AN ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS’ ABILITY IN CONSTRUCTING VERBAL AND NOMINAL SENTENCES A CASE STUDY AT STUDENTS OF SMP N 2 WEST NORTH PRAYA IN ACADEMIC YEAR 2011/2012
1.1. Background Of The Study
Learning English nowdays is more different from before. “students learn English as second language that can be used in daily life “(Joko Kaswara. 2004)’ human communication my views as a form of social inter-changed for some mutual purpose (Harper and Row 1974:123). People communicate in living room, two persons talking over the telephone , in meeting, a comfrence call, a public speaker a radio or newspaper.
Written language and spoken language is differ in important aspects. Written language must complex, nearly perfect case got revised and can apear in writing, grammar has very important role to support writing but in speaking, grammar is not too important, less structural cause reflect unedited language simple than written at least the speaker and the listener understand each other so the grammatical system is not so important.
When the two or more people communicate each other, sometimes they neglect grammatical system they never think that their sentences structures or not.
For written language grammatical system is the most important part. Writing is written communication used for sharing ideas, important documents, grammar books and soon.
As we know that grammar is an element of language that is very important especially in writing. If we discuss about grammar of course we discuss about sentence because sentece is a part of grammar, “we see the fuction of grammar to organize and arrange four skills in grammatical categories such as present, past tense article and nouns etc,” (Raymond Murphy: Second Edetion). Sentence pattern is a part of grammar. Thus in this study we will discuss about sentence use verb as predicate and nominal sentence is a sentence use “To Be” as predicate (Wahyu Purnomo:2)
Many student still confused to construct verbal and nominal sentences. They did not know which one is verbal and nominal sentence. They did not able to diffreciate both of the sentence. When they construct verbal sentence, they also used “To Be” verbal does not need it. Reverse they construct nominal sentence they also use verb. Those problems to investigate the construction verbal and nominal sentences in english.
Based on the statement above, the writter assumes that the investigation an analysis of students’ ability in constructing verbal and nominal sentences can be conducted by the test of multiple choice, test rearrangements and construct sentence directly(essay)
1.2. Statement Of The Problem
The problem of this statement is an analysis of the student’s ability in constructing verbal and nominal sentences.
1. How far the students’ ability to construct vebal and nominal sentences?
2. What are the students strategies to construct verbal and nominal sentences?
1.3. Purpose Of The Study
The purpose of the study as follws:
1. To know the students’ ability in constructing verbal and nominal sentences
2. To know the students strategies to avoid errors at using verbal and nominal sentences
1.4. Sigsnificance Of The Study
This research has two significance of the study :
1. For student
- To develove their aknowledge and grammar ability
2. For teacher
- To know the student ability in grammar especially in constructing verbal and nominal sentences
1.5. Scope Of The Study
The scope of this study restricted to the following point :
1. The study restricted to the analysis of the students’ ability in constructing verbal and nominal sentences
2. The subject of investigation is the second year of the student SMP N 2 West North Praya in acadmic year 2011/2012
1.6. The Assumption Of The Studty
Base on the background of the study, the writer assumses that the scond year students of SMP N 2 West North Praya in academic year 2011/2012 are unable to construct verbal and nominal sentences.
1.7. Definition Of The Key Terms
To avoid possible misinterpretation and misunderstanding or in order to classify variabel in this study
- Analysis in static’s tecniques designed to yeald the intercorrelation between numbers of variable (Richer M. Ryeman, 1982: 230)
- Analysis is the study of somthing by examining it is part and their relationship, including statement of the result (oxford Advanced Learner Dictionary)
Ability is possessed by individual to know grammatical system mentally avoid very subject others
- Someone knowledge
- To know grammatical system
- Mentally evecit in every subject others
Abstraction defined in term of similarity and contras of elements (Richard M. Ryemen: 1962: 262)
- Design a great sentences, especially to construct verbal and nominal sentences
- To know which one verbal and nominal sentences according grammatical structure.
4. Verbal Sentence
A sentences which is used predicate of verb and action’’(Akhmad kardin, M.Hum, 2005:30)
5. Nominal Sentence
A sentences which is use predicate of verb shows not action “(akhmad kardin, M.Hum, 2005:32)
Review of Related Literature
Language capability is an ability that diffrentiated human being with other (Cheader Alwasilah 1985). “language is the system of the sounds and words used by human to express thought and felt (oxford, New Edittion :662)” All language on the number of sound that can be produced by human vocal cord and the number build limited “(Kangen Havemenn. 1972:158)
Human being communicate with other using language they have many different ways in sanding a message to others according to Marsudi (in Syahrial, 1990) human used symbol of sounds that differ from animal to communicate with others. These articulate sounds are called spoken, thus we can say that languange is an instrument of communication.
Language is collection of symbol governed by rules and used to convey messages between individuals, these symbols can be verbal and non verbal ( Allen and corder. 1991:1) language is a system of spoken and written symbol (verbal) that enable humans to communicate with each other, verbal language is not the only form of communication it can be non verbal language among human being it plays very essential role in certain case that human use non verbal communication in all likelihood is testimony to the fack that it is effective and even more effective than human spoken communication to convey emotion and our understanding (Afriana : 2008: 1)
All language distinguishes between verbal and nominal sentences, according to the differnet parts of speech which can form predicate. The former is a sentence which the subject (virtually) a noun and predicate a finite verb. The letter is a sentence in which the subject as well as the nouns in the position of subjector predicate, are represented by independent sentences, we have a compound sentences suitable, the differences inthe kinds of sentences patern on the different part of speech of predicate, as nouns can be indicate only, continuence,fixednes, etc. And verbs, action, development, so the nominal sentences describes or gives to the subject and abiding atribute or condition, and the verbal sentences on expresses a movement or the divelopment on an action, or say a condition (in case of neuter verbs) in refrence to the arrangement of simple nominal sentence. Which has not been accuratelly in dictated in any grammar of the Hebrew language , but on the contrary, of tea even falsely stated, the result of it is as follows in the nominal sentence the chief interest attaches to it as the object which is thought as being in a position or provided with an attribute (C. Abbrecht:1)
To each utterance, grammar or synthetic component assigns a certain structural description that specifies the language element of which is constituent and their structural relation the phonology component convert a string of word of specified synthetic structure into a phonetic representation to semantic component. Assigns a semantic interpretation to the abstract structure generated by the syntactic. “ thus the syntetic component provides for each sentence a semantically interpretable structure and phonologically interpretable structure “ (Chomsky 1964.pp.9.10 ).
Based on Chomsky’s statemet we can conclude that linguistic branch consist of three coponent phonology, semantic and syntax element are : are phonology, grammar, and sementic these statements are same like Chomsky statement and from statement. From both statement can be conclude that linguitic element are:
a Phonology refers to system of sounds..
b Grammar refer to syntax.
c Semantic refer to vocabulary.
2.2 Language Element
Language is relationship between sounds and syntax to use by people in the world for communicating each other, if we learn language of course we will also use elemets of language as as we know that there are three element of language that are:
a Phonology Component
Phonology is the study about system of sounds and speech, Morgan/King (1975) and according to lyons (1968) is the sound of giving language. Phonitically had develop classification score possible vowel and consonant sounds, suh as sound are called phonemes.
A phonemes is a speech sound: the distinction between a phonem and latter name shown by by the use of slash marks. Thus /P/ is the first sound in “putting”/b/the first sound in ‘’butter’’ and soon most of phonetic will be familiar to you. Some may be new,like/g/,/$/ for shin /Z/ for gin. There are several rlated system for analysis of English phonemes. Here are is one develoved By Miller and Nicely (1985: also Miller 1950)
From study of speech perception each phonemes is specified by an Enlish are placed, manner and voicing to understand the feature system try producing different sound and notice what happen to your lips and tongue. Place refer to the location in the mouth cavity where a sound is produced: labial with the lips as in /b/ dental at pr just back of the teeth as in /t/ and back behind the gum ridge as in/k/.
Manner refer to the method producing sound: plosive and abrupt of sudden release air: put your hand just infront of your lips and say (peter,piper, peck of picked poppers). Fricative a steady release air thouht a ristricted opening (try to saying “she sells, sea sell” nasal release though nasal. To get an idea of voicing start humming and intterupt the hum with the repition of /b/or/p/ you will notice that voice /b/ can be blended right in woth the hum, but to produce unvoiced /p/ require that you inttrupt the hum for instance in a making voice consonant the vocal cord actually begin to vebrate fraction of secondbefore the consonant whle release unvoiced consonant the vocal cord begin to vibrate slightly after the releasing the consonant.
b. Syntatic Component
Syntax is component of the grammatical system for the arrangement of words into phrases and pharases into sentences.(Oxford:1212), syntax which seems as a central to the interpretation of a spoken sentence is hypotical rule based base process that can be analyzed independure tently of either sound or meaning in analysis syntatical structure the meaning of individual word in the semantic link between them generally disrigard while more reason a count or grammatical theories has made syntax less inportant. The efect of the early prominence of dynthetic study remined.
c. Semantic Component
Semntic component assign a semantic interpretation in grammatical aspect language and learning of the language is organized. Ruler, however, not only the grammar but also the semantic component of english, we would not be able communicate meaning to one and another relate to the world outside. Further more, some theories of language aquisition would insist that we learned about synthetic ruler trough semantic representation (Slobin,1971)
The remains human being are capable or even more abstract analysis and interpretationof object and events in their suroundings almost notables are semantic comparison, this that are base on meaning(Robber,Calfee 1997)
Grammar is an important tool with learners can check the correctness of their English (Colin W. Devis Andre J. Watt: 1) if we combine to the grammar defination it has different names but it has been used by language teacher for many years. Grammar is the rules of speaking that make the setence polite and also through the study of the target of language grammar, student would becoome familiar with the grammar of native language and this familiarity would them speech and write their native language better (oxford university press: 05). The rules language for changing the form of words and combining into sentences (Oxford New Edition). One word is about the most fundemental concept in language that is sentence. The rules of grammar particular languages are the rules for composing the entire sentence this could conceivable express in the language. That could concert the number of sentences that can be utterance in any language is infinite the set of object.
Base on modern English practical reference guide by Marcella Frank. The sentence may be further devided according to the function each word has in the subject, predicate relationship. Each of these function is clasified as a differ each parts of speech, the word that form the central core of the sentence arround which all the other words” cluster” are the parts of speech known as knowns (pronouns) and verb: the word that modify the central core words are the parts of speech called adjectives and advebs: the words that show the particular kind of connecting relationship among these four parts of speeh are called prepositions and conjunctions
2.4 Part of speech forming the central core.
The centeral core of the sentence, the part that absolutely necessary for a complete sentence, consist of the most important word in the subject often called “Simple subject” such parts of speech. A predicate word, which expresses action or some other kind of event, this word followed frequently by other word that completes the predication word or predication (called an object).
A linking word which expresses condition, this linking word always followed by another word which make the actual predication (called a subject complement). The predication word or the linking word is often formed “simple predicate” a word functioning as a subject, object, or subject complement is a senteral core is called a noun in the part of speech clasification. Certain word may be used to avoide repetation a noun already mentioned (or understood).
1. Parts of Speech
A noun is often defined as a word which names a person, place or thing. Here are some examples of nouns: boy, river, friend, Mexico, triangle, day, school, truth, university, idea, John F. Kennedy, movie, aunt, vacation, eye, dream, flag, teacher, class, grammar. John F. Kennedy is a noun because it is the name of a person; Mexico is a noun because it is the name of a place; and boy is a noun because it is the name of a thing.
There are many different types of nouns developed by grammarians including the proper noun, the common noun, the concrete noun, the abstract noun, the countable noun (also called the count noun), the non-countable noun (also called the mass noun), and the collective noun.
v Proper Nouns
We always write a proper noun with a capital letter, since the noun represents the name of a specific person, place, or thing. The names of days of the week, months, historical documents, institutions, organisations, religions, their holy texts and their adherents are proper nouns. A proper noun is the opposite of a common noun.
v Common Nouns
A common noun is a noun referring to a person, place, or thing in a general sense -- usually, you should write it with a capital letter only when it begins a sentence. A common noun is the opposite of a proper noun.
A concrete noun is a noun which names anything (or anyone) that you can perceive through your physical senses: touch, sight, taste, hearing, or smell. A concrete noun is the opposite of a abstract noun.
An abstract noun is a noun which names anything which you can not perceive through your five physical senses, and is the opposite of a concrete noun.
v Countable Nouns
A countable noun (or count noun) is a noun with both a singular and a plural form, and it names anything (or anyone) that you can count. You can make a countable noun plural and attach it to a plural verb in a sentence. Countable nouns are the opposite of non-countable nouns and collective nouns.
A non-countable noun (or mass noun) is a noun which does not have a plural form, and which refers to something that you could (or would) not usually count. A non-countable noun always takes a singular verb in a sentence. Non-countable nouns are similar to collective nouns, and are the opposite of countable nouns.
A collective noun is a noun naming a group of things, animals, or persons. You could count the individual members of the group, but you usually think of the group as a whole is generally as one unit. You need to be able to recognise collective nouns in order to maintain subject-verb agreement. A collective noun is similar to a non-countable noun, and is roughly the opposite of a countable noun.
Pronouns refer to and replace nouns (the names of people, places, and things) that have already been mentioned, or that the speaker/writer assumes are understood by the listener/reader. For example, “I want you to read this again.” The words I, you, and this are pronouns. (ACADEMIC STUDIES ENGLISH. FALL 1998)
The adjective is a modifier that has the grammatical property of comparition. It is offer identified by special derivational endings or by special adverbial modifiers that preced it. It almost usual position is before the noun it modifies but it fills others position as well.
Adjective is a word used to qualify/ modify the noun, based Mastering English grammar, the kinds of adjective are :
a. Demonstrative Adjective.
Demonstrative adjective is must agree with their nouns (they must agree only in number) and the position of them must be before the noun modified. Demonstrative adjective can be clasified or in to groups are definitive demonstrative adjective and indefinite demonstrative adjective (Mastering English Grammar: AM. Prayitno)
b. Possessive Adjective
The words adjective are my, your, his, her, its and their and the position of these adjective must be before the noun modfied (Mastering English Grammar: AM. Prayitno)
c. Numeral Adjective
Numeral adjective is the adjective used to show the number of things and numeral adjective can be clasified or group in two groups:
v Definitive numeral adjective, the kinds of definitive numeral adjective are cardinal number, ordinal number and fraction number.
v Indefinite numeral adjective is the adjective used to the a mount of things which have uncertain number the words of indefinite numeral adjectives are all,enough, few, some, many, atc.
d. Quantitative Adjective
Quantitative adjective is the adjective used to show the uncountable things, the words of quantitative adjective are all, any, some, any, some, whole, little etc.
e. Interogative Adjective
The words used introgative are what, which, whose. The position of them must be before the noun modified.
f. Proper Adjective
Proper adjective are formed from the proper noun and the position of proper adjective must be before the noun modified.
g. Distributive Adjective
Distributive adjectiveis the adjective used to show one of the existings, the words of distributive are every, each, either, and neither, the position of distributive adjective must be before the noun modified.
h. Descriptive Adjective
Descriptive adjective is the adjective used to describe the qualify, character,and the condition of person/ human being or thing, the position of the descriptive can be before or after the noun modified.
A verb is a "doing word". It expresses the carrying out of an action. With an active verb this action is carried out by the subject (English Grammar A Short Guide, Graham Tulloch). Based on mastering English Grammar the basic form verb in English grammar is called “infinitive” Infinitive can be conjugated according to the tense used. Basically, there kinds of principal Change of the verbs (infinitife,past tense,and past participel).
The verbs is the most complete part of speech, it is varying arangements with nouns determine the different kinds of sentences, statements, questions, like the noun. The verb has the grammatical properties of person and number, properties which require agreement verb of subject.
Position Of Verb
The verb is used after a subject or before an object or compelement. The verb appears before the subject in most questions, and in sentences or clauses that begin with certain types of negative adverbs. (see the section on the position of nouns for more inrformation about the position of verbs) (Modern English, Marcella Frank)
The kinds of conjunction are:
a. Strong Conjunction
The verb which have strong conjunction are the verbs which past tense and past participle form are not formed by adding/ed/ or /d/ to their infinitive forms the verbs which have conjunction of these kinds are called irregular verb.
b. Weak Conjunction
The verbs have got weak conjunction are the verbs of which past tense and past participle forms are formed by adding /ed/ or /d/ to their infinitive forms. The verbs which have conjunction of these kinds are called regular verb. The past tense and the past participle forms of all regular verbs are made by adding /ed/ or /d/ to their simple form of the verbs.
Adverb is a word used to modify all parts of speech except noun and pronoun. Based on Masteering English Grammar there are kinds simple adverb, introgative, adverb, and relative adverb. The most of adverbs of manner and some adverbs of degree are formed by adding /ly/ to corresponding of adjective.
It has been customary to include the most disparate elements amonnto any adverb frequently those that can not be put into any other part speech classification (Modern English, Marcella Frank)
Prepositions are words normally placed before nouns or pronouns (Practical English Grammar, fourth Edition: A. J . Thomas A.V Martinet). The noun and pronoun following the preposition it’s object, a pronoun used in this always an object pronoun: me, him, her, it us, and them, the preposition plus it is object is called the prepositional phrase (Lets write English: George E Wilshon, Julia M. Burks). Preposition are words normally placed by before nouns or pronoun, preposition can also followed by verbs but, except after but and except, the verb must be in the gerund form (Practical English Grammar, fourth Edition: A. J . Thomas A.V Martinet).
The preposition is classified as a part of speech in traditional grammar, however, prepositios as well as conjunctions differ from other part of speech in that each is composed of a small class of word that have no formal characteristic endings ( Modern English, Marcella Frank).
Function of Preposition
Preposition have been called the biggest little words in English. They are usually quite short and in significant looking, but they have very important function, only the preposition change but that is enough to change the meaning entirely. (Practical English Grammar, fourth Edition: A. J . Thomas A.V Martinet).
A conjunction is a word which connects two or more sentences (Discourse and Function, A Framework of Sentence Structure. by Anthony C. Pick) Based on Lets Write English by George E. Wishon, julia M. Burks. The basic sentence pattern above are:
2. The sentence pattern with intransitive verb.
The sentenrbce pattern : noun+ verb
Example: Thunder sounded
The professor and his colleagues read and study.
Note : The subject part of the sentence is caled the noun phrase, the part of the sentence that expresses what is said of the subject is caled the verb phrase or predicate, the noun phrase is made up of one ore verbs., plus modifiers and connectors. In some sentence pattern it also contains complements and object.
v The sentence patters : noun+ verb + adverbial.
Example: The orchesta played loudly.
The doctors came here hard every day this week.
Note : Adverbs normally follow the verb and are of three basic
Type : Adverbs of manner , adverbs of time , and adverbs of place. A Prepostional phrase can be subsituted for any of them . adverb of manner , like most other adverbs, normally follow the verb, these adverbs explain how the action of the verb, and come after the verb, adverbs of time usually the question where about the action of the verb . adverbs of time usually follow the verb : however they may also introduce the sentence for reasons of style or for emphasis . Actually, it is possible for almost any adverb to be placed at the begiinning of the sentence but adverbs of the time are found in that position more frequently than the others.
v The sentence pattern : noun + verb + noun.
Example : The students attend the lectures regulary
Note : the noun + verb + noun sentence pattern may or may not be followed by an adverb, actually the verb in any sentence can be followed an adverbial modifier
v The sentence pattern case of pronouns
Example: I will see you in the library
Rita called frank
Note : nouns and pronouns used subject and subject equivalents are said to be in the nominative case, nouns and pronouns used as objective case, nous and pronouns used to show possession are in the possessive case, possessive may subtitute for a noun in any noun position in the sentence, noun do not change function or position in the sentence, but most personal pronouns ( and a few other pronouns) do.
v The sentence pattern : noun + verb + noun.
Example : the student ask Prof. Ricci a lot of question.
Note : the following verbs are often used in the pattern noun + verb+ noun+noun, the pattern may also be stated subject +verb+indirect object+direct object, notice this pattern the indirect object can be personal pronoun but the direct object can not make more sentence of this type by supplying the missing parts.
v The sentence pattern : noun+verb+noun+to/for phrase.
Example: The director described tthe project to.
Note : whether a sentence with a to / for phrase after the direct object canbe rewriten in the noun + verb + noun + noun pattern depend on the verb that is used in the sentence.
v The sentence pattern : noun + linking verb + adjective
Example : water is imfortant
Note : in this pattern a linking verb connects a subject to a complement which fells something about the subject, the complement in this pattern is adjective.
v The sentence pattern : noun+ linking verb + adverbial.
Example : he was here yesterday she must beat the doctors office at 03:00.
Note : notice that the only linking verb used in this pattern is be and thatthe adverbial my be either an adverb or prepositional phrase only time and place adverbials are used in this pattern , ( adverbs of manner are used with action verb ) remember that when both time and place adverbials occur in the same sentence , adverbials of place go before adverbials of time.
v The sentence pattern; noun + linking verb + noun.
Example : My name is joseph.
I am a student.
Note ; in this pattern , linking verb . connects the subject of the sentence to a complemet which feels something about , renames , the sebject . the complement in this pattern is a noun or pronoum . And is often called the subjective complement o the predicate nominative. If the complement is a personal pronoun , it will be a nominative case form in careful writing and formal speech. But mayy be an objective case form in informal conversation.
2.5 Grammar as Language Elment.
Grammar is language elment, as particulary at the early level in communicative process. They must know the different form of auxiliary before they can be expected to produce compound tenses . we use the words grammar in this general sentence.
A. The kind of grammar of language elstatement are :
a. Finite state rule .
The simple kinds of Grammar that can be used of words by the application of some rules in grammatical categories.
b. Phrase structure grammar.
It has different kind of grammar, it call phrase grammar (chomsky, 1956). There are two many different sentence in any language to permit phrase structure garammar to be an effecient wa to describe the sentence of language. However it is possible to supplement phrase structure rule in various way.
B. Types of grammar.
Grammar also is important to know the roles and build ability in the four skills that I mentioned , interactive English Learning. (Joko Kaswara. 2004) stucture is defiine into classes of words according to the function they fulfill in a sentence (robber T. C. Calfee 9175.433) this what we mean by noun, verb, adjective, and other.
Based on those definition of grammar and structure, we can conclude that grammar structure focus and learn about sentence in this study we will discuss about two kinds of grammar structure. They are verbal and nominal sentence to make more detail the writer will explain dipla them in each part of as follows:
1. Verbal Sentence.
Verbal is a sentence use predicate of verb (Akhmad Kardin, 2005). Verbal sentence can not a part from tense. Verb describs the time when an action or event happened. In this part the writer will explain those tenses, they are as follows:
a. Present Tense
It is used for discribing an action or event which is happened in present time and also to describe habitual action and general truth.
Formula : S+VI+S/ES+ COMPLEMENT
1. Positive : Andy goes to school every day
2. Negative : Andy does not go to school every day
3. Introgative : do you go to school every day
Note : when we construct the sentences in present form, there some verbs added by (S) or (ES), and the verb that added by (ES) are the words which are endding with: ch, sh, x, and y. And than in negative and introgative form we have to put do or does.
Do it is used for subject : I, You, They, We, and
Does it used for subject : He, She and it
b. Past Tense
It is used to describe an action or event which are happened in the past time and it finish at particular time in passt time.
Formula : S+V2+COMPLEMENT
1. Positive : My father went to senggigi yesterday
2. Negative : Budy did not read book yesterday
3. Introggative : Did Riana go to mall yesterday?
c. Perfect Tense
It is used to describe an action which happened in the past time and it has relationship with the time at present, or to describe an action happened or finished in the short time.
Formula: S+HAVE/HAS+V3+ COMPLEMENT
A. Positive : I have done my assignment
B. Negative : she has not gone to bali
C. Interogative : Have you gone to bali
Note : Has used only for subject : she, he, it.
Have used only for subject : I, You, They, We.
d. Future Tense
It is used to describe an action or event that will happen in the future time.
Formula : S+WILL/SHALL+COMPLEMENT
A. Positive : andy will go to hospital tomorrow
B. Negative : My father will not in Lombok next year
C. Shall I come to your house to night?
Note : Will used for subject : you, they, he, she, it.
Shall used for subject : I and We.
e. Present Continous Tense
To describe an action or condition happening when of moment of speaking
Formula : S+TO BE+V++PROGRESIVE+COMPLEMENT
A. Positive : she is reading book now.
B. Negative : you are not studying right now
C. Introgative : are they calling you now?
2. Nominal Sentence
Nominal sentence is a sentence which used predicate of To Be (Akhmad Kardin 2005:32) for more detail the writer try to desplay some of them. And they are as follows:
a. Present Tense
It is used for describing an action or event which is happened in present time and also to describe general truth
Formula : S+TO BE(am,is,are)+adjective,adverb,noun
1. Positive : she is beatiful
2. Negative : they are not in the beach
3. Introgative : is he a teacher
It is use to describe an action or an event which is happened in the past time and it finish at particular time in the past time.
Formula : S+TO BE(WAS,WERE)+ADJECTIVE,ADVERB,NOUN
1. Positive : my mother was rich two years ago
2. Negative : they were not at the market yesterday
3. Introgative : Were in the class room when the earth quick happened yesterday
Note : was for subject : I, She, He and It
Were for subject : you, they,we
c. Perfect Continous Tense
It is used to describe an action which happened in the past time it has relationship with the time at present , or to describe an action happened or finish in the short time
Formula : S+HAVE/HAS+BEEN+ADJECTIVE,ADVERB,NOUN
1. Positive : she has been sick for two days
2. Negative : the have been not at class room since five oc’clock
3. Introgative : have you been a teacher?
Note : have used for subject : I, you, they, we
Has used for subject : he, she, it
d. Future Tense
It is used to describe an action or event that will happen in the future time.
Formula : S+WILL/SHALL+BE+ADJECTIVE,ADVEB,NOUN
1. Negative : She will be rich next month
2. Negative : they will not be here next month
3. Introgative : will you be a teacher of English in my school?
3.1 Method Of The Study
Methode is something very important in the study. The method is used in this study is descriptive methode. It applied to know the students ability in constructing verbal and nominal sentences. Specefic method which related to data collection. The writer use testing method and qualitative research.
3.2 Population And Sample
The specification of the population will needed to make a research valid (Yusra 2006). Dealig with that the population of this study was the scond ar students of SMP N 2 West North Praya in academic year 2011/2012. The population consist of two classes, A and B, each class consist of 25 students.
Based on the statements, the writer take both of classes as the sample that consist of 25 student, thus the total sample of this study was 50 students.
3.3 The Procedure Of Dat Collection
The data collection is very important in this study the data collected dirictly to the samples of research, the procedure of data collection the writer adminiter grammar test.
Grammar test is way to measure the students’ ability in constructing verbal and nominal sentences. The writer gives grammar test by using choice form, Rearrangement, and essay. The students have to select the best answer and construct the correct sentences.
The grammar test are answered by the second year student of SMP N 2 West North Praya in academic year 2011/2012.
3.4 Data Analysis
Generally, there are two types of methodology of data analysis, there are : statistic analysis and non analysis, the writer applied the statistic as following
1. Scoring the students’ ability in answering the objection test of multiple choices. They has prepared 15 question for the objective test of multiple choice, each correct answer will get “2” correct answer.
2. Scorinng the students’ ability in answering rearrangement (jumble) and essay. The writer has prepared10 question for rearrangement, each question is scored “2” score for correct answer and “0” for wrong answer. There 10 number of exercise for easy construct sentence directly. Each number is scored “ 5” for correct sentence, “2”foe incorrect unswer and “0” for none answer. Total were for 35 numbers of test.
3. The computing them into this formula do analysis :
a. Σ S
Where Σ s = The numbers of student get score>60
Σ f = The numbers of student get score<60
N = Three numbers of studets as samples.
The clsification of students are classfied into the following table :
Table above means :
4 = The student that answer the items between 80-100 correctly
3 = The student that answer the items between 70-79 correctly
2 = The student that answer the items between 60-69 correctly
1 = The student that answer the items between 50-59 correctly
0 = The student that answer the items between 0-49 correctly
To obtain the information converted to the study of the students diterminers table Percetage scale and population as follows: