Monday, December 24, 2012

KUMPULAN SKRIPSI BAHASA INGGRIS USING DRAMA TO IMPROVE STUDENT’S ABILITY IN SPEAKING


USING  DRAMA TO IMPROVE STUDENTS ABILITY IN SPEAKING
( A Study for Students at the Second year of SMA N 1 Palibelo in Academic Year 2010/2011)




                                                                      CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1              Background of Study
One of the expressive language elements is speaking skill. Speaking is the most common and important means of providing communication among humans beings. Because speaking is linked to success in life, as it important position both individually and socially. But, there is many problems by some people especially student when they want to explore their idea orally and they difficult to express their capability in English skill.
 According to Jenep (2010 :54) there are two factors that cause low levels of student skills in speaking that is, external factors and internal factors. External factors, including the use of Indonesian influence in my family environment and society even in everyday communication, many students still use the mother tongue of contaminated one another. External factors include, lack of interest as well as business students learn to speak with pronunciation, intonation, and spelling are correct in speaking skills, except that students lack confidence to express publicly.
Therefore, to guide the students speak English in the classroom, teachers should have good and interesting technique of teaching. It means that the teachers is required to create an appropriate learning strategy.
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From the problems above the researcher suggested for using drama. It  is a flexible method based on Thomas et al (1999) ”appreciated the flexibility of project-based learning which can meet the needs of learner with varying skill levels and learning styles “, and the context are established which balances the need for fluency and accuracy, (Haines, 1989).Then, other than that Wessels (1987) found that using drama activity helped to bring written materials to life by infusing the lifeless print with feeling, imagination and thought for the learner, more active participant in the learning process. And the next, Abdulhak Halim Ulas (2008) and Jenep (2010) said that drama activities can be used to provide opportunities for the student  to be involved actively and able to express orally their idea, do collectively, and communicative.
However, the application of drama in the teaching learning English might face some obstacles. As for obstacle such as disclosed by Vu Thi Thanh Nha (2009) include the class time is limited, its difficult to manage and give prompt feedbacks on all working groups at the same time by the class size of 30-40 students. Thus, it might result in a greater workload for teachers and students if drama used as a time-controlled class activity .
Related to the some description above, the researcher proposes to assumes that drama is an influential and beneficial teaching strategy can be used to provide opportunities for the student as a flexible method and can be well worth it if the control time is set properly and regularly not only in the classroom but also outside of classroom.
This research is very potential for researchers to provide a better theoretical and practical understanding of using drama in teaching learning because there are very few previous researchers who raise this problem that is associated with inhibition of the ability of students that later researchers tried to find the solution by drama method which will could improve their ability in speaking.
The aim of this research is to know the effect by using drama to improve the student’s ability in speaking and wants to investigates the students difficulties in mastering speaking,
1.2              Statement of Problem
The question needed to be solved in this particular present study are as follows :
1.      Is the use of drama able to improve the speaking ability at the second year students of Class IPA 1 SMAN 1 Palibelo in academic year  2011/2012?
2.      What are the difficulties faced by students in speaking at the second year students of Class IPA 1 SMAN 1 Palibelo in academic year  2011/2012?
1.3              Purpose of Study
This study purpose :
1.      To know the effect of using drama to improve the students ability in speaking English at the second year students  of Class IPA 1 SMAN 1 Palibelo in academic year  2011/2012?.
2.      To describe the difficulties faced by students in speaking English at the second year students of Class IPA 1 SMAN 1 Palibelo in academic year  2011/2012?
1.4              Significant of Study
The significant  of this study is expected to give some useful information for teacher, researches,and to solve,the student problem firstly. They as follows :
1.      For teachers, the result of this study will give and add their knowledge and information about the weakness which the student often make and serve as feedback to improve all of teacher in teaching material as well.
2.      For researches, students difficulties are considered to be important information to identify and to analyze the students problem in their  understanding or knowing of foreign language,especially about speaking English .
3.      For students, the result of this study will make them to know their mistakes, their weakness in their learning process of understanding about their weakness, and to improve their ability, exactly their competence . 
1.5              Scope of Study
This study is limited to investigation of the problem faced by students at the second year students of Class IPA 1 SMAN 1 Palibelo in academic year  2011/2012 in their  difficulties to express their idea orally in English language. And it is limited to :
1.      The difficulties in express idea orally .
2.      The students limits observed in their power and interest to speak English.
1.6              Definition of Key Terms
In order to avoid misunderstanding, it is considered important to define some terms concerning this study .the terms are :
1.      Improve     : is used when you are starting what the facts of a situation here, and also a change of that something causes high in something ( Oxford Advanced learners Dictionary ). So,effect is something result of caused .
2.      Drama       : is highly regarded as an effective and valuable teaching strategy because of its unique ability to engage reflective, constructivist and active learning in the classroom as well as enhancing oral skills development .
v  Drama is a “a live presented in action (Moulton:1983)
v  Drama generated by word “dromain” from Yunani which have meaning :event,treatise,and composing ( Aeschylus century +525 -456 SM). Drama is the specific mode of fictionrepresented in performance, though it has also come to refer to a specific genre of fiction (neither comedy nor tragedy) involving a serious mood and conflict. The term comes from a Greek word meaning "action" (Classical Greek: δρᾶμα, drama), which is derived from "to do" (Classical Greek: δράω, drao). The structure of dramatic texts, unlike other forms of is directlycollective form of influenced by this collaborative production and collective reception(Hamlet;1601 ; en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dramatic_(album)
3.      Ability is the capacity of power, cleaverness, talent. ( Oxford Advanced learners Dictionary ). And Hornby defines ability as potential capacity or power to do something physical mental (Hornby,1986:2). So, the mean of this is ability in speaking mean that capacity who able interactive in speech.
4.      Speaking: is interactive and requires the ability to co-operation in the management and clear articulation in valves use of organs of speech to product sounds(( Oxford Advanced learners Dictionary ).


                                                                     CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Some teachers often search for effective way to improve their class, motivate the student and appeal to range of learning process . Based on it, the researcher give idea to using drama as a teaching strategy. Jenep (2010) and Sally Aston (2005) said that drama is good strategy as an effective and valuable teaching because its able to make the student active, well as in constructivist learning in the classroom and enhancing speaking development.
In this review of literature the researcher try to explores the definition of drama, the techniques, kinds of drama, and in addition the researcher will explore means of some variable related with topic of this research, include how the effect by using drama and what is speaking means.

2.1       Definiton of Drama
Drama is not a new issue and a part of concepts that have different meaning to each of experts or whoever. But the researcher take according from the some search, give meaning about the drama . According to Bolton (1986),
The term ‘drama in education,’ like the term ‘play, ’ has become a ‘family’ concept. It is difficult to define its essence. Drama in education is not the study of dramatic texts, although this could be part of it; it is not the presentation of school play, although this could be part of it; it is not even teaching drama or teaching about drama, although this could be large part of it (p.18)
           
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Drama is the term comes from a Greek word meaning "action" (Classical Greek: δρᾶμα, drama), which is derived from "to do" (Classical Greek: δράω, drao). The enactment of drama in theatre, performed by actors on a stage before an audience, presupposes collaborative modes of production and collective form of reception( From: Wikipedia). Although no audience is available in process drama, process drama involves some performance elements in a way that during process children become their own audience(Bolton, 1984; O’Neill, 1995).
Drama is an art form, however not so that by Johnson and O’Neill (1984), they give argue that in education, drama provides educators with a powerfull instruction tool. The other stated too, Maricondi says that drama like as performances by some people to showed their communicate through touch, facial expression or gestures (Maricondi, 1991).
 Then, according to Afan (2010:105) in drama like as characterization is the method used to develop a character, the method includes showing the character’s appearance, displaying the character’s actions, revealing the character’s thought  letting the character speak and getting the reactions of others .
Whatever and however everyone give means of drama, the researcher underline that between drama,theatre or performance art is different. Because in process drama the performance is not for audience or there is no audience. Then,theatre can defined as :” a convention of time and place, through which we try to evoke, imitate, carry, reproduce,condense, or tell a specific action” (Palau I Fabre, 1962) quoted from Mariana Vilanova in her article (2001) .However, process drama is not just for someone who have acting talentor in a convention of time and place because for drama do not have to be talented because there is no performance or particular audience. Mustafa Yasar said that ‘The only judge for their performance themselves (Jendik, 1981).
Improvisation is another term that is used to describe drama activities in educational settings (O’Naill,1995). Improvisation is refer to an exercise or an action that involves spontaneous speech and movement (Jendik, 1981).But, improvisation is not the same with drama it is just an essential element of it (Jendik, 1981).
Based on some mean above the researcher try to limit this drama mean is a form of art which  provide someone to show their performance in communication, facial expression what we think and what we feel complicated with improvisation there are audience or no audience to show it. Then, in drama divided into the elements of drama and kinds of drama. So, the explained below:
2.1.1        Elements of Drama
There are some elements of drama :
a.      Plot
Plot is the incidents in a play (Onyeka Iwuchukwu, 2008:29). It helps to give the drama easy to understand.
b.      Action
Is the activities which the characters are involved in any dramatic piece (Onyeka Iwuchukwu, 2008:37)
c.       Dialogue
Scholes and Klaus (1971) explained that drama is an extraordinary significant form of conversation because it is through it that every play implies the total make-up of its imaginative world.
d.      Imitation
Imitation is the basic  concept of drama (Onyeka Iwuchukwu, 2008:21). Its an act of copying the ways somebody talks and behaves, especially to entertain.  
2.1.2         Kinds of Drama
There some kinds of drama, in this paper the researcher try to explain some of them include tragedy, comedy, tragedy-comedy, melodrama, drama, mime (Yusufu,2008), and added with opera, pantomime, and creative drama ".(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Literary). It is these similarities and differences that determine each genre. So, the explained below :
2.1.2.1  Opera
Western opera is a dramatic art form, which arose during the Renaissance in an attempt to revive the classical Greek drama tradition in which both music and theatre were combined. Being strongly intertwined with western classical music,the opera has undergone enormous changes in the past four centuries and it is an important form of theatre until this day. Noteworthy is the huge influence of the German 19th century composer Richard Wagner on the opera tradition. In his view, there was no proper balance between music and theatre in the operas of his time, because the music seemed to be more important than the dramatic aspects in these works. To restore the connection with the traditional Greek drama, he entirely renewed the operatic format, and to emphasize the equal importance of music and drama in these new works, he called them"music dramas".(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Literary )
2.1.2.2  Pantomime
These stories follow in the tradition of fables and folk tales, usually there is a lesson learned, and with some help from the audience the hero/heroine saves the day. This kind of play uses stock characters seen in masque and again commedia dell'arte, these characters include the villain, the clown/servant (Arlechino/Harlequin/buttons), the lovers etc. These plays usually have an emphasis on moral dilemmas, and good always triumphs over evil, this kind of play is also very entertaining making it a very effective way of reaching many people. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Literary)
2.1.2.3  Creative Drama
Creative Drama refers to dramatic activities and games used primarily in educational settings with children. Its roots in the United States began in the early 1900s. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Literary).
2.1.2.4  Tragedy
Tragedy according to the Oxford English Dictionary is “a play of serious or solemn kind ... a very sad event, action or experience.” The last part of the definition explains why the word is used to describe misfortunes, natural and human disasters in everyday life. However, the researcher will be concerned with the aspect of the definition that sees tragedy as a play of a serious or a solemn kind. However, the song continued but a minimal part of it was acted by one actor. As time went on, the spoken part was increased and Aeschylus added a second actor while Sophocles added a third actor. As time went on, the number of chorus decreased gradually as more actors increased (Yusuf, 2008:68). Tragedy is the most esteemed of all the dramatic genres. It has attracted many definitions and rules, from the days of Aristotle, who is the first person to write on the circumstances of and what tragedy should be, to the present day. According to him in his “Poetics”:
Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete and of acertain magnitude; in language embellished with each kind of artisticornaments, the several kinds being found in separate parts of the play; in the from of action not of narrative; through pity and fear effecting aproper purgation of these emotions.

Aristotle explains all the aspects of this definition and moves further to give the elements of tragedy as plot, character, thought, diction, music and spectacle. Try to read Aristotle’s “Poetics”. These principles have continued to influence the definition till date. However, some dramatic scholars agree with him while some others disagree with him. In drama, tragedy is a serious play that deals with the misfortunes of man. It presents a man (tragic hero) who is not too virtuous or too vicious but one who aspires for higher ideals. He tries to improve himself and the world around him. In the course of this, he makes a mistake, or commits an error of judgment.
2.1.2.5Comedy
We use the words 'comedy' and comic to describe something that is funny in our everyday lives. These include a joke, or a fantastic story that is full of nonsense, or an absurd appearance that makes us giggle, smile or laugh. Comedy is not inherent in things or people but the way things/people are perceived. Comedy is a deliberate presentation ofevents/experiences drawn from real life but not the same with real life (Yusufu,2008:73,). We should therefore not expect dramatic comedy to be the same as real life. However, in both real life and drama, comedy should indicate a kind ofpleasure which finds physical expression in laughter or smile.
2.1.2.6 Melodrama
The word melodrama is coined from melo its may have mean related with music and drama (Yusufu,2008:78). Itis, therefore, a play that utilizes music extensivelyusing drama when it to performance. In melodrama, there is always serious excitement, suspense and thrills for the audience. The characterization of melodrama according from Yusufu (2008:76) include :
1.      It looks at human beings as a whole. People are expected to
interact and help one another in the society. This explains why the protagonist is usually assisted or aided by someone for him to triumph or succeed.
2.      It sees human beings as encountering and enduring outer conflicts and not inner ones in a generally hostile and wicked world.
3.      These human conflicts end in victory. Melodramatic characters either win or lose. However, in the spirit of poetic justice, the
protagonist usually wins despite the difficulties he encounters in the course of the action to show that good triumphs over evil.
4.      There is an over simplification of human experiences which are
usually exaggerated in such a way that the main thesis of the play is made transparent.It treats a serious subject matter in a serious manner, though exaggerated Speaking Ability   .

2.2       Speaking
The mastery of speaking skill in English is priority for many second or foreign language learners. Learners consequently often evaluate their success in language learning as well as the effectiveness of their English course on the basis of how will they feel they have improved in their spoken language proviciency.
Advances in discourse analysis, conversational analysis, and corpus analysis in recent years have revealed a great deal about the nature of spoken discourse and how it differs from written discourse. This differences reflect the different purpose for  which spoken and written language are used. According from Richards quoted by Jones (1996) comments :
“In speaking and listening we tend to be getting done exploring ideas, working out some aspect of the world. In writing we may be creating a record or simply being together, commit in gevents of moment to paper”.

Some research found the complexity of spoken interaction in either a first or second language. Scott Turnbury (2003: 27) give an example on it, cites some of following features of spoken discourse:
·         Composed of idea units
·         May be planned or unplanned
·         Employs more vague or generic words than written language
·         Employs fixed phrase, fillers and hesitation markers
·         Contains slip and error reflecting on-line processing
·         Involved reciprocity
·         Shown variation ( between formal and casual speech), reflection speaker role, speaking purpose, and the context.

In designing speaking activities for second of foreign language teaching its also necessary to recognize the very different functions speaking performs in daily communication and the different purpose for which students need speaking skill. Teachers can also help students adapt their speeches and informal talks so as to correspond to the intended audience, the information to be communicated, and the circumstances of the occasion at which they will speak(J. Walberg: 2004) (http://www.curtin.edu.au/curtin/dept/smec/iae) .
Functions of speaking according from Scott (2003: 89) and Burns (1998) then developed by Richards explores three part version of  functions of speaking: talk as interaction, talk as transaction, and talk as performance. Each of this activities are differ in terms of form and function and require different teaching approaches, will explores below:
a.      Talk as Interaction
This refer to conversation and describes interaction which serves primarily social function. When people meet, they exchange greetings, engage in small talk and chit chat, recount recent experiences and so on because they wish to be friendly and establish a comfortable zone of interaction with others.
The main features of talk as interaction can be summarized by Brown Yule (1983) as follow:
§  Has a primarily identify
§  May be formal or casual
§  social function
§  Reflects role relationship
§  Reflect speaker’s
§  Use conversational convention
§  Reflect degree of politeness
§  Employs many generic words

Some of the skill involved in using talk as interaction are:
o   Opening and closing conversation
o   Choosing topic
o   Making small-talk
o   Reacting to others
o   Interrupting
In this case to mastering the art of talk as interaction is difficult and may not be a priority for all learners. However, the student who do need such skill and find them lacking report that they sometimes feel awkward and at a loss for words when they find themselves in situation that requires talk for interaction. They feel difficult in presenting a good image of themselves and sometimes avoid situation which call for this kind of talk. This can be disadvantage for some learners where the ability to use talk for conversation can be important.
b.      Talk as Transaction
This type of talk refer to situation where the focus is what is said or   done. Quoted from Jones (1996) describes the mean in transaction,
....talk is associated with others activities.
 For example, student may be engage in hand-on activities (e. g in a science lesson) to explores concept associated with floating and sinking. In this type of spoken language students and teachers usually focus on meaning or on talking their way to understanding.

The different this type of talk of transaction, one is situation where the focus in on giving and receiving information and where the participants focus primarily on what is said or achieved. The main features of talk as transaction are:
§  It has primarily information focus
§  There may be frequent question, repetition, comprehention checks
§  There may be negotiation and digression
§  Linguistic accuracy is not always important

Some of the skills involved in using talk for transaction are:
o   Explaining a need or intention
o   Describing something
o   Asking questioning
o   Confirming information
o   Making suggestion
o   Clarifying understanding
o   Making comparison
o   Agreeing and disagreeing
 

c.       Talk as Performance
The third type of talk which can usefully be distinguished has been called talk as performance. This refer to public talk, that is talk which transmits information before an audience such as morning talks, public announcements, and speeches.
Talk as performance tends to be in the form of monolog rather than dialog, often follows a recognizable formal and is closer to written language than conversational language.
The main features of talk as performance are:
§  There is a focus on both message and audience
§  It reflect organization and sequencing
§  Form and accuracy  is important
§  Language is more like written language
Some of the skill involved in using talk as performance are:
o   Using an appropriate formal
o   Presenting information an appropriate sequence
o   Using correct pronunciation and grammar
o   Creating and effect on the audience
o   Using appropriate opening and closing

So, from all of three type described above the researcher conclude that talk as interaction is perhaps the most difficult skill to teach since interactional talk is very complex as well as subtle that take place under the control of “unspoken” roles. Then, talk as transaction is more easily planned since current communicative materials are a research resource of group activities, information-gap activity and role play that can provide a source of practicing how to using talk for sharing and obtaining information as well as for carrying out read-world transaction, therefore talk as performance requires a different teaching strategy.
In spoken language it is needed the clarify of presentation and use of discourse, markers, reception and stress is important points. Different speaking activities such as conversations, group discussion, and speeches make different types of demands learners.
In additional, in speaking there is some type commonly used to test spoken through: interviews, live Monologues, record monologue, role-plays/drama, discussions and collaborative tasks. Then, researchers interested in the type that uses role-play or drama, because based on Scott in his book "How to Teach Speaking" states that most students will used to be doing at least simple role-plays/drama in class, so the cans for testing. The other role either cans be Played by the tester or another student, but again the influence of the interlocutor is had to control. Obviously related to the drama that is selected in this topic because it has the same part in the assessment of students' speaking ability.
                       
2.3       Using Drama  to  Improve the Student Speaking  Ability
There is an increasing body of research investigating the role of drama in teaching and learning. The existing drama literature suggests that drama offers several opportunities for educators to promote learning and development. For example, drama allows participants to be engaged, motivated, empowered, and active agents of learning (Jeneb, 2010:55) and to do so, students have to be aware of the situation as a whole, that is to say, not only do they need to be aware of where the action takes place, but also, of the roles speakers take on, how they feel, what they already know, etc. And here is where drama comes into our foreign language class.
Learning speaking skills using role playing techniques with two actions, prove to improve speaking skills. There are several advantages the use of drama as evidenced by Jenep (2010) include: (1) drama techniques improve the skills of speaking of this aspect, (2) drama techniques improve speaking skills aspects of language, and (3) to improve speaking skills aspects of performance.
In another study, Sally Aston (2005) reports that drama is good strategy as an effective and valuable teaching because its able to make the student active, well as in constructivist learning in the classroom  and enhancing speaking development (Di Pietro, 1987; Via,1976; Heathcote cited in Wagner, 1976; Mezirow, 1990; Schon, 1991; Donato and McCormick, 1994; Lukinsky, 1990; Miccoli, 2003) .
Therefore, by using drama able to give some benefits recently drama is favored by language practitioners, Vu Thi Than Nha, 2009 states that there are 6 the benefits of using drama;
a)      Authentic tasks. The tasks used in processing learning are similiar to real life tasks. The speaking skill of students are enhanced, its similiar of a play and giving them the opportunity to approximate the body and speech.
b)      Increased motivation. The motivation comes from the innovative and practical nature of process learning.
c)      A context is established  which balances the need for fluency and accuracy.
d)     Consists all of skills, it is reading, writing, listening, and speaking, are related each other.
e)      A flexible method. Its match the needs of learners with varyng skill levels and learning style.
f)       Other skills are developed. Such as interpersonal communication, planning, self confidence.

On the one hand, Sally (2005) finds the benefits of using drama in oral  skills development assist student with pronunciation, intination, and development of emotional intelligence.  However, thus might face some obstacles. Vu Thi Thanh Nha (2009) argues the obstacles in using drama in learning speaking consist of class time that limited, the number of student in class size of 30-40 students its difficult to handle or managed them, and all of the students in a class mixed abilities and each other is different in their capablity.
However, the researcher propose to using drama exists because it provides many benefits, both individually and in groups. Benefits include: to stimulate students' creativity, expression, self confidence. In other one, its effective in building confidence Communicative, They felt more encouraged, motivated, and willing to Communicate in Indonesian as well as feel less anxious speaking in front of an audience. So, the researcher concludes that using drama that will use a research design class action that was once used by Jenep (2010:56) in his article entitledImproving Speaking Skills with Role Playing Technique” was developed by Kemmis and McTaggart (1992).
According by some of previews study above the researcher conclude that by using drama able: to stimulate students' creativity, expression, self confidence. In other one, its effective in building confidence Communicative, They felt more encouraged, motivated research is very potential for researchers to provide a better theoretical and practical understanding of using drama in teaching learning because there are very few previous researchers who raise this problem that is associated with inhibition of the ability of students that later researchers tried to find the solution by drama method which will could improve their ability in speaking.
 This research different with previous research, the aim of this research is wants to investigates the students difficulties in mastering speaking and to know how far the effect of using drama to Improve the student's ability in speaking at the high school level because during this time researchers had previously only at the top level and looked only at a special school groups, on this basis that researchers are trying to choose the object of research at the secondary level is precisely at SMAN 1 Palibelo because given the differences in educational level, mental, emotional, and styles in learning to see and measure the response of middle-level students in the application of drama as part of the learning process and hopefully it would help them to improve their ability especially in speaking for the future.


CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1       Research Design
This study used a qualitative research design, classroom action research. Classroom action research design model used in this study was developed by Kemmis and McTaggart (1992) cited Jenep (2010:56) in his article entitled Improving Speaking Skills with drama Technique and in Arikunto (2008:20), this model follows the contours of which consists of 4 main components namely: planning, action, observation, and reflection.
The design of  classroom action research, these stages can be described as follows:
1.  Action on the Cycle I
a)      Planning
           In the first cycle, the researcher prepares the process of learning to speak using drama skills with the steps: (1) develop lesson plans that relate to speaking skills using drama, (2) prepare a dialogue or a play which will be played by students, (3) collaborating in with classroom teachers and peers. This study is planned in two cycles and every cycle conducted over a two-hour lesson. In every cycle will be carried out during two meetings in which the learning consisted of initial activity, core activity, and the final activity. Previous researchers discuss in advance what activities will be conducted with classroom teachers. In addition. Researchers also need information about the state of the class, because the researcher is not a classroom teacher .
b)       Action
           The steps in the implementation of the action, the following: (1) implement the learning or the implementation of lesson plans, (2) examine the measures in a systematic, thorough and objective, (3) conduct discussions after learning to talk about the implementation of action learning. In this cycle of teacher involvement in learning activities considering the relatively dominant because students are not familiar with the technique to study drama.
c)      Observation
           At this stage the researchers make observations related to the performance of students during the learning progress of observations about the liveliness and the sight of people exiting students, as well as changes in attitudes and behavior of students.
d)     Reflection
           This stage is intended to examine thoroughly the actions that have been carried out, based on data already collected. The result of these discussions will be used to make improvements on the next action.
2.    Action on the Cycle II
    Implementation of the second cycle in general procedure is the same with the procedure cycle I only activity carried out in the second cycle has a variety of corrective actions from previous measures aimed at improving various obstacles or difficulties that are found in the first cycle. In the second cycle teachers will not be too involved in training students, they train themselves with the group.
3.2              Research Subject
The subject of this research is the student at the second year students of Class IPA 1 SMAN 1 Palibelo sub-province of Bima in West Nusa Tenggara.
3.3      Data  Collection Procedure
            Data collection techniques in this research because it uses a qualitative approach which uses two steps as follows:
           a.         Tes
                       Untuk mengukur ada atau tidaknya serta besar kecilnya nilai kemampuan objek yang diteliti yaitu menggunakan tes (Arikunto, 2006:223).
a.         Observation
            Observation is a way of collecting data with records held on the activities  and developments carried out by teachers and students during the learning process (Arikunto, 2006:229). In this case, researchers adopted methods used by Jenep (2010) and Vu Thi Nha Than (2009), although the researchers did not take a whole will however try to combine their guidelines.
b.         Interview
            This technique is intended to direct knowledge of students' difficulties in speaking, the reason students in experiencing difficulties in the express idea orally.
c.         Documentation
            Data collection techniques of this section of the collection in the form of notes, recordings (audio-visual), the agenda and so forth or as evidence of an activity (Arikunto, 2006:231) which in this case related to the learning process.
3.4       Data Analysis Procedure
In this classroom action research, researchers using analysis qualitative. The data  in this research is a data action, observation, speech, and outcome assessment data. Data obtained from student teachers is a process and product of learning actions speak through drama. Data about the learning process acquired through observation of teaching and learning activities, and interactions that occur where the observer is assisted by the existing observation guidelines.

CHAPTER IV
FINDING AND DISCUSSION

4.1       Finding
1.      Descripsi Kondisi Awal
Ketrampilan berbicara siswa secara lisan dalam pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris masih kurang baik dan benar khususnya siswa kelas dua IPA 1 SMAN 1 Palibelo. Berdasarkan fakta di lapangan menunjukkan bahwa dalam kegiatan pembelajaran keterampilan berbicara, siswa masih banyak mengalamai kesulitan. Selama ini siswa sulit untuk berbicara di depan umum. Hambatan lain yang dialami siswa dalam pembelajaran keterampilan berbicara, khususnya bermain peran (drama) adalah kurangnya semangat mereka dalam bermain peran akibat metode pembelajaran yang digunakan guru masih kurang menarik bagi siswa. Hal ini disebabkan oleh banyak faktor, diantaranya dalam kegiatan pembelajaran kurang bervariasi, guru masih sering menggunakan metode yang konvensional dalam pembelajarannya sehingga membuat siswa merasa malas, jenuh, dan tidak dapat membang- kitkan motivasi atau minat siswa untuk mengikuti pembelajaran tersebut. Kondisi tersebut juga terjadi di SMAN 1 Palibelo Kabupaten Bima. Hasil observasi di lapangan juga menunjukkan fenomena bahwa keterampilan berbicara siswa berada pada tingkat yang rendah pada aspek isi pembicaraan, dapat dilihat dari jumlah siswa yang memperoleh nilai dibawah Criteria Ketuntasan Minimum 65, hanya 8 siswa (29%) yang memperoleh nilai di atas minimum dari jumlah keseluruhan siswa 28 siswa. Sisanya 20 siswa (71%) memperoleh nilai di bawah batas minimum. aspek. Ada dua faktor yang menyebab- kan rendahnya tingkat keterampilan siswa dalam berbicara, yaitu faktor eksternal dan faktor internal. Faktor eksternal, diantaranya pengaruh penggunaan bahasa Indonesia di lingkungan keluarga dan masyarakat. Dalam proses komunikasi sehari-hari, banyak keluarga yang menggunakan bahasa ibu (bahasa daerah) sebagai bahasa percakapan di lingkungan keluarga. Demikian juga halnya dengan penggunaan bahasa Indonesia di tengah-tengah masyarakat masih terkontaminasi dengan bahasa ibu yang digunakan sebagai sarana komunikasi. Faktor internal, kurangnya minat maupun usaha siswa belajar berbicara dengan lafal, intonasi, dan ejaan yang tepat dalam keterampilan berbicara. Selain itu, siswa kurang percaya diri untuk berekspresi di depan umum.
Maka untuk meningkatkan kemampuan berbicara siswa dipilih pembelajaran dengan menggunakan drama. Siswa tidak hanya belajar dari guru, tetapi juga sesama siswa.
2.      Descripsi Pelaksanaan Penelitian
Penelitian Tindakan Kelas ini dilakukan dalam dua siklus. Masing-masing siklus dilakukan dalam dua kali pertemuan. Adapun tujuan penelitian ini untuk mening- katkan kemampuan siswa kelas dua IPA 1 SMAN 1 Palibelo Kabupaten Bima dalam keterampilan berbicara melalui teknik drama. Hasil Pelaksanaan Siklus I Kegiatan pelaksanaan pembelajaran pada siklus I dilakukan dua kali pertemuan. Masing-masing pertemuan selama dua jam pelajaran (2x45 menit). Pada siklus I keterlibatan guru dalam kegiatan pembelajaran di kelas relatif dominan mengingat siswa yang diajar adalah siswa yang belum terbiasa belajar dengan teknik drama. Guru menyiapkan skenario dialog untuk setiap kelompok dalam kelas itu. Guru juga terlibat langsung dalam melatih siswa memerankan tokoh dalam skenario pada setiap kelompok. Setelah kegiatan bermain peran dilaksanakan, pada pertemuan kedua siklus I dilakukan refleksi antar kelompok untuk mengomentari penampilan dari kelompok lain. Penilaian dilakukan pada saat siswa melakukan latihan pemantapan perannya masing-masing. Apakah siswa sudah dapat melakukan perannya sesuai skenario atau belum. Dari kegiatan ini diketahui bahwa pengetahuan siswa tentang bermain peran masih ada kekurangan. Siswa masih kesulitan untuk memainkan karakter tokoh yang diperankan, dan masih malu untuk berekspresi. Hal ini dapat diketahui dari respon siswa saat menjawab pertanyaan peneliti tentang kesulitan yang dialami siswa. Kejadian tersebut ditindak lanjuti peneliti untuk memberikan tambahan penguatan tentang bermain peran. Untuk meningkatkan pema- haman siswa, peneliti memberikan contoh- contoh bermain peran sesuai dengan skenario dalam teks. Berdasarkan pemaparan di atas, dapat disimpulkan bahwa kegiatan penutup ini merupakan refleksi dari pembelajaran yang telah dilaksanakan. Dari kegiatan ini, dapat diketahui keterampilan siswa dalam berbicara dengan teknik bermain peran, kesulitan-kesulitan yang dialami siswa selama proses pembelajaran, manfaat pem- belajaran yang diperoleh siswa, dan perencanaan kegiatan tindak lanjut dari pembelajaran keterampilan berbicara dengan mengunakan teknik bermain peran. Berdasarkan hasil pembelajaran siklus I, hasil yang dicapai siswa belum menunjukkan hasil yang memuaskan, sehingga perlu dirancang lagi tindakan siklus II. Dari hasil perbandingan antara pengamatan terhadap aktivitas siswa selama pembe- lajaran berdasarkan nilainya dapat diketahui bahwa sebagian besar siswa yang mem- peroleh skor minim tersebut adalah siswa yang tidak aktif dalam kegiatan bermain peran. Sementara dari tingkat kemampuan akademik menengah maupun tinggi yang serius mengikuti pembelajaran pada umumnya mendapat skor tinggi. Dengan demikian dapat dikatakan bahwa tindakan pada siklus I belum berhasil sehingga perlu dilakukan tindakan siklus II. Hasil Pelaksanaan Siklus II Secara umum prosedur pelaksanaan tindakan siklus II ini sama dengan prosedur pada siklus I. Perbedaannya, dalam siklus II ini keterlibatan guru pada kegiatan pem- belajaran di kelas dikurangi mengingat siswa yang diajar mulai terbiasa belajar dengan teknik bermain peran. Guru hanya menyiapkan skenario dialog untuk tiap kelompok dalam kelas itu. Guru juga tidak terlalu terlibat dalam melatih siswa memerankan tokoh dalam skenario pada setiap kelompok, siswa berlatih sendiri dan tanpa membaca teks secara langsung lagi bersama kelompoknya untuk mengetahui kemajuan yang di alami siswa.
Secara umum dapat dikatakan bahwa pembelajaran dalam siklus II ini berlangsung dalam kondisi tertib dan lancar. Hampir seluruh siswa aktif mengikuti seluruh kegiatan pembelajaran. Hal ini berdampak pada kualitas hasil belajar siswa tentang keterampilan berbicara. Hasil rekapitulasi nilai evaluasi produk akhir dalam siklus II menunjukkan bahwa ada banyak pening- katan pada seluruh siswa meskipun masih ada dua siswa yang mengalami kesulitan.
3.      Descripsi  Hasil Penelitian
a.       Siklus I
1)      Descripsi kuantitatif
Analisis descriptif kuantitatif yaitu untuk mengetahui peningkatan kemampuan siswa secara lisan dalam menggunakan drama atau tehnik bermain peran. Berdasarkan data yang diperoleh menunjukan bahwa dari 28 siswa pada mata pelajaran Bahasa Inggris dalam skill berbicaranya diperoleh nilai rata-rata kelas 66,66 dengan KKM 65. Yang mana 20 siswa (71%) mencapai nilai ketuntasan, sedangkan 8 siswa (29%) belum mencapai ketuntasan.
2)      Deskriptif kualitatif
Analisis deskriptif kualitatif untuk mengetahui tingkat kualitas proses pemebelajaran menggunakan drama dalam pembelajaran bahasa inggris. Dari data angket (interview) diketahui bahwa sebagian besar siswa menyukai pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris dengan menggunakan drama karena meningkatkan kepercayaan diri, kerja sama dengan kelompok, saling tukar pendapat dengan temannya, dan lain-lain.
b.         Siklus II
Pelaksanaan pembelajaran untuk siklus II berjalan sesuai rencana tanpa hambatan yang berarti. Hasil Pelaksanaan Siklus II secara umum prosedur pelaksanaan tindakan siklus II ini sama dengan prosedur pada siklus I. Perbedaannya, dalam siklus II ini keterlibatan guru pada kegiatan pem- belajaran di kelas dikurangi mengingat siswa yang diajar mulai terbiasa belajar dengan menggunakan drama. Secara umum dapat dikatakan bahwa pembelajaran dalam siklus II ini berlangsung dalam kondisi tertib dan lancar. Hampir seluruh siswa aktif mengikuti seluruh kegiatan pembelajaran. Hal ini berdampak pada kualitas hasil belajar siswa tentang keterampilan berbicara. Hasil rekapitulasi nilai evaluasi produk akhir dalam siklus II menunjukkan bahwa ada banyak peningkatan pada seluruh siswa. Karena pada siklus I tercatat nilai belum tuntas 8 siswa (29%) dan yang tuntas 20 siswa (71%). Namun setelah diadakan tindakan pada siklus II tercatat nilai belum tuntas hanya tinggal satu siswa (4%) dan yang mencapai ketuntasan 27 siswa (96%). Dengan demikian, dari segi hasil produksi keterampilan berbicara dengan menggunakan drama dapat dikategorikan berhasil.

4.2       Discussion
Berdasarkan hasil penelitian yang telah dilaksanakan yang terdiri dari dua siklus yang mana setiap siklus di adakan dua kali pertemuan.  Masing-masing pertemuan selama dua jam pelajaran (2x45 menit), terdapat peningkatan dalam dalam kemempuan berbicara siswa dari siklus I ke siklus II, seperti yang terlihat dalam rata-rata hasil belajar dan lembar pengamatan.
1.      Pembahasan Siklus I
Pada penelitian siklus I, pertemuan pertama hasil yang didapat kurang memuaskan. Dari hasil pembelajaran dapat dilihat bahwa masih banyak siswa yang belum mengerti script yang dibagikan. Walaupun nilai rata-rata kelas sudah mencapai 65,27 ini masih belum maksimal, karena masih ada siswa yang nilainya dibawah criteria. Selanjutnya, pada pertemuan kedua, lebih meningkat dari sebelumnya meskipun siswa yang kesulitan pada pertemuan pertama belum mampu mencapai standar criteria minimum, namun yang selain dari mereka rata-rata mengalami peningkatan.
Refleksi yang dilakukan oleh peneliti dan pengamat saat mengalami beberapa kekurangan atau kelemahan antara lain upaya memotivasi lebih baik lagi terhadap siswa yang kurang aktif dalam berlatih, upaya penguatan pada diri siswa untuk lebih percaya diri dalam berkomunikasi. Tentunya terkait pula dengan perbaikan Rencana Pembelajaran untuk siklus II, guna dapat mencapai nilai siswa yang lebih maksimal.
2.      Pembahasan Siklus II
Hasil dari siklus II jumlah anak mencapai ketuntasan 27 siswa (96%), sedangkan yang tidak tuntas 1 siswa (4%), dengan nilai rata-rata kelas 75,50, setelah dijumlahkan dari nilai pertemuan pertama dan kedua pada siklus II. Yang mana perolehan nilai rata-rata kelas untuk pertemuan pertamanya yaitu 71,07 dan nilai rata-rata kelas untuk pertemuan kedua pada siklus II yaitu 78,93.
Adapun kendala atau masalah yang muncul dalam pembelajaran khususnya pada kemampuan siswa  secara lisan berdasarkan tanggapan siswa dalam lembar wawancara mendominasi jawaban takut berbicara di depan umum, malu, khawatir bila terjadi kesalahan dalam berucap, tidak terbiasa berdiskusi, tidak percaya diri dan lain-lain. Namun pada siklus II masalah-masalah atau kesulitan tersebut dengan sendirinya teratasi, terbukti dengan peningkatan nilai kemampuan mereka. Meskipun masih ada 1 siswa yang masih belum keluar dari kesulitannya, karena memang siswa tersebut tidak begitu serius dan rasa kepercayaan dirinya untuk menunjukan kemampuannya kurang.
Kemudian upaya dalam mengatasi masalah tersebut di atas, agar siswa SMAN I Palibelo mampu berkomunikasi dalam bahasa Inggris, guru menyarankan untuk berkomunikasi di sekolah baik di kelas maupun di luar kelas semampunya menggunakan bahasa Inggris. Serta mengaktifkan kebiasaan berdiskusi dengan teman-teman disekitar.

CHAPTER V
                 CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

3.1              Conclusion
Hasil rekapitulasi nilai evaluasi produk akhir dalam siklus I dan siklus II menunjukkan bahwa ada banyak peningkatan pada kemampuan seluruh siswa. Dengan demikian, dari segi hasil nilai produksi keterampilan berbicara dengan menggunakan drama dapat dikategorikan berhasil.

5.2       Suggestion  
                        Berdasarkan kesimpulan di atas, beberapa hal yang sebaiknya dilakukan oleh guru dalam meningkatkan kualitas pembelajaran bahasa untuk memperoleh hasil yang memuaskan, di antaranya:
1.                  Guru perlu mengadakan eveluasi dalam setiap pembelajaran untuk mengetahui kekurangan-kekurangan untuk diperbaiki dan keberhasilan-keberhasilan yang dicapai untuk dipertahankan.
2.                  Guru hendaknya mampu menganalisa permasalahan-permasalahan yang terjadi selama proses belajar.
3.                  Guru harus pandai menumbuhkan minat, daya tarik dan motivasi siswa terhadap mata pelajaran bahasa Inggris khususnya dalam kemampuan berbicara.
4.                  Guru harus dapat member kesempatan siswa untuk untuk berperan aktif dalam proses belajar mengajar.
5.                  Guru memotivasi siswa untuk mengaktifkan budaya diskusi baik secara formal maupun non formal.
6.                  Guru harus menciptakan lingkungan yang kondusif, inovatif dan menyenangkan bagi siswa guna mendukukng keberhasilan pembelajaran.

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USING DRAMA TO IMPROVE STUDENT’S ABILITY IN SPEAKING ( A Study for Students at the Second year of SMA N 1 Palibelo in Academic Year 2010/2011)

1 comments:

Muhammad Zainuddin on May 6, 2013 at 3:45 PM said...

Siapa penulis skripsi ini ?

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