Tuesday, December 11, 2012

kumpulan skripsi bahasa inggris AN ANALYSIS USING CODE MIXING AND CODE SWITCHING IN SASAK CONVERSATION


AN ANALYSIS USING CODE MIXING AND CODE SWITCHING IN SASAK CONVERSATION OF TELOKE VILLAGE BATULAYAR  2012/2013


CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1        Background of Study
Language as means of communication plays very important role for human being life because English is asoneofinternasional language very important people, from the speaker’s to listener by sounds or gesture, whether playing. Making love, or make dishwashers. language is a mediator used by people to transfer what they have in their mind to others such as talk to friends, associates, wife and husbands, lovers, teacher, our parents face to face or over the telephone, etc. language is system of communication consisting of sounds, words and grammar used by the people of particular country or profession   (Cambridge, 2008: 3,ciled in. Rosidy, 2010).
According to the explanation above the possessions in language is more than any other attribute, distinguishes human of from other animals. To understand human being, it must be understandood that language that is created by human, because language and society are and mutual two things that can be separated from media of communications to interact or to understand each other. According to philosophy expressed that language that is the source of human life and power (Stephanus, 2005 : 8,ciled in. Rosidy, 2010). Human being life use language for an almost unlimited number of purposes. So, it is useful to look at the function of human beings use language. In the following section the writer will discuss some lower level or function and higher level functions. According to Djawani (2005: 79,ciled in. Rosidy,2010). divided language into two parts:
1.         Lower level functions
a.    Physiological functions. This function related to the use of language to release nervous and physical energy.
b.    Communicating function. To communicate ideas and feelings create social bonding and cooperate.
c.    Identifying function. To identify and classify things and experiences.
d.   Recording function. Language provides a record which is accumulated into an individual and collective data.
e.    Reasoning function. As instrument of thought it is a fact that the majority of human thinking is done with words.
f.     Pleasure function. Language function to give delight.
2.         Higher level functions
a.    Ideational function. It is an identifying things, or providing a record, or expressing thoughts, human being use language as a symbolic code to present the world that they experience.
b.    Interpersonal function. Using language as a means of communication such as for purpose of socializing or releasing energy.
c.    Poetic function. That is language human beings take into account not only the process of conceptualizing the world and interacting with it.
d.   Textual function. Related to human ability to construct texts out of utterances and writings.
Nowdays the influence of globalization may create the culture, life style, fade away and especially can make effect to language use, that can be make the people in society use different mode of language. Such as: the use of code switching and code mixing in a conversation. Additionally the community in basically are bilingual and multilingual.
Indonesia is one of the bilingual country and as one of developing country in the world which has hundred thousand of islands with the millions of populations which has multifarious culture and language, Indonesia  range from Sabang to Marauke. Lombok Island is one of a part of Indonesian islands that has different culture and language than the other. Therefore, most people in Lombok are bilingual, and speak their own ethnic language (tribes language), it is called Sasak language. As well as the national language, Bahasa Indonesia, which are taught in school and use as their formal and official mode of communication (Lyon, et, all.,2001:236).  
Apart from those, one of the most important phenomena is influenced in language is the use of code mixing by the people who live in Teloke, Batulayar, West Lombok, in their daily interaction such as:
A: Bro, ente shift night bareh?
B: Next time wah te lalo jalan
A: Amun tomorrow gimana, teme ndek?
B : Holiday mbe te aning jemaq ?
Furthermore, the researcher will do this scientific research in order that the researcher wants to know about the people especially in Teloke, Batulayar mixing code and what are the forms of words?


1.2     Statements Of The Problem
Based on the explanation about, the roseareher has two things that will bediscussed fartherthrough the researech, they are questions:
1.        What are the forms of code mixing that people use in daily conversation especially in Teloke, village Batulayar?
2.        What do people use code mixing in daily conversation in Teloke, village, Baturlayar?

1.3.    Purpose Of The Study
Refering to formulation of the problems mentioned above, the purpouse of study can be stated as folows:
1.        To find out the froms of  code mixing in that the people use in daily conversation in Teloke village, Batulayar?
2.        To describe people use code mixing in daily conversation in Teloke Batulayar?

1.4         Significance Of The Study
The result of this study is expected to give contibution theoritically and practically bots the writer and other researcher
1.      Theoretical sigificance as reference for other researchers who have the same interest in language study, especially in code-mixing.
2.      The practical significance here as documentation language conserveof traditional language in Teloke, village, Batulayar.


1.5         Scope Of The Study
This writing focused on the analysis of sasak english code mixing case study inTteloke village, Batulayar. Because Batulayar is one of developing region especially advance in tourism.

1.6         Definition of Key Terms
1.      An analysis               :  is a study of planed complex of procedure to decide the quick, the most efficient order for carrying out the procedure. Sudjiman (1986: 26,ciled in. Rosidy, 2010) said that analyzing means to analyze or to explain in detail literary work element whose purpose is to understand the unity as whole elements.
2.      Sasak                        :  is language that is used by most of the people staying and living in lombok island .
3.      Code-mixing            : According to Wardhaugh (1983: 10, ciled in. Rosidy, 2010) code mixing is two languages used together by the conversant to the extent that they change from one language into another in the course of single utterance.
4.      Teloke-Batulayar      : is one of the villages in Batulayar sub district - West Lombok regency. Administratively, it consists of 7 hamlets. According to the census in 2010, the population of the Batulayar, village is 5. 100 people.

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1     The Nature of  Language
This researcher realizes that before doing the research, should find some related theories to support in this research. This theory will be under lyd requirement to solve the problem. Therefore in this writing will apply the following related theories: language, language and society, language and culture, bilingualism, multilingualism, code switching and code mixing.
Language is one of human’s devices which have an inportant role. One communicates to each other by using language. Communicaton is defined as a process by using assign and convey meanig in an attempt to crate shared understanding. This process requires afvast repertorie of skills in interpersona and interpersonal processing in listening, obseving, spaking, questionong, analyzing, andevaluating. And there is a set of universal constraints on all communication (Goffman, 1976, ciled in. Rosidy, 2010).  

2.2     Language
Everybody knows that human being has two roles in life, namely: human being as individual creature and as social one. As a social creature, of course needs a tool or a device for communication or even for interaction. That’s why human being life creates a language for interacting and communicating with others. Shortly He uses a language as a device to do these things. In relation to this, Wardhaugh defines a language as “a system of arbitrary vocal symbol used for human communication” Brown, (1987:4, ciled in. Rosidy, 2010). Wardhaugh’s definition seems to focus on human communication possessed by animals.
Meanwhile, Pei also focuses his definition on human communication. He says: “a language is a system of communication by sound, operating through organ of speech and meaning among members of given community and using vocal symbol processing arbitrary conventional meaning” (Pei, 1966:14 in Brown, 1987:4,ciled in. Rosidy, 2010).
a.        Language and Society
The science that learns about relationship between human life with the society it is called sociolinguistic because sociolinguistic according to Pride and Holmes (1972 , ciled in. Jufiandi, 2010) states sociolinguistics is study of language as part as culture and society. Sociolinguistic highlights the overall of the problem of related to social organization of language, not only including just using of  language, but also language attitudes, behavioral to language. this definition wish to draw sociolinguistic to sociology classifier than linguistic, in study of sociolinguistic it is true there is possibility of people start from social problem correlate with language, but can also go into effect on the contrary: starting from Language than hook with symptom of society.
b.        Language and Culture
Anwar (1990:100, ciled in. Rosidy, 2010) assets that language is an abstract system can be thought as link between sounds and meaning. Sound without meaning is called noises and meaning without expression in form of sounds and kinetics is non existence as fur as the community is concerned. All human being posses’ language: it is the most distinctive mark of man language permits practically all-human activity both social and private use language virtually that involve other people.
Human even use language (silent) in talking of their selves (thinking or internal speech) there are of course social activities in which speaking is prohibited or restricted. we will explore some of the relation of language to human social behavior and pattern or culture. Batulayar community has the different and especially language and dialect through their mother tongue, we can recognize and identify when some of them made a conversation from their voice.
c.         Bilingualism and Multilingualism
The term bilingualism is a special case of language acquisition or learning formerly, Bloomfield in Chaer and Agustina (1995:11) explains bilingualism as the ability to use two languages equally well a speaker as native speaker mastering language. Weinreich (1968:136) defined the even that used to language or more with the change that used by the speaker. This concept of bilingualism raises some problems, because first, measuring one’s some mastery to ward two languages he used is difficult. Second, it’s questionable whether it is possible for speaker to use second language as well as he uses his native language.
In another words, a person who has ability to speak three or more languages is called multilingual (Pateda, 1990:57). In many parts, if the world it is quite normal that people can speak several languages. Meanwhile, in Indonesia as a part of the world, we found many multilingual. These multilingual are divided into two kinds: those who speak a native language, Indonesian and other regional languages; and those who speak Indonesian and other foreign languages such as Arabic, Dutch and English, etc.
Bilingualism exists in every area of Indonesia. Bilingualism is resulted from language acquirement, which often happens in community; consist of assorted language and cultural background (Arzusma, 2009: 8).
Bilingual speakers often code mix from one language with the other language especially when both languages are used or exist in the environment this article explores the potential theoretical explanations for this language behavior. The people who live in Teloke, Batulayar area one of them are bilingualism and multilingualism community. It is used especially by young people in Teloke, Batulayar community using many languages through a speaker or a society is referred as confirmed bilingualism or multilingualism
d.        National Language
National language and official language are best understood as two concepts or legal categories with ranges of meaning that may coincide, or may be intentionally separate. Obviously a stateless nation is not in the position to legislate on official language but their languages only through de facto use or by historical association with particular nation.
Based on the Malay trade dialect, Bahasa Indonesia is the national language of the republic of Indonesia. It unites the over 242 million people (2005 estimate) of Indonesia, whose native tongue may be one of the over 300 distinctive languages or regional dialects. Older people may speak Dutch and English in the foreign language that is a choice in business, tourism and study.
It said, “Indonesian is legalized as the national language”. In additional that particular position for Indonesian language becomes reason for many people in bilingualism. Accordingly Indonesian is used in all part of public interaction unifying diversity of multi ethnic or inter-regional languages. It does not mean, however many people quit using their mother tongue in social interaction. (Indonesian 1945, constitution Chapter XV, article 36, ciled in.Yakin, 2011).
e.         Local Language
National seminar about the regional language in Jogjakarta 1976 declared that regional language is also used besides national language: for interaction or interregional relationship. People in Indonesia use one of their mother-tongue since they grow up and follow to study Indonesian in kindergarten and elementary schools. Then mother tongue in first language and Indonesian is the second language.
Nababan (1992:18) describes, “Regional language is the original without Indonesia”, regional language is used by original ethnic living firs in that region (local people), and that language is adapted on the situation and their cultural background for along time.
Sasak is language that is used by most of the people staying and living in Lombok Island as a means of communication. It is Sasak which society interacts and pass their needs.

2.3.       Code Mixing and Code Switching
The important code switching and mixing in the study of language contacts has long been recognized. Up till now, the data on code switching and mixing have generally been analyzed in terms of one of the following approaches: (a) the linguistic form of code switching and mixing, and (b) the sociolinguistic functions which determine what the influences are and why code mixing and code switching take place (Willian, 2006: 86, side in. Rosidy, 2010).
Malmaker (1992:61-62) divides mixtures of linguistic system into two (1) switching code, namely changing over from one language to other language in one sentences or conversation: and (2) code mixing, namely the use of language elements, especially noun and noun phrase, from one language through special utterance to other language. Code mixing or interference relate at formal element use language code like phoneme, morpheme, word and phrase, and sentence in context from one language to other (Beards, 1982: 40).
Switching code and code mixing in context and situation can be seen language clearly visible form, nature, and causing factors, and also code mixing or code switching is the phenomenon which rarely to get the attention by the people in society.
In order to make easy for the readers to understand about code switching and code mixing, the writers make limitation between both of them:
a.         Code Mixing
Code mixing is two languages use together by the conversant to extent that they change from one language into another the course of a single utterance Wardhaugh (1986:103). It means that code mixing occur when pieces of one language are used the speaker is basically using another. The language pieces taken from another are often words. But they can also be phrases or larger units.
Nababan (1982: 32 ciled in. Rosidy, 2010). gives a point that circumstance causes language become dissimilar when people mix two (or more) languages or model of language in the situation in which language bearing the mixing of language. In state of that way, only relaxation of speaker and/or his custom pay attention. This habit is referred to as code mixing. In formal language situation code mixing seldom happens. The upper most characteristic form of code mixing becomes in a state of that way, this matter is caused by the lack of correct expression in using that language, so that require to use word or expression for other language (foreign language).
Code mixing emphasis hybridization, and code switching emphasis movement from one language to another. Mixing and switching probably occur to some extent in the speech of all bilinguals and multilingual, so that there is a sense in which person capable of using to language, a and b, has three system available for use: A, B and C (a range of hybrid forms that can be used with comparable bilinguals but not with monolinguals speakers of A or B).
Code mixing is also visible from some various views:
1.    Type of code mixing: mixing language, mixing of language mode, and mixing of speech level.
2.    Form of code mixing: form of phoneme form of morpheme, form of words and phrase and form of sentence.
3.    Nature of code mixing: code mixing is non permanent, code mixing remain to or permanent state.
4.    Factor causing code mixing: informal situation or relaxation, habit not finding the correct expression in language wearied  .
Hauggen and Beards more (1982:46) report that most research findings indicate that the easiest element noun phrase mixed from one language to other language, while structure or languages function seldom undergo code mixing. Haugen and Beardmore (1982:46) report that easy language elements after non phrases are verb, adjective, adverb, preposition and interjection: while pronoun and article show power no to mix with the language element.
b.        Code Switching
Code switching represents one of the usage language forms of a bilingual that is usage more than one language by a bilingual which say by choose one of the language code adapted with situation (Hudson, 1996: 51-53). There are two types of code switching that is situational code-switching and metaphorical code switching (Hudson, 1996:52-53; Wardhaugh, 1986: 102-103; Istiati, 1985).
Situational code switching is the existence of change of language take place caused by the change of situation a bilingual using one language in one situation say and use other language in other situation (Hudson, 1996:52; and Wardhaugh,1986:102-103).
According to Hudson (1996), code switching this type of named situational code switching because change of languages by a bilingual always at the same time with change from one situation of external for example : when they talk to family members are different when they talk with neighbors  in external situation of other.
The code switching such as situational code switching type of happened especially because of background and topic. Besides, age, gender, knowledge of speaker, social status, and Tribes determine also the happening of displacing code. Thereby, social principle of culture represent dominant factor
Type of second code is Metaphorical code-switching, that is when a change of topic require a change of language used ( Wardhaugh, 1986:103). This code switching happened if native feel that with a few sentences or word which saying in other language, hence he earn to emphasize what wanted so that will get attention of its hearer ( Istiati. 1985:45).
This code switchin is shown by Bloom and  Gumperz (1971, in Hudson 1996) at research both of them in a town of North Norwegian Hansberger.
2.3.1        Code Mixing Phenomena In Batulayar
In the middle of society language has mode or variation that use by the native speaker, it can be cause of the social background, culture, and situation. The native speaker can make choice decided the language using, in sociolinguistic point of view situation of language in bilingual and multilingual community are interested in research with the existence of some language in verbal interaction and development of language in the middle of society its can make interesting to do research at all times, such as the use of code mixing in Teloke, Batulayar.
Grosjean (1982) suggests some reasons for code mixing. For example, some bilinguals mix two languages when they cannot find proper words or expressions or when there is no appropriate translation for the language being used. Also, their interlocutors, situations, messages, attitudes, and emotions generate code-mixing.
There are many factors influencing the language development. One of them is the frequent use of the national language in the community. The local language that they learn in daily interaction also influence the language development though their children are not interested in using their mother tongue or the other because their environment as tourism development use the lingua franc that is language used for communication between people whose first language differ. These situations make them bilingualism or mix code in their social communication (Lyon, 2001: 105).
The phenomenon in using bilingual language in Batulayar (Sasak language) community has many reasons. Using Batulayar language and Indonesian in daily community interaction, especially among the young people depends on situation. They more often use Indonesian language
The another current view suggest that language dominance (which language is used more frequently) plays an important role in code mixing for example Batulayar (Sasak language)-Indonesian language are bilinguals report more linguistic interference (code mixing) when they communicate in Sasak language, their first language, and little or no code mixing when they communicate in Indonesian, their second language, in other words, these bilinguals code mixing more when they use Indonesian. Empirical research support these observations psycholinguistic evidence also suggest that bilingual retrieve Indonesian code mixing of words when they listen to Sasak language sentences. Whereas they are slower to retrieve Sasak language code mixing words are actually retrieved faster than monolingual words, but if the code mixing word is in Indonesian and the language of communication is Sasak language, these result suggest a reliance on bilinguals second language as opposed to their first language, hoe are these results explained? The general idea behind this view is that after a certain level of fluency and frequent use the second language, language shift occurs in which the second language behaves as if it were the bilingual’s first language. In other words, the second language becomes more readily accessible and bilinguals come rely on it more. Thus regardless of which language the bilingual learned first, the more active (dominant) language determines which mental dictionary is going to be accessed faster
In short, code mixing maybe indicate difficulties in retrieval (access) affected by combination of closely-related factors such as language use (i.e., how often the first language is used) and word frequency (i.e., how much particular word is used in the language). Finally, the notion that people code mixing as strategy in order word to be better understood and enhance the listener comprehension
In this scientific writing, the writer would like to focus on the form of code mixing such as mixing language, mixing of language mode and factors causing of code mixing informal situation or relaxation.

2.3.2        The Notion of Code Mixing
Code-mixing are well-known traits in the speech pattern of the average bilingual in any human society the world over. Code here as defined by Ayeomoni (2006) will be taken as a verbal component that can be as small as a morpheme or as comprehensive and complex as the entire system of language. It has been variously termed “code alternation”, “language mixing” or “language alternation”. Several scholars have attempted to define code-mixing. Bokamba (1989), for instance, defines that code-mixing is the embedding of various linguistic units such as affixes (bound morphemes), words (unbound morphemes), phrases and clauses from a co-operative activity where the participants, in order to infer what is intended, must reconcile what they hear with what they understand.
This paper will use the definition of code mixing suggested by Bentahila and Davies. They defined code-mixing as random alternation of two languages within a sentence. It is often used interchangeably with another term, code switching. The term “code-mixing” refers to mixing of two or more languages within a sentence while the term “code-switching” refers to mixing of two or more languages at the clause level in a discourse in a fully grammatically way (Poplack, 1980). The basic difference between code-switching and code-mixing is the composition of the elements intermingled and the arrangement of such intermingling.
While linguists who are primarily interested in the structure or form of code-mixing may have relatively little interest to separate code-mixing from code-switching, some sociolinguists have gone to great lengths to differentiate the two phenomena. For these scholars, code-switching is associated with particular pragmatic effects, discourse functions, or associations with group identity. In this tradition, the terms code-mixing or language alternation are used to describe more stable situations in which multiple languages are used without such pragmatic effects.
Code-mixing involves a number of implications in EFL teaching and learning. As previous study stated that one of the implications is that when a vocabulary item is presented to students through code-mixing, they will be able to rely on their existing morphosyntactic knowledge to use the new vocabulary for other syntactic functions (Celik, 2003). The relevant literature suggests that, there are mixed feelings towards code-mixing. A number of positive viewers have pointed out several merits of code-mixing. One benefit of this method of vocabulary presentation, as Celik (2003) describes is time; that is, both preparation and implementation of this method require a minimal amount of time. Another benefit is that, this technique does not require additional materials. As Ying (2005) contends, those who look at code-mixing from the negative perspective, see it as a disease, something to be avoided. After all, this technique does involve a number of constraints.

2.3.3        The Application of Code Mixing in EFL Teaching and Learning
Learning English as a foreign language happens in some countries around the world. Indonesia is one country that use English lesson as one subject that taught in every school. Teaching foreign language in classroom commonly face a lot of troubles since that English language itself is foreign language for those children. For students in big city or centre of province, the use of English must be touching most aspect of their daily life. They may see advertisement, announcement, and public information in English. However, children who born and raised in rural area are rarely find those thinks written in English. This condition make the English language become a strange subject to be taught even in school when the teacher of English language may not be really fluent in using English itself.
Based on the fact above which is easily found in our daily life, teacher initiatively uses strategy to overcome this problem in their English classes. Code-mixing represents one of the strategies that EFL teachers often use to accommodate the students' level of English proficiency. Some researchers analyze the phenomenon of code-mixing by EFL teacher, especially the functions of code-mixing in English teaching classrooms nowadays. According to finding and analysis, code-switching and code-mixing can be a good device to underline the importance of a particular piece of information, whether it is a grammar role, a name or an order.
So it may be suggested that code-switching and code-mixing in language classroom is not always an obstacle in learning a language as what conventional view see it, but may be considered as a useful strategy in classroom interaction, if the purpose is to make meaning clear and to transfer the knowledge to students in an efficient way. In another word, the use of code-switching and code-mixing somehow builds a bridge from unknown to known and may be considered as an important element in language teaching when used efficiently. Meanwhile, the researcher suggested to pay-attention of using code-switching and code-mixing in excessive way because it could be result in negative influences.


2.3.4        The Using of Code Mixing in Study are:
a.        Code- mixing for teaching strategy
The use of code-mixing as teaching language strategy is worldwide used by teacher especially in EFL classroom. It is because the use of code-mixing makes the students more comfort in learning English as a foreign language. When the teacher teaches the students with full English non-stop during the lesson, students will easily get bored since that the students do not understand or only understand few of the words used by the teacher. In order to make the students understand rapidly the meaning of a sentence or words, English teachers in Bali sometimes have to put one or two words in English sentence using Balinese or Bahasa. By this way, students will feel that English lesson is not a lesson that has to be afraid of, since mixing the languages is not a big problem for the teacher and it is not considered a big mistake for students. When students start to feel comfort and enjoy along the lesson, they will pay much more attention toward the lesson. Start from this condition students will love English and curious to learn more.
b.        The use of code-mixing in teaching vocabulary
The use of code-mixing usually appears when teacher has to introduce new target vocabulary items. Code mixing involves the use of L1 or L2 words in foreign language utterances. Further, it is found that even the precise bilingual have to drawn on vocabulary from one language while speaking another. This may be taken to indicate that vocabulary is organized the way synonym and antonym is organized in one’s L1. The example of the use of code-mixing in learning vocabulary.
1.      First step: to get meaning of words and meaning of paragraph
For getting word meaning
“Table is meja” while the teacher point at the table
“Students look at to your book page 19, mengerti?”
“You are a smart student. Pintar reading and writing in English”
“Bupati is leader in regency. His name is Bapak Bagiada.
“In Sukawati, we can find so many togog”
“Anak luh nganggon skirt, anak muani nganggon short”
“Girl memakai ribbon on hair, she is beautiful.
In this examples teacher uses L1 word in purpose to make a student  get the meaning for the next English word. We can see in theexample, the elementary student does not know about the meaning of ‘leader’. By putting word bupati and bapak, we can hope that they will understand that meaning of ‘leader’, since that they know Bapak Bagiada is the leader of Buleleng.
2.      Second step: to discuss the topic
When they understand the topic given previously, for example, “Road Accident” topic, they will be able to discuss that topic in group. Along this process, teacher has to pay much more attention to listen their discussion in order to know how they are going to talk about it and how many target lexical items that they use. When this discussion happen and the student start questioning about what an English word for lemah, punyah and takut, or what the synonym for them, teacher then have to ask them to look at it on their dictionary. This condition will stimulate students to be curious and active in finding new vocabulary.
3.      Third step: to write their own writing
After students get the meaning of paragraph and discuss it, they have to be able to write their own writing in a same topic with the topic that previously given. For example, “Road Accident”, let them read it silently. Then ask them to write their own paragraph just like the “Road Accident” paragraph. The aim of this activity is to make sure that the students really get the message and able to use the target lexical items in English even able to use the synonym of them.
By the explanation and example above, clearly that code-mixing is an effective strategy for teaching new vocabulary. Since that students enrich by a lot of vocabularies, they will able to develop their skill in writing, reading, listening and speaking. Since that code-mixing is available used in English class (as long as it is not too much) students will be braver to express their idea trough writing or speaking. They will understand that in some cases or in a certain occasion, they are allowed to mix their language into L1 and L2 languages as well as foreign language. However, code-mixing has to use wisely in order to avoid the redundant use of it. Teacher has to explain that the use of code-mixing is not totally wrong, but to be a fluent user of foreign language, they have to avoid the use of code-mixing unless they forget the meaning in English. Students in this case, have to know that the use of code-mixing in English lesson is not bad, but it is also not good if they use it too often.

2.3.5        Cause of Code Mixing
When people interact with others in society at anytime and anywhere they must use language. Without a language, people will find some troubles when they do their activities and toward the others. There is no people or society without a language. The role of a language among the people in this life is very crucial. The study of linguistics reveals that language and society cannot be separated to be investigated. It develops into sociolinguistics or the sociology of language. Fishman (in Chaer and Agustina, 2004:3)says that, ‘sociolinguistics is the study of the characteristics of language varieties, the characteristics of their functions, and the characteristics of the speaker as these three constantly interact, change and change one another within a speech community”. In addition, Holmes (2001:1) says that sociolinguistics is concerned with the relationship between language and the context in which it is used. Examining the way people use language in different social contexts provides a wealth information about the way language works, as well as about the social relationships in a community, and the way people signal aspects of their social identity through the language.
Sociolinguistics actually does not discuss a structure of a language, but it focus on how a language is used, so it could play its function well. From this statement, we can get a description that people also face language conflicts before sociolinguistics appears.
So it is clear now that the role of sociolinguistics is to manage a language as its functions in society, or in other words sociolinguistics deals with a language as means of communication.
In everyday interaction, people usually choose different codes in different situation. They may choose a particular code or variety because it makes them easier discuss a particular topic, regardless where they are speaking. When talking about work or school at home, for instance, they may use the language that is related to those fields rather than the language used in daily language communication at home.
A code is a system that is used by people to communicate with each other. When people want to talk each other, they have to choose a particular code to express their feeling. According to Stock well (2002:8-9), a code is “a symbol of nationalism that is used by people to speak or communicate in a particular language, or dialect, or register, or accent, or style on different occasions and for different purposes.” Similarly, Ronald Wardaugh (1986:101) also maintains that a code can be defined as “a system used for communication between two or more parties used on any occasions.” When two or more people communicate with each other in speech, we can call the system of communication that they employ a code. Therefore, people are usually required to select a particular code whenever they choose to speak, and they may also decide to switch from one code to another or to mix codes, sometimes in very short utterances and it means to create a code.
Meanwhile, Poedjosoedarmo in Rahardi (2001:21-22) states that code can be defined as speech system and the application of the language element which has specific characteristic in line with the speaker’s background, the relationship between the speaker and interlocutor and the situation. He also adds that code can be said not only as a language, but also as the varieties of a language including dialect, undha usuk, and style. From those opinions of the code given by many linguists above, the writer can make conclusion that a code can be said as a language. The code is a form of the language variation that is used by a society to make communication with other people.
With the positive points of view about code-switching and codemixing, it is necessary to examine more specific reasons and motivations about these bilingual phenomena. There are some factors which affect codeswitching and code-mixing such as grammatical, lexical, and societal factors. Among these factors, societal factors would be the most influential factors for the reasons why bilinguals switch and mix their languages. Arnfast and Jorgensen (2003) state that code-switching becomes a sociolinguistic phenomenon. Fishman (2000) also finds that the choice of language among bilingual speakers is determined by factors such as participants, situation, or topic, i.e. factors which are outside the speaker. Incertain circumstances the speakers will speak one language, and if the circumstances change, it may lead them to switch into the other languages. In addition, Auer (1998) states that one of the reasons why people code-switch is because of macro sociolinguistic paradigm. It focuses on the influence on language use exerted by the general sociolinguistic context.

2.3.6        Types of Code Switching and Code Mixing
Blom and Gumperz (1972 in Saville-Troike, 1986:64) classify code switching into two dimensions. There are two types of code switching based on the distinction which applies to the style shifting. The first type is situational code switching. Wardhaugh (1986:103) states that situational code switching occurs when the languages used change according to the situation in which the conversant find themselves: they speak one language in one situation and another in a different one. No topic change is involved .When a change topic requires a change in language used, we have metaphorical code switching. Saville-Troike (1986:62) define metaphorical code switching as a code switching occurring within a single situation but adding some meaning to such components. The example of situational code switching is that in some universities a ritual shift occurs at the end of a successful dissertation defense, when professors address the(former) student as Doctor and invite first names in return. While, the example of metaphorical code switching is when a German girl shifts from do to She with a boy to indicate the relationship has cooled, or when a wife calls her husband Mr (Smith) to indicate her displeasure. The second classification is based on the scope of switching or the nature of the juncture which language takes place (Saville-Troike, 1986:65). The basic distinction in this scope is usually between inter sentential switching, or change which occurs between sentences or speech acts, and intra sentential switching, or change which occurs within a single sentence. Code mixing is a mixing of two codes or languages, usually without a change o of topic. Code mixing often occurs within one sentence, one element is spoken in language and the rest in language B. In addition, Nababan (1993:32) said that code mixing is found mainly in informal interactions. In formal situation, the speaker tends to mix it because there is no exact idiom in that language, so it is necessary to use words or idioms from mother language. Hoffman (1991:112) shows many types of code switching and code mixing based on the juncture or the scope of switching where languages take place. Those are intra sentential switching, inter-sentential switching, emblematic switching, intra-lexical code mixing, establishing continuity with the previous speaker, and involving a change of pronunciation. Each type will be describe bellow:
a.      Types of code switching
1.      Inter-sentential switching
This kind of code switching occurs between clause or sentence boundary, where each clause or sentence is in one language or other, as when an adult Spanish-Englishbilingual says: “Tenia zapatos blancos, un poco, they were off-white, you know.”(Hoffman, 1991:112).


2.      Emblematic switching
In this kind of code switching, tags, exclamation and certain set phrases in one language are inserted into an utterance otherwise in another, as when aPanjabi/Englishsays: “It’s a nice day, hana?” (hai n? isn’t it). Another example is when an adult Spanish-American English says: “...Oh! Ay! It was embarrassing! It was very nice, though, but I was embarrassed!” (Hoffman, 1991:112).
3.      Establishing continuity with the previous speaker
This kind of code switching occurs to continue the utterance of the previous speaker, as when one Indonesian speaker speaks in English and then the other speaker tries to respond in English also. Yet, that speaker can also switch again to bahasa Indonesia. For instance:
Speaker     1    : I can’t get leave him ‘coz I love him so much…
Speaker     2    :  Correct! You got the point! Kata ‘banget’ itulah letak permasalahanmu sekarang ini.
b.      Types of code mixing
1.      Intra-sentential switching / code mixing
This kind of code mixing occurs within a phrase, a clause or a sentence boundary, as when a French-English bilingual says: “I started going like this. Y luego decla (and thenhe said), look at the smoke coming out my fingers.” Another example is from Wardaugh (1986:108) “Estaba training para pelar” : “He was training to fight.”

2.      Intra-lexical code mixing
This kind of code mixing which occurs within a word boundary, such as inshoppã (English shop with the Panjabi plural ending) or kuenjoy (English enjoy with theSwahili prefix ku, meaning ‘to’).
3.      Involving a change of pronunciation
This kind of code mixing occurs at the phonological level, as when Indonesian people say an English word, but modify it to Indonesian phonological structure. For instance, the word ‘strawberry’ is said to be ‘stroberi’ by Indonesian people.

2.3.7        Reason of Code Switching and Code Mixing
When code switching or code mixing occurs, the motivation or reasons of the speaker is an important consideration in the process. According to Hoffman (1991:116 ciled in. Nuraindyan, 2012). there are a number of reasons for bilingual or multilingual person to switch or mix their languages. Those are:
a.      Talking about a particular topic
People sometimes prefer to talk about a particular topic in one language rather than in another. Sometimes, a speaker feels free and more comfortable to express his/her emotional feelings in a language that is not his/her everyday language.
The case can be found in Singapore, in which English language is used to discuss trade or a business matter, Mandarin for international “Chinese” language, Malay as the language of the region, and Tamil as the language of one of the important ethnic groups in the republic.
b.      Quoting somebody else
A speaker switches code to quote a famous expression, proverb, or saying of some well-known figures. The switch involves just the words that the speaker is claiming the quoted person said. The switch like a set of quotation marks. In Indonesian, those well known figures are mostly from some English-speaking countries. Then, because many of the Indonesian people nowadays are good in English, those famous expressions or sayings can be quoted intact in their original language. For example:
A: Bolehkah saya tahu nama anda, Pak? (May I know your name, Sir?)
B: What is a name.
In this conversation, B answers the question from A with the famous proverb ‘what is a name.’
c.       Being emphatic about something (express solidarity)
As usual, when someone who is talking using a language that is not his native language suddenly wants to be emphatic about something, he either intentionally or unintentionally, will switch from his second language to his first language. Or, on the other hand, he switches from his second language to his first language because he feels more convenient to be emphatic in his second language rather that in his first language.

d.      Interjection (inserting sentence fillers or sentence connectors)
Interjection is words or expressions, which are inserted into a sentence to convey surprise, strong emotion, or to gain attention. Interjection is a short exclamation like: Darn!, Hey!, Well!, Look!, etc. They have no grammatical value, but speaker uses them quite often, usually more in speaking than in writing.
Language switching and language mixing among bilingual or multilingual people can sometimes mark an interjection or sentence connector. It may happen unintentionally.
The following are examples of the usage of interjection in sentences:
1.      Indonesian_English
Dompetku ketinggalan di taksi! Shitt! (My wallet was left in the taxi!)
2.      Spanish_English (Gumperz, 1982:77)
Chicano professionals saying goodbye, and after having been introduced by a third speaker, talking briefly:
A : Well, I’m glad to meet you.
B :Andale pues (O.K.Swell). And do come again. Mm?
e.       Repetition used for clarification
When a bilingual or multilingual person wants to clarify his speech so that it willbe understood better by listener, he can sometimes use both of the languages (codes) that he masters to say the same message. Frequently, a message in one code is repeated in the other code literally. A repetition is not only served to clarify what is said, but also to amplify or emphasize a message.
For example :
English_Hindi Gumperz, (1982:78)Father calling his small son while walking through a train compartment, “Keepstraight. Sidha jao” (keep straight).
f.       Intention of clarifying the speech content for interlocutor
When bilingual or multilingual person talks to another bilingual/multilingual, there will be lots of code switching and code mixing occurs. It means to make the content of his speech runs smoothly and can be understood by the listener. A message in one code is repeated in the other code in somewhat modified form.
g.      Expressing group identity
Code switching and code mixing can also be used to express group identity. The way of communication of academic people in their disciplinary groupings, are obviously different from the other groups. In other words, the way of communication of one community is different from the people who are out of the community. Saville-Troike (1986:69) also gives some additional reasons for bilingual and multilingual person to switch or mix their languages, these are:
h.      To soften or strengthen request or command
For Indonesian people, mixing and switching Indonesian into English can also function as a request because English is not their native tongue, so it does not sound as direct as Indonesian. However, code mixing and code switching can also strengthen a command since the speaker can feel more powerful than the listener because he can use a language that everybody can not.
i.        Because of real lexical need
The most common reason for bilingual/multilingual person to switch or mix their languages is due to the lack of equivalent lexicon in the languages. When an English-Indonesian bilingual has a word that is lacking in English, he will find it easier to say it in Indonesian. And vice versa, when he has a word that is lacking in Indonesian, he will use the English term. If it put into Indonesian, the meaning will be hazy / vague, and some time it would not be used. For example, in Indonesia, the technical topics are firmly associated with English and the topic itself can trigger a switch or mix to/with English.
j.        To exclude other people when a comment is intended for only a limited audience
Sometimes people want to communicate only to certain people or community they belong to. To avoid the other community or interference objected to their communication by people, they may try to exclude those people by using the language that no everybody knows.

2.3.8        Difference between Code Switching and Code Mixing
Actually, it is not easy to differentiate between code mixing and code switching. However, we can find some indicators related to the differences of these two sociolinguistics terms, code switching and code mixing. First, in code mixing, bilingual speakers seem to apply some words or phrases from foreign language (pieces of one language smaller than clause), while the other language (code) functions as the base language. Second, bilingual speakers are said to mix codes when there is no topic that changes, nor does the situation. (John J Gumperz 1986,ciled in.Yaki, 2010).
A different view proposed to separate the two said that if it involves changing into a foreign clause or a sentence, it should be defined as a code switching, but if it involves the use of foreign phrases or group of words, it is identified as a code mixing. Another view about how to define between code switching and code mixing is related to the formality of the situation. In code mixing, is said to be found in the less formal situation, while in code switching is possibly done in a formal one. As the addition, the bilingual’s level of fluency in the languages (code), usually fluent bilinguals can perform mixing well, while the less skilled ones may only do switching.

2.4.       Previous of Study
Yakin, (2011) LANGUAGE MIXING AND CODE MIXING (SASAK, INDONESIAN, AND ENGLISH) IMPLICATION FOR EFL TEACHING AND LEARNING. He found that Code-mixing are well known traits in the speech pattern of the average bilingual in any human society the world over. According to Bentahila and Davies (1983) code-mixing is the random alternation of two languages within a sentence. Code mixing can be used as a strategy to teach English as Foreign Language (EFL) especially in teaching vocabulary to the students. The use of code-mixing makes the students more comfort in learning EFL. It can be taught through three steps, such as: get meaning of words and meaning of paragraph, discuss the topic, and write their own writing. It is believed that this strategy give advantage to the students' mastery of vocabulary, andCode-mixing involves a number of implications in EFL teaching and learning. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki
Kanom, (2011) CODE MIXING AMONG THE SASAK COMMUNITY AT KUTA CENTRAL LOMBOK. In his research, he is. Described the types and forms of code mixing among the Sasak community around the tourism industry area in Kuta south Lombok. The population  is all of people in Kuta. Central Lombok. All the subject or informant selected and specified with informant criteria in this research as bellow;
a.       Sex ; male or female
b.      Physical and mentally Healthy
c.       Age 20-65 years
d.      Minimum elementary school graduated
e.       Owning pride with their language and their language community bilingual or multilingual.
Because of in this area, consist of 14 sub villages (Dusun) with the population + 4000 peoples in year of (2009), the researcher using random sampling and taken only 30 informants, as above specification and those are represented of overall of the Sasak community (native speaker) in this place. In data collection he usied interview, documentation, observation, test, questionnaire, and rating scale (Arikunto, 2002:125-135,ciled in.Kanom,2011). In this research, the researcher applies observation, audio recording and interview. The researcher also has observed the Sasak community who used Sasak language (Base Sasak) with “meriaq-meriku” dialect by observe their daily interactions and sometimes took part. In this case the researcher unites with the participants or become participant within observed their chatting behavior so thathe got the authentic data appropriate with data needed.And the of hir research is code mixing is used for instructional, not or making a joke or funny expression. Do not let the studens to use code mixing for mixing for joking in inappropriate way because it will reduce the vaiue of language and the last tell the students that mixing their language. Sometimes is alloued, but to use it toooften is wrong because it will make the students lazy.
http://www.kode mixing. Intono among the sasak community at Kuta Sentral Lombok. Relation whit the topic is explanation about use code mixing in  Lombok island, the writer refers to Yakin ( 2011 ) and Kanom (2011), the objective of this research is aimed to investigate whether Sasak English code mixing is people use code mixing in daily conversation and form of that people use code mixing in daily conversation. The method applied in this research is qualitative research and the sample of this research is by using random sampleing in his village. The writer will use field method, interview, recording, note taking,and classifyings.
The result of the analysis will show that people of in the Lombok Village is joyful and interest in using Sasak English code mixing. In, this case, the researcher will take the reseacher proposal tittle is an analysis of sasak english code mixing in Teloke, village, Batulayar.



                                                                    CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHOD

3.1  Method of Resarch
The research of this study is descriptive qualitative method since it provides a systematic, factual, and accurate desertion of a situation of area (Issac and Michael, 1987:42,ciled in.Rosidy, 2010). This research is also a qualitative one since all the data collection is in the form of words. The using of this is appropriat with the purpose of the study that is explaining about using code mixing in Teloke, village, Batulayar. It will describe the aspects of code mixing a case study in Batulayar, West Lombok.
3.2  Research Design
Polit and Hungler (1999:155) describe the research design as a blueprint, or outline, for conducting the study in such a way that maximum control will be exercised over factors that could interfere with the validity of the research results. The research design is the researcher's overall plan for obtaining answers to the research questions guiding the study. Bums and Grove (2001:223) state that designing a study helps researchers to plan and implement the study in a way that will help them obtain the intended results, thus increasing the chances of obtaining information that could be associated with the real situation. This study used a qualitative exploratory descriptive design to identify, analysis and describe factors contributing to adolescent mothers non-utilisation of contraceptives to prevent unplanned pregnancies.
3.3  Population and Sample
3.3.1        Population
Sutrisno Hadi (1970; 220,ciled in.Nuryadian, 2010) defines population as the number of people that has at leat the same characteristic. The population of this research is  Teloke, Batulayar native speaker who spoken and use code mixing when they talking to each other in their daily conversation in Teloke, Batulayar.
3.3.2        Sample 
Arikunto (1989, ciled in. Rosidy, 2010) states that if the total of population is less than 100 the whole population should be taken as the sample of the research and if the population is more than 100 the researcher may took 5%-10% or 15%-25% as the sample of the research. Refers to the theory, the researcher took 15 of total population of people in Teloke, Batulayar as sample of  the study such as vendors, waiter or waitress and all of the people who live in Teloke, Batulayar working in tourism industry. These are who use code mixing when they are talking to each other in their daily conversation, the reseacher will use random sample in this research.

3.4  Technique of  Collecting Data
In order to get better results of this research the researcher has to use basic technique of data collecting which Consist of:
1.      Field Method
In this case, the writer tries to involve the interpreter from native speaker who did code mixing
2.  Note taking
The way of this method is by hearing the native speakers and takes note the relevant inputs with the primary data of this study.
Note taking is the practice of recording information captured from a transient source, such as an oral discussion at a meeting, or a lecture (notes of a meeting are usually called minutes). http://en.wikipadia.org/wiki
3.      Classifying
This research then classified the use of code mixing by the people in use theri daily convercation in Teloke, Batulayar.
4.      Recording
According to Oxford Dictionary, recording is sounds pictures recorded on tape or disc. In this case the researcher tried to catch all of the conversation that spoken by Teloke, Batulayar community. Some storage Recording is the process of capturing data or translating information to a recording format stored on medium, which is often referred to asa record or, if an auditory medium, a recording. (en. Wikipedia .org/wiki/Recording)
Some storage Recording is the process of capturing data or translatinginformation to a recording format stored on medium, which is often referred to as a record or, if an auditory medium, a recording.
3.5  Method of Analysis Data
Steps of Method Analysis Data
1.      Reading and understanding the whole people use Sasak English code mixing.
2.      Classifying the data based on reason people use of Sasak English code mixing.
3.      Describing the reason of people use Sasak English code mixing.
4.      Drawing convension.
5.      Classifying the data based on the types and the reason of the use of code switching and code mixing.
Http://eprints.undip.ac.id/27046/2/analysis_of_code_switching_and_code_mixing_in_the_teenlit_canting_cantiq_by_dyan_nuranindya.pdf.

The researcher use some aspects to present the data the first is pre analysis by collecting the data find in the field and the researcher classify the data base on the form of code mixing as propose by Suwito (1985: 75). The form of code mixing is classified into six: word, phrase, hybrid, reduplication word, idiom and clause. So, in this scientific writing, the researcher would like to apply the data in the analysis of:
1.        Phrase
Dealing with the theory that a phrase is a group two or more related words that does not certain both a subject and a predicate (Finoza, 2001: 29), next this thesis elaborates the phrase base on their group into five classes: noun phrase, adjective phrase, gerund phrase, adverbial phrase and preposition phrase.
2.        Hybrid
Hybrid is the composed mixed part of word (Hornby, 1995: 585) it means that hybrid is the mixed of different language, in this case the hybrid is used by the people in Teloke Batulayar one English-Indonesian hybrid shortly or some time English- Sasak Language. Hybrid has big influence from one language among others.
3.        Clause
According to Ehrlich, clause is a sentence structure consist have a subject and verb clause can also consist of object or indirect object of complement or modifier (1987:14). And there are two kinds of clause that is independent clause which can stand alone and the second ones is dependent clause it cannot stand alone because it’s only part of the sentence.

                                                                                                                       


AN ANALYSIS USING CODE MIXING AND CODE SWITCHING IN SASAK CONVERSATION

1 comment:

  1. _Bibliography juga dong Chapter IV dan Chapter V jangan lupa di kirimin ::

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