Saturday, December 15, 2012

kumpulan skripsi bahasa inggris TEACHING READING COMPREHENSION USING COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH THROUGH SONGS AND GAMES


TEACHING READING COMPREHENSION USING COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH THROUGH SONGS AND GAMES TO THE EIGTH YEAR STUDENTS OF
SMP



CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION


In this chapter the writer will explain about the background of study, the scope and limitation of study, the statement of problem, the purpose of study, the significant of study.

1.1. The Background of study.
Everybody ever read, hear, see, and tell something occur around us in daily life. As the human beings who live normally, we do our activities everyday. We never just quiet without do anything because we live in this world which full by things that we can do, see, hear, feel, and touch. The examples are reading newspaper, watching television, seeing a movie, and listening to the radio. Connoly (1951: 1) states that we read because of hunger of information or amusement or solace, owning appetite for truth seems to grow by what it feed on men read to discover them selves and their world, to asses their special rules in the universe, to learn the meaning of the personal struggles in which they are engaged in other worlds, we want to share experience.
To study reading is very important as the student of English department, because there are many advantages from study reading. By reading, we will be able to increase our knowledge on culture. If we read every rule in written English from our country, we will know what our country is like. For instance read novel from another country, we will get more knowledge about the other country with Its culture. In English Department, we study English do not only master of grammar or vocabulary but also master the culture of the target language. If we do not know about the culture, we will get difficulties to understand to communicate with a native speaker. Although, we may learn about English words through the dictionary, we still need to learn the English culture, so the communication can be understood and avoid misunderstanding.
In this modern developing age, people are demanded to facilitate the development of their knowledge in any sectors in order to be able to answer any supplicated problems related to the progress of any modern development, especially in Indonesia.
In Indonesia as developing country puts the education problem as essential and dominant points, for examples by building ns schools, adding facilities, such as new scientific books served in libraries, laboratory equipments, etc.
In line with the development of education, our government also tries hard to improve their skills by having in – service training held by the government. Here, teachers are acknowledged with communicative approach.
Communicative approach in teaching learning process is encouraged not only structure but also in reading comprehension.
To get a good achievement for English subject, students need perseverance and patience in learning it since most students regard this subject difficult, especially in Reading Comprehension with communicative approach. In this case students are demanded to have a hobby in reading and practicing communicative. That is why the teachers’ help is absolutely needed to increase their achievement.
Based on the above statements, the writer held a research to know how far the ability of the eight year students of SMP Brawijaya kepung – Kediri after being taught with reading comprehension by using communicative approach through songs and game. The writer therefore chooses the little dealing with the method used in the subject above is Teaching Reading songs and games to the eight year students of SMP Brawijaya Kecamatan Kepung –Kabupaten  Kediri.

1.2 The Scope and limitation of the Study
Since this thesis study on the great works of the eight year students of SMP Brawijaya Kepung-Kediri, the writer analyzes will mainly based on her personal view on the theories in some books, in other words, it is also done through a library research.
   The writer limits his research just teaching reading comprehension using communicative approach through songs and games to the eight year students of SMP Brawijaya Kepung-Kediri. In this thesis, the writer does not tell about theory of reading comprehension deeply but it is just a simple analysis.
To explain the scope of this problem. The problem limitation should be stated. The use of problem of limitation to avoid misunderstanding of this problem and as and important basis the further explanation of the problem. in this research it will be found whether a teacher can make his students’ achievement increase and their activity better in teaching learning process in the class. Because the students’ ability is different, so it can be argued whether all the eight year students ’ achievement of SMP Brawijaya get improved after being taught with Reading Comprehension through communicative approach or not.

1.3 The Statement of Problem
Based on the background of study and Problem limitation above the problem can be formulated as follows:
1.      By using communicative approach a teacher gives Reading Comprehension subject whether the students can answer the questions from the passage communicative and objectively either in oral or written form.
2.      If the method used by the teacher and students’ interest in reading and practicing communication have relation to the students’ achievement in learning Reading Comprehension.
3.      By using communicative approach, whether a teacher is able to attract student’s interest to be active in learning Reading Comprehension process in the class, or not

1.4    The Purpose of Study
In short, this examination wants to get information and explanation about how the eight year students of SMP Brawijaya, Kepung follow Reading Comprehension subject through communicative approach in class. In this thesis, therefore the writer chooses the title’ Teaching Reading Comprehension with communicative approach through sings and games to the eight year students of SMP Brawijaya, Kepung has general and special objectives.

1. General Objective
The general objective of this research is to get a complete description about the ability of the eight year students of SMP Brawijaya Kepung Kecamatan Kepung Kabupaten Kediri in achieving their achievement/success during learning Reading Comprehension.

2. Special Objective
The special objective wants to be achieved in this thesis is to try to apply what the writer has (teaching method). The writer also wants to know the ability of the eight of SMP Brawijaya Kepung in answering questions from the discourse either orally or written objective form. The writer also wants to know the students’ interest in following teaching learning process of Reading Comprehension with communicative approach through songs and games. From this activity, they writer will know which students like reading and which students do not like reading.
 1.5   The Significance of the Study
Principally, the uses of language in a school, family, society are something concessions and influence, to each other.
The other use of this examination, especially for the writer himself is as a principle to apply the teaching of English in a higher rank. It is also useful for the library of IKIP BUDI UTOMO MALANG for its bibliography dealing with the improvement of education field.
By this study, first the writer really hopes that after reading the thesis specificly, the reader can add their knowledge about how to behave and how to overcome all problems in surviving in the school life.
Second, it is intended to help student of English Department specially to better understand fundamentals analyzes which will be useful in preparation of thesis writing. And also exercise them in discussing something in English language, so the students will be more active in the class.
Third, for English teacher, it is supposed that reading comprehension will be more considered in the teaching learning process. From this thesis, it will make the teacher knows and understands the characteristics of his students, so he can handle during teaching learning process well.
The teacher’s role in a school especially in Junior High School also confirms very much increasing English subject with communicative   approach. In supporting the Teaching Learning process at school, teacher should try hard to be more active in giving a chance to the students to practice speaking English.
The forth, For the National Education Department. It is supported that teaching reading comprehension will be more considered in the teaching learning process. From this thesis, it will make the students increase their knowledge about English culture of English language itself.
The last, the writer also expects to encourage readers to be eager to read as many books as possible on many kinds of reading to acquire knowledge or moral values, understand the other culture, and also by reading many kinds of books can make us understand what kinds of reading can be classified into the good method and what the criteria of qualified teaching reading comprehension are.


CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE


 2.1   The assumption underlining communicative approach.
As we know that reading newspapers and magazines, watching television, listening to the radio and seeing movie is very interesting. From all of those activities, we can feel something as like happy, sad enjoy, love, hate, fear and worry. And it is called literature. Robit and Jacob ( 1987: 2) state that literature exercises our emotions through the arousal of interest, concern, tension, excitement, hope, fear, regret, laughter, and sympathy. By reading, we will find another hypothesis through the story that has been read by us.
In this chapter, the writer will discuss about review of the related literature or about the teaching especially teaching English in the class. Teaching in the class can be achieved with traditional system, namely classical system or new system. He also tries to express the experts’ idea of education as the main ideas in order to be used as the basic premise in presenting hypothesis.
Therefore, the writer gives some primary theories the underlining meanings related to the main problems to be discussed in this thesis.
The main problems which relate to primary theories the underlining meanings related to the main problems to be discussed in this thesis.
1.      The basic assumption underlining communicative approach.
2.      The communicative approach steps.
3.      Learning achievement.
4.      Learning achievement factors.
5.      Some theoretical assumptions.

2.2 The assumption underlining communicative approach.
-     Language is a system for expression the meaning.
-     The primary function of language is for interaction and communication.
-     The structure of language reflects it’s functional and communicative used.
-     The primary units of language are not really it’s grammatically and structural feature, but categories of functional and communicative meaning as exemplified in discourse.

2.3 The communicative approach steps.
-     Presentation of a brief dialogue or several mini dialogues.
-     Oral practice of each utterance of the dialogue.
-     Questions and answers based on the dialogue topic and situation itself.
-     Questions and answers related to the students personal experience but centered on the dialogue theme.
-     Study of the basic communicative expression in the dialogue or one of the structures which exemplify the function.
-     Learner discovery generalization or rules.
-     Oral recognition, interpretative activities.
-     Oral production activities.
-     Copying of the dialogue.
-     Sampling the written homework assignment given.
-     Evaluation of learning (oral only).

2.4 Learning achievement.
Actually there are some meanings and understanding from learning achievement, but here the writer will take one of the understandings from that statement. Learning achievement is the result having been reached by the learners after achieving learning activities. It is logical that learning is the learners’ problem even for everybody from their childhood until adult. Learning is the most important thing for humans’ life.
Related to the above opinion, therefore it can be understood that every change obtained by the learners is not thoroughly called learning. That change, however appears from his maturity or his age. Some say that learning is mark or score gained from what the learners have done by themselves, in relation to the hobby and communicative practice with the method used by the teacher in presenting Reading Comprehension to his learners.
Because of that, the motivation to study Reading Comprehension by using communicative approach used by the teacher will have the most important role in attaining successful learning for the learners especially in learning Reading Comprehension.

2.4 Learning achievement factors.
The factors influencing learning achievement are from outside can be an instrument used in learning and can be environment which can influence them, and the factors coming from the learners’ physics and the motivation and the way to think such as:
Calm sense, unquiet sense and those will influence the learners in getting success of learning achievement.

2.5 Some theoretical assumption
The basic consideration of the theoretical assumption is the consideration which has to be proved its truth. In learning a language with communicative approach, especially Reading Comprehension, the teacher must be able to decide the most suitable method for his students. The choice of good method will influence the success of learning teaching process.

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODS


Identification of variables
In this thesis the writer uses two variables, namely the first variable:
Learning Reading Comprehension with communicative approach through songs and games. This variable implies the teaching activity of a teacher.
Learning achievement of eight year students of SMP Brawijaya Kepung Kecamaatan Kepung – Kediri. This variable is influenced by the first variable or the success of this variable depends on the first variable.

Place and time of research
The place of research where the writer did was in SMP Brawijaya Kecamatan Kepung Kabupaten Kediri. The writer chose this school because very possible to have a research.
The time   of research was 5 days, from the 3rd of May until 7th of May 2007. The process of research was by getting information and collecting data from the Head Master and the teachers.

3.3 Population and sample
Population is the entire observed object.
It is like Raka roni's opinion, he told that all of existing individual, that ever or may be exist that become that real object of an observation.
And in this observation the population is all of the students of SMP Brawijaya Kecamatan Kepung Kabupaten Kediri.
The meaning of sample is part of individual that can become deputy of character, situation and ability all of individuals that become population so this sample of this observation are class 8A students of SMP Brawijaya Kecamatan Kepung Kabupaten Kediri.
3.4 Technique of data collection
When collecting data in a research, many methods are used by each researcher. The technique used in this research was questionnaire and tests. The aim of using  questionnaire in this research  was method ask to know how far the students’ hobby in learning Reading Comprehension especially using communicative approach, and the tests method was used to know whether students were successful or not with their learning method  especially in learning Reading Comprehension by the students of SMP Brawijaya Kepung Kecamatan Kepung – Kediri.

3.5 Technique of data analysis
The data analysis was used to draw the conclusion of the research data. In analyzing, the writer used statistical technique especially in analyzing the main data of questionnaire answer test’ answers of the eight year students of SMP Brawijaya Kecamatam Kepung – Kediri.
The result will be described quantitavely in the form of number which will describe its variable. The procedures of the data analysis are:
To rank score attained by each student or respondent. The way to determine the score by using the following:

                                         P =  S   X 100 %
                                               S I

Notes
P = Presents
S = Score attained by student
S I = the high score
              
CHAPTER IV
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


4.1  Variable Description
According to the title there are two variable in research they are: independent variable and dependent variable. Independent variable is ’ Teaching Reading Comprehension with communicative approach through songs and games ’ and as its dependent variable is ’ Learning achievement of the eight year students of SMP Brawijaya Kepung –Kediri.
In obtaining the data of Learning Reading Comprehension, the writer used questionnaire and test method. The use of questionnaire method was to know how far the learners’ hobby in Learning Reading Comprehension especially with communicative approach. The writer used the objective test in collecting the needed data.
From the result of the tests and questionnaire, the teacher will managed than to classify the learners’ achievement, the good ones and the bad ones in Learning Reading Comprehension. Then, the writer used criterion research that the correct answer got 5 score for each objective test item. The total numbers of those items were 20. So the total scores of the tests are 100 for the learners who answer all the tests correctly, and for the learners who answers all the tests wrongly will get zero score (0).To know the range of the classification the writer used the following criteria:

A. 90 – 100   :  very good
B. 70 – 89     : good
C. 60 – 69     : sufficient
D. 40 – 59     : insufficient/bad
E.   0 – 39     : very bad

Based on the above classification, we know that the learners who got the lowest scores had bad learning achievement.

To know the results of questionnaire data, the writer determined a certain criterion. The learners who answer gladly got score 5, the learners who did not answer got score 2 and the learners who did not answer very gladly got score 1. The learners who answered 20 items very gladly got score 100, the learners who answered gladly got score 80, and the learners who did not answer gladly get score 40 and the learners who did not answer very gladly got score 20. To know the result of the above classification rank, the writer used the following criteria:

A.    90 – 100 ( very good )
B.     70 – 89   ( good )
C.     60 – 69   ( sufficient)
D.    40 – 59   ( insufficient)
E.       0 – 39  ( very bad)

Based on the result of the above classification, the learners who have good interest in Reading Comprehension will have very good learning achievements, but for those who do not like learning Reading Comprehension, will have sufficient learning achievements and the learners who do not have motivation in learning Reading Comprehension will have very bad learning achievement.
In order to get much clearer idea, the result of questionnaire data can be seen in the data following table
Table 4.I

The questionnaire score list of the eight year students of SMP Brawijaya Kepung Kecamatan Kepung Kabupaten Kediri.
NO
NAME
SCORE
CLASSIFICATION
1.
AGUNG PRAYITNO
86
GOOD
2.
AGUS HARIYANTO
88
GOOD
3.
ALIM ANDRIANTO
85
GOOD
4.
ANDI AGI PRASETYO
92
VERY GOOD
5.
BUDI SLAMET
89
GOOD
6.
DANY ANDI SETYAWAN
83
GOOD
7.
EDI PURWANTO
88
GOOD
8.
EDY SANTOSO
84
GOOD
9.
EKO INDRA PUJARKO
86
GOOD
10.
ERIKS RIKDIAN ORINA
90
VERY GOOD
11.
ERNA YUNITA
85
GOOD
12.
FINDI KUSMIRANTI
81
GOOD
13.
FRANSISKUS TANTOK HADI
78
GOOD
14.
HENDY PRASTYO
96
VERY GOOD
15.
IKA RETNO WULANSARI
84
GOOD
16.
KRISDIANINGSIH
85
GOOD
17.
KRISTINA TIA SELIA
87
GOOD
18.
LIA KRISTANTI
88
GOOD
19.
LISTRA MARIYANA
86
GOOD
20.
LUSI WULANDARI
85
GOOD
21.
RITA UMAMI
83
GOOD
22.
RUDI HARTONO
88
GOOD
23.
RUDI SATRIO UTOMO
83
GOOD
24.
SISILIA NOVI SILA MELANIA
85
GOOD
25.
SUKARIYANTO
86
GOOD
26.
THERESIA ERIK ELIDA
87
GOOD
27.
TRI AGUS WALUYO
89
GOOD
28.
VICCEN ALDERA
88
GOOD
29.
WALUYO
85
GOOD
30.
WIKE WULANDARI
77
GOOD

                                   
From the above data the total score having been achieved by SMP Brawijaya Kepung kecamatan Kepung kabupaten Kediri in the questionnaire data is 2577. From total score, we can see that the average score (Mean) is obtained from the following formula:


                         Mean =  Total  Score       because total learners are : 30
                                     Total  Learners                          

                         So Mean =        2577
                                                   30
                                                  
                                        =          86

30 learners from the questionnaire data in table 4.1 can be classified as follows:
27 learners can be classified good and 3 learners can be classified very good.

Table 4.2

The score list Reading Comprehension of the eight year students of SMP Brawijaya Kepung Kecamatan Kepung Kabupaten Kediri.
                           
NO
NAME
SCORE
CLASSIFICATION
1.
AGUNG PRAYITNO
80
GOOD
2.
AGUS HARIYANTO
70
GOOD
3.
ALIM ANDRIANTO
60
SUFFICIENT
4.
ANDI AGI PRASETYO
80
GOOD
5.
BUDI SLAMET
90
VERY GOOD
6.
DANY ANDI SETYAWAN
60
SUFFICIENT
7.
EDI PURWANTO
90
VERY GOOD
8.
EDY SANTOSO
80
GOOD
9.
EKO INDRA PUJARKO
70
GOOD
10.
ERIKS RIKDIAN ORINA
80
GOOD
11.
ERNA YUNITA
80
GOOD
12.
FINDI KUSMIRANTI
80
GOOD
13.
FRANSISKUS TANTOK HADI
80
GOOD
14.
HENDY PRASTYO
80
GOOD
15.
IKA RETNO WULANSARI
80
GOOD
16.
KRISDIANINGSIH
80
GOOD
17.
KRISTINA TIA SELIA
70
GOOD
18.
LIA KRISTANTI
50
BAD
19.
LISTRA MARIYANA
70
GOOD
20.
LUSI WULANDARI
80
GOOD
21.
RITA UMAMI
40
BAD
22.
RUDI HARTONO
60
SUFFICIENT
23.
RUDI SATRIO UTOMO
40
BAD
24.
SISILIA NOVI SILA MELANIA
50
BAD
25.
SUKARIYANTO
70
GOOD
26.
THERESIA ERIK ELIDA
80
GOOD
27.
TRI AGUS WALUYO
90
VERY GOOD
28.
VICCEN ALDERA
80
GOOD
29.
WALUYO
60
SUFFICIENT
30.
WIKE WULANDARI
80
GOOD

From the above, data the total score giving been achieved by the eight year students of SMP Brawijaya Kepung kecamatan Kepung Kabupaten Kediri in Reading Comprehension by using communicative approach is : 2160. From the total score, we can see its average Mean from the following formula:

                        Mean   =  Total  Score     so from the total learners : 30
                                       Total learners

                        So   Mean =  2160
                                             30
     = 72

Based on the data in Table 4.2, the learners’ capability in Reading Comprehension using communicative approach can be classified as follows:
-     3 learners can be classified very good
-     19 learners have good classification
-     4l learners have sufficient classification
-     4 learners are bad.
4.2  The conclusion on the interpretation of data analysis.
After the writer knew the result of data analysis, the interpretation of data analysis conclusion can be classified as follows:
Based on score test collected, there was indication that achievement in learning Reading Comprehension with communicative approach, the eight year students of SMP Brawijaya Kepung Kecamatan Kepung Kabupaten Kediri can indicate very great difference between the result of the questionnaire and the result of the test made by the learners. Therefore, it can be seen that the learners who like learning Reading Comprehension have good achievement and the learners who do not like Reading Comprehension have bad achievement in learning Reading Comprehension. That is why the use of communicative approach in learning Reading Comprehension can influence the teacher’s success in increasing his learners’ learning achievement.

CHPATER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION


Conclusion
Based on the result of research on the eight year students of SMP Brawijaya Kepung Kecamatan Kepung Kabupaten Kediri in 2007, the score of the test between 90 to100. It can be concluded that on all average success range of learners can be given score mark (limit score). Based on the data collected from the Table, all learners classification to the limit classification between 0 – 39. It is a manner that very important role in teaching reading comprehension, because:
-          The lesson will be very interesting.
-          Educational process will be variegated.
-          In practice, the teacher is able to change situation especial and quickly.
-          The teacher is able to give the real understanding to the students.
-          It can motivate the students to study more diligent.
-          Student concentration will be focused to the lesson.
As like explained by the researcher above that communicative approach through songs and games has important role in teaching reading comprehension, but the researcher still pay attention to the role of the other important manner, such as library and students creation. So that, it is clear that communicative approach teaching method, reading and practice communication will grow learners ’ interest of the success in Learning Reading Comprehensions process.

Suggestion
Based on conclusions above, it can be said that teaching reading comprehension by use communicative approach through songs and games was good enough, in order that the researcher suggest, follow:
-          It is better if the teacher use communicative approach through songs and games intensively in teaching reading comprehension.
-          The teacher has to be able chose a method using communicative approach program will be as level as what the teacher will be reached.
-          The teacher has to be able increase motivation of the students as maximally as possible and the teacher has to realize that high motivation will be increase attention of the students for study English especially reading comprehension.
Finally by use communicative approach through songs and games we do hope teaching reading comprehension can be reached as we hope.


BIBLIOGRAPHY
1.      AJ Thomson and Martinet, 1980, A Practical English Grammar, Oxford University Press.

2.      Balai Pustaka, Pedoman Umum Bahasa Indonesia yang Disempurnakan, 1982, Jakarta Depdikbud.

3        Dwyer. Margaret. A, 1983, Some strategies for improving reading efficiency, English Teaching Forum, V. 21. No 3, Washington, D.C. 20402: U. S. Government Printing office.

3.      Frencies, W. Nelson, The Structure of American English Grammar, 1958, Co. New york, The Ronald Press.

4.      George Yule, The Study of Language, Lousiana State University.
5.      Echols, John M. & & Hassan Shadely. Kamus Inggris Indonesia. Jakarta: PT. Gramedia.

6.      Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1982, Understanding Reading, New York: New York   Inc.

7.      Keraf, Gorys, Dr, Tata Bahasa Indonesia,1984, Ende, Nusa Indah, Flores.
8.      Richard, Jack C. and Theodore S.Rogers, 1986, Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching, Cambridge: University Press.

9.      Suharsisni Artkuanto, Dr, 1984, Dasar-dasar Evaluasi Pendidikan, Jakarta: PT. BINA AKSARA.

10.  Ward, James, 1980, Techniques for teaching reading, English Teaching Forum, V. 18. No. 2, Washington, D. C. 20402: U.S. Government Printing Office.

11.  Wati, rochmah, pryla, Spd, 2005. Material for Reading. Jombang.


TEACHING READING COMPREHENSION USING COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO THE EIGTH YEAR STUDENTS

0 comments:

Post a Comment


Get this widget!