal language.

16.              Question number  16
Try to know the students motivations to study English and 13 students answered ‘YES’ and 27 students answered ‘NO’. Work in company is not a priority aim to study English language but students study about English language because they want to able communicate with English language because English language is universal language.

17.              Question number  17
Try to know supplements to increase ability in learning short story specially in their school  and 35 students answered ‘YES’ and 5 students answered ‘NO , from discus of result question for number 17 show that almost all of library in their school have English book that might influence to increase the students ability in comprehending short story.


The data in this study had been taken from the questionnaires of the student’s ability in comprehending short story. The questionnaires were discussing about their main difficulties in comprehending short story. The questionnaires consists 17 questions for students to answer. So in this study, the writer collected the data from questionnaires to know the difficulties in comprehending short story for students of MTs. Darussalam, academic year 2010/2011 so we could solve or eliminate their major problem.
From the table percentage student’s questionnaires, the writer analyzed and discussed the student’s difficulties in comprehending short story. The research results showed the student’s had difficulties in comprehending short story. 40% of the student’s don't have a variety of' words, that made them have difficulties in reading short story, 42.5`% of the student’s have difficulties in finding the main idea of short story, 75% of student’s dislike studying English caused by the teacher doesn’t have motivating strategies in teaching, 87.5% of student's dislike reading short story, 25% of student’s don’t have ability in grammar to comprehending short story, 20% of student’s have difficulty in comprehending short story because don’t have dictionary.

CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

A.    Conclusion
The second year students of MTs. Darussalam Acedemic Year 2010/2011 are good in scanning reading ability. The reality from 40 students of sample, 32 students are good at scanning reading ability or 80% of students good and 8 students are not good at scanning reading ability or 20% students have not good standard achievement.
The conclusion proved the alternative hypotesis which stated “the second year students of MTs. Darussalam in Academic year 2010/2011 are good in comprehending short story can be assepted. While the null hypothesis which stated “the second year students of MTs. Darussalam in Academic Year 2010/2011 are not good at scanning reading ability” is rejected.
From the last score of the students in scanning reading ability, the writer uses three categories namely: good, sufficient and low. After the writer gives the total score of the studnets in scanning reading ability, proved that students in scanning reading ability are different.
From the table percentage student’s questionnaire we may conclude there many statement, however we came up with the most important summaries that are the student’s had difficulties in comprehending short story. 40% of the student’s don’t have a variety of words, that made them have difficulties in reading short story, 42.5% of the student’s have difficulties in finding the main idea of short story, 75% of student's dislike studying English caused by the teacher doesn’t have motivating strategies in teaching, 87.5% of student’s dislike reading short story, 25% of student’s don’t have ability in grammar to comprehending short story, 20% of student's have difficulty in comprehending short story because don’t have dictionary.

B.     Suggestion
There are two suggestion provided for the teacher and students of MTs. Darussalam
1.      For teachers
a.       For the teacher of MTs. Darussalam would have developed the language basic skill like speaking, listening, writing and reading Skill.
b.      The English teacher must be more active in classroom to give their students exercise in order to have a good skill at comprehending short story.
c.       Teacher should also be more creative in various activities as exercise for scanning skill.
2.      For students
a.       For English subject the students should know the reading as a language skill emphasized in scanning reading.
b.      The students must practice English reading especially in scanning
reading.
c.       With comprehending short story, the students can exercise to find the information about what they want to read.

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THE STUDENTS ABILITY IN COMPEREHENDING ENGLISH SHORT STORY AT SECOND YEAR STUDENT’S OF MTS. DARUSSALAM BEREMI

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