THE EFFECT OF COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TOWARD
STUDENTS’ SPEAKING ABILITY FOR BEGINNING LEVEL
OF THE FIRST YEAR STUDENTS OF MTs. NW Korleko
IN THE SCHOOL YEAR 2007-2008
Don’t see who is speaking,
but see (pay attention) to what is told
This thesis dedicated to:
My beloved parents (Aq. Hardiawati and Iq. Hardiawati), My brother (Zurmawadi), My sisters (Hardiawati and Rohani), My soulmate (Fathurrahman, SE), and all my relatives and friends.
Rohaniyah. 2008. The Effect of Communicative Approach toward Students Speaking Ability for Beginning Level of the First Year Students of MTs. NW Korleko in the School Year 2007/2008. S-1 Thesis. English Program of Language and Art Education Department of STKIP Hamzanwadi at Selong. Advisor: (1) Mr. Usuluddin, M.Pd, (2) Mrs. Sri Wahyuni, S.Pd
Key words : Communicative Approach, Speaking Ability
Speaking ability in the foreign language teaching is not enough merely to provide students with opportunities to speak in conversation or class discussion. The various approach which can applied by teacher or source of information in the classroom activities to support the students to be more familiar to the target language as the objective of learning. This all intended to modify the students in order to be able to communicate effectively. One of the approach which can be used in this study was communicative approach. This approach used to help the teacher in increasing the students achievement in order become to communicatively competence. Therefore, this study tried to discover students’ speaking ability in communication for the first year students of MTs. NW Korleko in the school year 2007/2008. There were two research questions formulated as follow: (1) to what extent is the level of students’ speaking ability in English for beginning level of the first year students of MTs. NW Korleko in the school year 2007/2008?; (2) to what extent is the effectiveness of communicative approach toward students speaking ability for beginning level of the first year students of MTs. NW Korleko in the school year 2007/2008?
This study was experimental research; the target population of this study was all the first year students of MTs. NW Korleko in the school year 2007/2008. The researcher took 50 students as the sample of the study, 24 students as the experimental group and 26 students as control group. To collect the data, the researcher used speaking test in oral term which refers to the retelling picture and tape recorder. In analyzing the data, the researcher used the comprehensive description of FSI procedure and then conversed with the criteria of the weighting table of the comprehensive description of FSI procedure.
After collecting and calculating the data, the researcher found that the mean score for the experimental group was 60, and for the control group was 41.5. While, in testing the hypothesis, the writer used t-test formula. The researcher found that t-test was 1.77, and t-table in significant rank 5% was 2.02 (1.77 < 2.02). So, the alternative hypothesis was rejected and the null hypothesis could be accepted. It means that there is no significant effect of communicative approach toward students’ speaking ability.
Rohaniyah. 2008. The Effect of Communicative Approach toward Students Speaking Ability for Beginning Level of the First Year Students of MTs. NW Korleko in the School Year 2007/2008. Skripsi S-1. Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris dan Seni STKIP Hamzanwadi Selong. Pembimbing: (1) Usuluddin, M.Pd, (2) Sri Wahyuni, S.Pd
Kata kunci : Pendekatan Komunikatif, Kemampuan Berbicara
Kemampuan berbicara dalam bahasa Inggris tidaklah cukup hanya dengan memberikan kesempatan kepada siswa untuk berbicara dalam percakapan atau diskusi kelas. Banyak pendekatan-pendekatan yang bisa digunakan oleh guru atau sumber dari informasi di dalam kegiatan ruangan kelas untuk mendukung siswa agar lebih mengenal atau mengetahui bahasa target sebagai tujuan dari pembelajaran. Ini semua dimaksudkan untuk meningkatkan kemampuan siswa berkomunikasi dengan efektif. Salah satu dari pendekatan yang bisa digunakan dalam pelajaran ini yaitu pendekatan komunikatif. Pendekatan ini digunakan untuk membantu guru dalam meningkatkan kemampuan siswa dalam berkompetensi. Dengan demikian penleitian ini mencoba untuk menemukan sejauhmana tingkat kemampuan berbicara siswa dalam berkomunikasi pada siswa kelas I MTs. NW Korleko tahun pelajaran 2007/2008. Dalam penelitian ini ada dua rumusan masalah yaitu: (1) sejauhmana tingkat kemampuan berbicara siswa pada tingkat pemula kelas I MTs. NW Korleko tahun pembelajaran 2007/2008?, (2) sejauhmana pengaruh dari pendekatan komunikatif terhadap kemampuan berbicara siswa kelas I MTs. NW Korleko tahun pembelajaran 2007/2007?
Penelitian ini termasuk penelitian eksperimen, dan target populasi penelitian ini adalah semua siswa kelas I MTs. NW Korleko tahun pelajaran 2007/2008. Peneliti mengambil 50 siswa sebagai sampel. 24 siswa sebagai kelompok eksperimen dan 26 siswa sebagai kelompok kontrol. Untuk mendapatkan data, peneliti menggunakan tes speaking yang berbentuk lisan yaitu menceritakan kembali laluj awaban mereka direkam. Dalam menganalisis data, peneliti menggunaka ndeskripsi komprehensif dari prosedur FSI sebagai referensi untuk menentukan nilai siswa, kemudian konsultasikan kriteria-kriteria itu ke dalam tabel prosedur penilaian kopmrehensif deskriptif FSI.
Setelah mengumpulkan dan menghitung data penelitian telah memperoleh nilai mean untuk kelompok eksperimen adalah 60, dan untuk kelompok kontrol adalah 41,5. Sedangkan untuk menguji hipotesisnya, peneliti menggunakan t-tes. Peneliti menemukan bahwa nilai t-tes adalah 1,77 dengan taraf signifikan 5% adalah, karena nilai t-tes lebih besar dari t-tabel (1,77 < 2,02), maka hipotesis alternatifnya ditolak dan null hypothesisnya diterima. Itu menunjukkan bahwa pendekatan komunikasi memiliki pengaruh negatif terhadap kemampuan berbicara siswa kelas I MTs. NW Korleko tahun pembelajaran 2007/2008.
The writer would like to express her sincere gratitude and deepest appreciation to Allah SWT for her mercies and blessing in writing this simple thesis.
The writer is also very grateful to Usuluddin, M.Pd (first advisor), and Sri Wahyuni, S.Pd (second advisor) for their precious time, and invaluable correction, guidance, and assistance during the writing process of this thesis on. It would never be in the present without their help.
It also may pleasure to acknowledge a great debt to the head of Hamzanwadi College of Teacher Training and Education at Selong, Department of Language and Art in Education, the lecturers, the staffs, colleagues, and also her friend of students who has seriously participated giving us the valuable information in the investigation.
The last but not least, her gratitude goes to her close friend; Dayati, Yuna, Rizal, Udar, Diana, Fity, and many others who names can not be mentioned on their valuable support.
As there is no such thing quite prefect in the world, the writer honestly appreciates of this writing. Hopefully, this will be a valuable useful contribution for further research, especially in English.
1.1 Background of the Study
Language is system of sound symbol used by humans to communicate. Finnochiaro and Brumfit (in Richard and Rodger, 1995: 65) said that language as means of communication in which there are many languages which can be used in doing interaction with the other people. English in Indonesia is taught as a foreign language in all school levels (from elementary school up the university).
In English curriculum, students’ speaking ability is very hoped in teaching and learning process especially in teaching English because English is compulsory subject must be known for all of students to develop through four skills, listening, speaking, reading and writing. A language learner will not be able to convey or interpret messages spoken or written with the other people without mastering communicative aspect, such as: grammatical, discourse, sociolinguistics, pragmatics, and etc. in other word, successful speaker/reader is able to convey, interpret, negotiate meaning.
The aspects of communicative competence have some categories. Brown (1994: 66) divides communicative competence into grammatical, discourse, sociolinguistics, pragmatics, and strategies. The components of communicative competence itself can be acquired by the four skills namely listening, speaking, reading, and writing. But in this case, the researcher emphasized those four skills on speaking ability, but it is not enough to provide students with opportunities to speak in English. The teacher needs to help students to speak, help them when participating in class discussion or in conversation, because the students need time to plan and organize their message while they are speaking.
Many Indonesian students in all level find a lot of difficulties in mastering the four language skills. In this study, the researcher focused on observing students’ problem in speaking ability, because speaking seem to be the most difficult and also many students say that it is not used in daily communication but also many students interest spontaneously and enthusiasm to learn it. That is why, caused by the English teacher is not yet be able in using approach method.
The most often become to complain is the teachers ability in applying appropriate approaches, methods, strategies or techniques in teaching or learning. So, many students is not interest in learning English. Therefore, the English teach suggested in order to be able mastering of method, such as, Nababan (1991: 4) notices that a qualified teacher is the teacher who is able to suit best method or technique to the material that is being taught.
To encounter the situation a language teacher needs to acquire a set of skills beside of developing his/her attitudes towards peers, and also language teacher must understand some theoretical knowledge about how human learns.
In the language classroom, for instance, there were various techniques, as well as method, strategies, and approaches and also time allotment ‘bargained’ by the educator or the source of information (especially English teacher) to the students to be more familiar to the target language as the objective of learning Ryan and Cooper in Brown (1993). This all intended to modify the students in order to be able to community by using the target language effectively.
From the outline above, we can concluded that the teaching technique enable the English teacher can teach the students to communicate in target language as the objective learning. In the sense, the writer often hear beyond the drilling technique, grammar translation method, audio lingual method, and elect approach which were demand the students to focus of learning and also the teacher suggested in present the materials must suitable by what learner needed.
Beside the phenomenon described above, the writing was describing one approach method which can be used in this study was communicative approach, this approach can be used to help the teacher in motivating the students achievement in the effectiveness of communicative approach toward students speaking ability for beginning level of the first year students of MTs. NW Korleko in the school year 2007-2008.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Based on the background of the problem presented previously, the statements of the problem were formulated as follow:
1. To what extent is the level of students’ speaking ability in English for beginning levels of the first year students of MTs. NW Korleko in the school year 2007-2008?
2. To what extent is the effectiveness of communicative approach toward students’ speaking ability for beginning levels of the first year students of MTs. NW Korleko in the school year 2007-2008?
1.3 Objectives of the Study
Based on the research problem, the study was done through purposing to get explanation about the effectiveness for beginning levels students through communicative approach in teaching speaking ability, the objectives to find out:
1. The way of the teacher to increase students’ interest in communicative by using English.
2. How the teacher motivate the students in speaking English through communicative approach for beginning levels.
3. The effectiveness of communicative approach toward students’ speaking ability for beginning levels of the first year students of MTs. NW Korleko in the school year 2007-2008.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The result of this study had two aspects, theoretically and practically.
This study was used to clarify all problems related to foreign language. Teacher helped with provide current theory and provide them some empirical evidence about teaching of English especially for the knowledge students level, in this case “communicative approach” to predict other problem in speaking achievement.
This study was used to provide feedback for the English teacher that is, to describe students’ weakness in teaching English, especially in communication for speaking achievement. So that, the teacher is suggested able to develop and increase his teaching and learning process.
1.5 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The target of this study was investigating the effectiveness of teaching English for beginning level students through communicative approach in communication. Properly speaking in this case through communicative approach for the first year students of MTs. NW Korleko. Furthermore, this study attempted to describe the students speaking ability in communication. Where the scope and limitation of the study were limited to the research subject and object.
The research subject was limited to the first year students of MTs. NW Korleko.
The research object was limited on the students’ achievement on speaking ability through communicative approach for beginning levels in English.
1.6 Assumption of the Study
From this study, the researcher considered it was important to draw assumption to avoid any factors which may cause bias in the result. The assumption are:
1. Communication for beginning level in speaking ability is different between control and experimental group, although they are considered have the same curriculum and time for learning.
2. There are some factors which may influence students’ achievement in communication for the beginning levels. It is caused by strategy, method and technique and also approach.
1.7 Hypothesis of the Study
Ary (2002: 111) states the hypothesis is the researcher prediction about the outcome of the study. Furchan (1982: 120) defines that hypothesis is the instrument that has large function in scientific research. There are four function of hypothesis namely: (1) giving a temporary explanation about the tendency of something that will be researched; (2) giving relation of a statement that can be stated in a research: (4) giving a course for the research; (4) giving framework to make conclusion in a research. The writer formulates the hypothesis of this study such as “There is no significant effect of communicative approach toward students speaking ability for beginning level of the first year students of MTs. NW Korleko.
1.8 Definition of Key Terms
In order to have concept of the key terms used in this research and to avoid misinterpretation or misunderstanding to the reader, the writers should involved in this study were defined as follows:
1. Communicative approach is an approach needed the process, where the students must simply knowledge target language forms, meanings and functions and also the students must be able to apply this knowledge in negotiating meaning.
2. Speaking ability refers to students ability of the first year students of MTs. NW Korleko to communicate in learning of the productive language skills by using his own words orally to transferring his/her ideas in using the target language effectively.
3. Beginning levels is the most challenging level especially for the first year students of MTs in the language instruction where at this level the students have little prior knowledge of the target language in the second language. So, the students are able to production new words because for this level the students structure and concepts is limited. (Brown, 1994: 98-99)
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
In this chapter, the writer discusses about teaching beginning levels, communicative approach, relevant study, and theoretical framework.
2.1 Teaching Beginning Levels
In this case, the researcher explains about the theory in teaching beginning levels through a concept and what is the role of the teacher and what is the goal of beginning levels in teaching and learning process.
2.1.1 The Concept of Teaching Beginning Levels
Beginner is considered by many teacher to be the most challenging level of language instruction. The teacher (accompanying technique and material) becomes a central determiner in whether students accomplish their goals or not. They can grow the students’ proficiency because it is apparent in a matter of few weeks.
Therefore, at the beginning or even false beginning level, our students have very little language “behind” them. As beginning language courses have demonstrated for many decades, but as a teacher have to keep in mind that the students capacity is limited for taking and retaining. So, they need to know new words, structures, and concepts.
Richard and Rodgers in Brown (1994) propose seven factors which will help to formulate an approach to teach beginners as adopted from a theoretical on each factor and will be able to design classroom technique that are:
1. Students’ cognitive learning process
Virtually all of the students’ processing with respect to the second language itself is in a focal, controlled mode for a review of cognitive process and some classroom application. Therefore, the teacher can expect to engage in plenty of repetition of a limited number of word, phrase, and sentences. However, a teacher can coax their students into some peripheral processing by getting them to use practiced language for genuinely meaningful purpose.
2. Students’ creativity
The ultimate goal of learning a language is to be able to comprehend and produce it in unrehearsed situation, which demands both receptive and productive creativity. At the beginning level, students can be creative only within the confines of a highly controlled repertoire of language.
3. Teacher talk
In the second language situation, especially multilingual classes, teacher use of a students native language is seldom an issue. In foreign language situation, it becomes an option. The rule of thumb here is usually to restrict classroom language to English unless some distinct advantage is gained by the use of their native language.
4. Authenticity of language
The language that students expose to should, according to principles of CLT be authentic language is not just because in this case the students are beginner in simple greeting and introduction. To make sure utterance are limited to short, simple phrases, at this stage, the students are repetition needed opportunity to practice their new language.
5. Fluency and accuracy
Fluency is a goal at this level but only within limited utterance lengths, fluency does not have to apply only to long utterance. Attention to accuracy should center on the particular grammatical, phonological, or discourse elements that are being practical. On the other hand, the teacher need to correct some selected grammatical and phonological errors so that students don’t fall into the trap of assuming that pronunciation work (on phonemes, phonemic patterns, intonation, rhythm, and stress) is very important at this stage.
Short, simple techniques must be used. Some mechanical techniques are appropriate and other drilling. Group and pair activities are excellent techniques as long as they are structured and clearly defined with specific objectives. So, in this case, techniques is very important because at this level, the students are limited language capacity.
Grammar in the classroom is another issue. A typical beginning level will deal at that outset with very simple verb forms, personal pronouns, definite and indefinite article, singular and plural noun, and simple sentence in a progression of grammatical topics from simple to complex. Therefore, an inductive approach to grammar with suitable examples and patterns will be more effective.
2.1.2 The Role of the Teacher in Teaching Beginning Levels
Corder and James in Brown (1994) state that beginning students are highly dependent on the teacher for models of language and a teacher-centered or fronted classroom is appropriate for some classroom time. However, the teacher must be prepared to subordinate his own behavior to the learning not only take place as a direct result of his own instruction.
The concept of the teacher as ‘instructor’ according Richards and Rodger in Brown (1994) is thus inadequate to describe his overall function. In a broad sense he is ‘a facilitator of learning’ and may need to perform in a variety of specific roles, separately or simultaneously. Therefore, as a teacher responsible to “keep the ball rolling”. So, the beginning level classes need not be divided of a medium of students-centered work.
Furthermore, the degree control of the classroom time also learns strongly in the direction of the teacher at the beginning levels. In the second language anyway of controlling the class period, the load on the teacher to plan topics, activity types, time-on-task, etc. As students gain in their own that may then proficiency, they will be able to initiate question and comments of their own that may then occasionally shift the locus of control in a foreign language situation.
2.1.3 The Goal of Beginning Levels
Brown (1994) notice that the listening and speaking functions for beginner are meaningful and authentic communication tasks. The students are limited by grammar, vocabulary, and length of utterance than the communicative function.
As a native language, the most important contextual factor that should bear mind in teaching reading and writing to beginners because reading and writing topics are confined to brief but nevertheless real-life written material. Advertisement forms, and recipes are grist for the beginner’s reading mill while written work may involve forms, lists, and simple notes and letters.
2.2 Communicative Approach
In this section the writer propose some approach in teaching English. In the English syllabus 1984, the approach of teaching which the communicative approach had adopted in the 1984 and it first discusses is concept, goal, characteristic of teaching and learning process, aspects, and the last communicative approach to foreign language teaching.
2.2.1 The Basic Concept of Communicative Approach
In this part, the writer discusses the concept of communicative as an approach in this study. The communicative approach in foreign language teaching has come out as a result of studies in language acquisition and in its implementation of teaching methods. So, the communication can say is a process, but it is insufficient for students to simply have knowledge of target language forms, meaning, and function. The students must be able to apply the knowledge in negotiating meaning through the interaction between speaker and listener where the teacher role as a facilitator who manages classroom activities and the students are the communicator who are actively engaged communication typically in small group. So, it is become clear, whether the listener gives the speaker feedback or not understands what the speaker said.
The communicative approach is labeled “pendekatan kebermaknaan” because basically a version of the communicative approach and it can be interpreted in two ways: (1) Meaning-based instruction, (2) Meaningful instruction. The meaning-based instruction that language is a means to express and understand meaning. Meaning is determined by language scope and defined by social contexts. The meaningfulness of instruction is concerned with the relevance of teaching to objective of education. So, both approach used to certain function of language and teaching.
When we used communicative, we used the language to accomplish some function such as arguing, persuading, or promising. Moreover, we carry out this function within a social context used in a language. The goal of the teacher used the communicative approach is the students become communicatively competence. In the communicative approach the nation of what takes to be communicatively competence is much expended. Brown in Huda (1999) states that communicative competence that enables us to convey and interpret messages and to negotiate meanings interpersonally within specific context. Nababan (1991) states that communicative competence should interpreted as linguistic ability which can adjust the form and meanings of language to the situation of language use.
Since the Mid 1970’s, the scope of the communicative language teaching was expended. As an approach, it aimed at two main points. First, it introduced the concept of communicative competence does not only include the mastery structure and vocabulary, but also the mastery on wide range of expression several function (i.e. conjunction, adverbs, prepositional phase, and expression), and also the comprehension on the use of verbal and non verbal communication strategies. The second, the approach places the interdependence of the four language skill (listening, speaking, reading, and writing). (Richard and Omagio in Huda, 1999)
v The Features of Communicative Approach
Language teachers must look for what factors of language teaching will be the most effective for instruction and evaluation the achievement of the students after they have been taught.
According to Brown (1993: ) in conducting the language teaching, the students have very important part which influence the process of language teaching and learning. On the other hand, the writer describes two factors which support them, namely:
a. Internal factor
1. Physiological factor
It is a factor which is affected by the students’ condition, such as: health, condition of five sources, and condition of nerves.
2. Psychological factor
It is the student factor, such as: intelligence, attention, interest, and emotion. If the condition of intelligence, attention, interest, and emotion is less or reduced, it will be influenced too. To overcome the problems, the teachers and the parents can work together to create condition which is able to help the students.
b. External factor
It is the factor which come from outside of the students, namely:
1. Social factor
It is the factors of the students which come during teaching learning process in the classroom or which come during their learning activities outside of the classroom. For examples: doing useless conversation between friends in the classroom and there is a member of teaching learning process is also provided by the students’ economical background and also their environments.
2. Non social factor
It is like: air condition, humidity, and the like.
Relating to the factors influence above, communicative approach as one of many teaching English as a foreign language in Junior High School is successful. In this case, the writer also hopes that this method can be useful and effective in teaching speaking at Junior High School. So, the feature of communicative approach is almost everything that is done which communicative intend. The students used the language a great deal through communicative activities such as: games, role play, and problem solving task.
According to Nubbin in Larsen (1986) that the term “communicative approach taken to mean communicative competence” or simply “communicative language teaching”.
As an approach, communicative language teaching is based on the theory of language as means of communications. As in this indicated, the purpose of the language teaching is to develop what Dell Hyms called “communicative competence” this competence is a goal in this approach.
2.2.2 The Goal of Communicative Approach
The mention that the communicative competence is a goal in communicative approach because this competence was discussed through two perspective linguistic and psycholinguistic where linguistic was reviewed about definition and psycholinguistic was reviewed from the process acquisition of communicative competence itself. Chomsky in Brown (1979) defined “competence” is the speaker-hearer’s knowledge of his language as stated in modern linguistics. Chomsky in Brumfit (1979: P.3) linguistic theory is concerned with an ideal speaker-listener in a completely homogenous speech community who knows its language perfectly and is unaffected by such grammatically irrelevant condition as memory limitation, distraction, shifts of attention and interest and error (random or characteristic) in applying this knowledge of the language in actual performance.
Communicative competence involves the difficulties of the students and able to use the language appropriate to give social context to do this statements, the students need knowledge of the linguistic forms, meanings, and functions. The students need to know that many different forms can be used to perform a function and also a single form among the most appropriate form and also given the social context and the roles of the interlocutors.
The terms of communicative competence was first coined by Dell Hymes in Huda (1999) as a reaction gain the concept of language competence. Chomsky in Huda (1999) proposed the terms of communicative competence subsequently received various interpretations. Mostly based on sociolinguistic studies of all the interpretation. The one proposed by Halliday and Canale in Huda (1999) about the literature of language teaching.
Chomsky (in Huda, 1999) classified competence into two: competence and performance. Competence is the ideal ability of a speaker in a language. It is described a complete and perfect knowledge and then reflect in a dialog between speaker and hearer. Performance is the realization of the competence in the form and utterance which can be heard or read by other.
220.127.116.11 The component of Communicative Competence
According to Canale in Huda (1999) the component of communicative competence consists of four domains of knowledge and skills.
1. Grammatical competence is identical with linguistic competence. It can involve the mastery of language, such as vocabulary, sentence formation, pronunciation, spelling and semantics. This competence is required for the understand and expressing literal meaning of an utterance.
2. Sociolinguistic competence is related to the extent an utterance and functioned is to express and understood correctly in different sociolinguistic contexts. This statement can depend on certain factors.
3. Discourse competence is concerned with the mastery of ways to combine grammatical forms and meaning to produce either a spoken or written utterance. In this case, there are two forms: cohesion and coherence meaning where cohesion is the relationship between utterance and grammatical structure and the coherence is the relationship among several meaning in an utterance (text).
4. Strategic competence is the last component consist of the mastery of verbal and non-verbal communication and also on the other hand used to strengthen the effectiveness of communication.
18.104.22.168 The Acquisition of Communicative Competence
The second problem mentioned which can be used to develop the communicative competence, there are three theories proposed to develop communicative competence in the learners, i.e. the behaviorist, nativist, and interactionist approaches.
1. The Behaviorist Approach
This approach is based on the assumption developed by the stimulus-response theory. Language is a set of habits with two characteristics, that is observable and automatic. The automatically is obtained through drills and practice. The drill and practice are seen as the stimulus while the speaker’s utterance is seen as a response which is strengthened with reinforcement.
According to the behaviorists, practice is meant to transfer language skills, since skill can be transferred from one language to another, when on the other hand, they differ. Then difficulty or interference will occur which takes the form of languages errors. According to Lado in Huda (1999) techniques were developed to estimate errors made as a result of habit transfers. These techniques were called contrastive analysis.
2. The Nativist Approach
This approach argues that language competence is not developed by external factors, rather by factors found within the learner. Every individual is born with what is called a language acquisition device (LAD).
The concept of LAD developed by Chomsky in Huda (1999) several other theories then emerged, such as Krashens’ and Bialystok’s in Huda (1999) monitor theory one considerable contribution to the studies of the second language acquisition is the distinction between implicit and explicit linguistic knowledge also termed acquisition is the knowledge of language systems obtained in a formal ways through formal learning. the implicit knowledge is the main source of the communicative competence.
3. The Interactionist Approach
The interactionist approach sees language acquisition as the result of the combined works of the internal factors (inherent within the learner) and input. According to Ellis in Huda (1999) the development of communicative competence is the combined result of the learner’s effort and his speaking partner in the form of an interaction between the two parties.
Acquisition only occurs when the input received by the learners is comprehensible. According Krashen in Huda (1999) the meaning can be made comprehensible with the help of context, world knowledge, and linguistic competence the learners.
2.2.3 The Characteristic of the Communicative Approach
The most obvious characteristic of the communication approach is that almost everything that is done with a communicative intents. Students use the language a great deal through communicative activities such as game, role-play, and problem solving tasks where activities that is truly communicative, according to Morrow in Zamzam (2005/2006) have three features: information gap, choice, and feedback.
An information gap exists when one person exchange knows something that the other person doesn’t. It is include of functional communicative activities according two main uses of language: (a) using language to share information, and (b) using language to process information (e.g. to discuss it or evaluate it) and there are many way to gap or sharing information who can be learning by the learners to cooperate fully in exchanging information. Such as:
- Sharing information restricted cooperation.
- Sharing information with unrestricted cooperation.
- Sharing and process information.
- Processing information.
In communication, the speaker will choice of what to teach and what she will say and how to say it, many ways can be sued by the speaker or teacher to make the linguistic content, but must suitable for what learners’ need.
True communication is purposeful. A speaker can evaluates whether or not purpose has been achieved based upon the information. She receives from listener, this reaction called feedback. If the listener does not have an opportunity to provide the speaker with such feedback, then the exchange is not really communication.
Another characteristic of the communicative approach is the use of authentic material. It is considered desirable to give students an opportunity to develop strategy for understanding language as actually used by native speaker. Finally, we noted that activities in the communication approach are often carried out by the students in small group.
2.2.4 Aspect of Communicative Approach
There are many aspect of the communicative approach. In this section we found and discussed by using any technique or material associated with the communicative approach.
1. Authentic Materials
Adherents of the communicative approach advocate the use of authentic materials. In this lesson, we see that the teacher uses a copy of a genuine newspaper article and also assigns the students homework, requiring they listen to the radio or a life television broadcast. Another possibility to use of authentic material with a lower level class is to use realia that do not contain a lot of language, but a lot of discussion could be generated.
2. Scrambled Sentences
The students are given a passage which the sentences are in a scrambled order. This type of exercises teaches students about the cohesion and coherent properties of language. The learn how sentences are bound together at he suprasentential level through formal linguistic devise.
3. Language Games
Game are used frequently in the communicative approach. The students valuable communicative practice. According to Morro in Zamzam (2005/2006) games that are truly communicative.
4. Picture Strip Story
Many activities can be done with picture strip stories. We suggested one of our discussion of scrambled sentences. In this activities, we observed one students in small group was given a strip story. One student showed the picture of the story to another member. So, the students in the groups did not know what the picture contained. They will a choice as to what their prediction and how they will word it and then able to view the picture and compare it with their prediction just now. It is called a communication technique in using a problem-solving task can work well in the communicative approach because they include the three features of communication.
Role-play are very important in the communicative approach because they give students an opportunity to practice communicating in different social context and different social roles. Role-play can be set up there are many structure, for example: the teacher tells the students who they are and what they will say and then the students determine what they will say. The later is more in keeping with the communicative approach.
2.2.5 Communicative Approach as Foreign Language Teaching
From this perspective is discussed the communicative approach as a several pint in foreign language teaching. In this case, we can to defined the goal of foreign language teaching in the following terms: to extend the range of communication situation which the learner can perform with focus on meaning without must attention to the linguistic form. In relation to this goal, the role of the two main category of activity can be summarized as follows:
1. Pre-communicative activities as aim to give the learner fluent control over linguistic forms. So that the lower-level process will be able to respond the higher level decisions based on meaning. The main criterion for success is whether the learner able to producing language.
2. In communicative activities, the production of linguistic forms becomes subordinates to higher-level decisions, related to the communication of meanings. The criterion for success is whether the meaning is conveyed effectively.
An essential concern of a communicative approach to language teaching is a concern which this statement is cannot be satisfied through methodology alone rather another aspect. It is can involves for personality factor and interpersonal skills. However, the teacher is helped by a number of important aspect of these activities for example:
1) The teachers’ role in the learning process is recognized as less dominant, more emphasis is the learners’ contribution through independent learning.
2) Communicative interactive gives learners more opportunities to express their own individuality in the classroom.
- The teacher’s as ‘co-communicator’ him on an equal basis with the learner.
- Learner are not being constantly corrected. Error are regarded with greater tolerance as a completely normal phenomenon in the development of communicative skills.
2.3 Relevant Studies
In this part, the writer states the relevant research which possible in increasing reader interesting view on the effect of communicative approach toward speaking ability. In the following instance, actually the writer does not find out yet the some study therefore; here is study that is relevance to this study.
The study was done by Muhammad Hirsan (2005) the title is “English speaking skill toward students” speaking ability through process approach for the second year students of Madrasah Aliyah Negeri Selong in the school year 2004/2005”. In the research, he found that speaking ability in using English through process approach through retelling story. However, the conclusion of the research also describe the students who live far from the tourism area. In this research also used descriptive analysis in which the researcher gave a short descriptive. In term of the students’ speaking ability in differentiating with Muhammad Hirsan that the population research are students who live in or near to a tourism are and students who live not in or far from a tourism area. And also just the same with Muhammad Hirsan research. This research also explained speaking ability of students that taught by using communicative approach.
2.4 Theoretical Framework
The essence of speaking ability in globalization are needs special attention form some party, parent in family environment, teacher in school environment. therefore, at school, the students are given conversation lesson to practice their pronunciation, so we can say that school environment especially in using approach has an important role to create the students’ ability in speaking.
The communicative approach in foreign language teaching has come out as a result of studies in language and language acquisition and it is experimentation of teaching methods. So, the communication can say is a process. In this case, the students must be able to apply their knowledge in negotiating meaning through the interaction between speaker and listener where the teacher role as facilitator who manages classroom activities and the students are the communicator who are actively engage communication typically in small group. The goal of the teacher used the communicative approach is the students become communicatively competence. Brown in Huda (1999) states that communicative competence that enables us to convey and interpret message and to negotiate meanings interpersonally within specific context.
The characteristic of communicative approach is that almost everything that is done with a communicative intents, students use the language a great deal through communicative activities such as game, role play, and problem solving tasks where activities that is truly communicative.
Based on the statement above, the communicative approach can be used to help the teacher in motivating the students achievement especially in increasing their capability in speaking English. Likewise, the writer want to investigate the students speaking ability through communicative approach.
This chapter discusses about research design, population and sample, research instrument, technique of data collection, and technique of data analysis.
3.1 Research Design
The study was an experimental design, since it described the quantitative degree to which variables were related. It was also reasonable that the writer intended to examine the cause and effect between two variables, communicative approach and students’ speaking ability. According to Hadi (1988: 56) that is an experimental design is one of the precise methods to examine the cause and effect. In this study, the writer prepared or set up communicative approach toward students’ speaking ability. For the students who was examined to answer speaking test. The idea concerned with the statement of Arikunto (1993: 67) that by using an experimental design, the examiner intentionally revised appearance of the difference and then it was examined how the result was.
The study tried to describe the effect of treatment of two distinct, communicative approach toward students’ speaking ability. Thus, the research design was pre-test and post-test group. Therefore, design was call a pre-test and post-test control group design. This design was adopted form Ary, et al. (1979: 163).
Table 3.1 Randomized group, pre-test and post-test
E = experimental group
C = control group
X = treatment on the experiment group
Y2 = post-test
3.2 Subject of Research
3.2.1 Population and Sample
The population of this study was all of the first year students of MTs. NW Korleko in the school year 2007-2008, which consisted of one class, they were 50 students. Arikunto (1998: 63) elaborates that “if the number of population is more than 100, it is supposed to take 10-15% or 20-25%. But if the number of population is less than 100, it is not supposed to take sample, it is called population research. Since the population of this study was less than 100, the researcher took all population as sample, by the total number is 50 students. In which the 50 students are divided into two class; class Ia in experimental group consist of 24 students and class Ib in control group consist of 26 students.
Table 3.2 The number of population
3.3 The Research Instrument
In any scientific research, instrument for collecting data was absolutely important. The accuracy of the result of research was mostly dependent on how accurate the use of instrument. Before research carried out, the instrument for the data collection should be well prepared.
Related to the research problems, the writer used speaking test as an instrument. Ary (1979: 216) states that a test is a set of stimuli present to an individual in order to elicit responses on the basic of which a numerical score can be designed. Moreover, Heaton (1975: 89) states that the test used must be appropriate in term of our object, the dependable in the evidence provides, and applicable to our particular situation. In this case, the researcher gave the students speaking test in using communicative approach.
This study aimed at knowing the students achievement in speaking, where the students was asked to tell by using communicative approach was used to make the students achievement in speaking achievement in a language (Nurgiantoro, 1995: 229).
In order to avoid misunderstanding in readers mind, the writer informed the kind of test that used in this research was speaking test as an instrument. In this case, the retelling pictures. The aimed of this method to measure the skill, knowledge, ability, etc. the picture used to stimulate the subject to build their opinion. The pest reinforcement of comprehension test using picture in which (1) the picture comprehension test spread out to the subject to analysis the picture about 10 minute; (2) after the subjects have finished to analysis the picture, the writer asked the subjects to retell about the picture comprehension test. The researcher used orally test in this study. The form of the oral test employed is verbal essay. Based on the topics were taught in oral test or speaking, the respondents was asked to speak for the at least five minutes. The researcher grade that the grammar scale receives the heaviest weighting, followed by vocabulary comprehension, fluency, accent, which receives the lowest weighting.
The oral interview always refers to the picture. In scoring value to each subject, the whole kind above test was evaluated by researcher as the following comprehension of FSI procedure (Oller, 1979: 292).
The above comprehensive description of FSI procedure is conversed and evaluated. The writer used weighting table.
The above table in horizontal line number 1 to 6 at the top row is the ability level scale or description of fluency. The speaking test consist of three questions where the subjects were asked to explain the three questions orally, if the students were able to give correct answer, they got mark as mentioned in weighting table of FSI procedure and it was also done for the wrong answer.
The above weighting table is conversed as the following comprehensive description of the FSI Procedure (Oller, 1979: 321).
3.4 Technique of Data Collection
The data of this study was obtained by using a type of test, test was speaking test. In order to get data, the writer administrated the way of collecting data as follows: 1) the writer presented an interesting topic followed by comprehension test to each object; 2) asking each students about the topic on the best to know their speaking achievement; 3) while the students were answering the test, their answer was recorder.
The writer interrupted or asked the subject if their answer were not related in the test given. Before answering the question, the subjects were given 15 minutes to study the topic and answering in 10 minutes.
3.5. Technique of Data Analysis
This part discusses about description of data analysis, and technique of hypothesis testing.
3.5.1 Description of Data Analysis
In the technique of data analysis, this used descriptive statistics. It used to determine the data into high, average, and low category. For the purpose, the following used:
Mi + 1 SDi to Mi + 3 SDi = High
Mi – 1 SDi to < Mi + 1 SDi = Average
Mi – 3 SDi to < Mi – 1 SDi = Low
3.5.2 Hypothesis Testing
Before hypothesis testing, the researcher got the students scores of the experimental and control group. The score check for the pre-test and post-test. The first step was the researcher calculated the mean score of experimental group. For the purposes, to test the hypothesis, it was used t-test with the level of significance 0.05 (5%).
Before testing the proposed hypothesis, the writer took students’ score of experimental and control groups, which is the score for pre-test and post-test. Thus, the writer calculated the mean score of the experimental group. For the purpose, the following formula is used:
M = the mean score of experimental group
X = the deviation of score pre-test
N = the number of sample
S = the sum of (sigma)
(Arikunto, 1998: 124)
Then, the formula that was used for the control group as follows:
My = the mean score of control group
Y = the deviation score of pre-test and post-test
N = the number of sample
S = the sum of (sigma)
(Arikunto, 1998: 124)
The mean score that obtain through the above formula was analyzed and interpreted. Finally, the writer computed the hypothesis significant. It was to know whether the Ho was accepted or not. For the sake of computation, it was used formula recommended by Arikunto (1998: 300), the formula was as follows:
M = mean deviation of each group
N = number of subject
X = deviation between pre-test and post-test (the experimental group)
Y = deviation between pre-test and post-test (the control group)
df = a – b . Nx + Ny – 2 (Degree of freedom)
And then, the criterion was used as follows:
1. If (tt) > t-table in significant rank of 0.05 Ho (null hypothesis) is rejected. It means that the rates of mean score of the experimental group are higher than the control group. It means that the communicative approach has positive effect.
2. If (tt) < t-table in significant rank of 0.05, Ho (the null hypothesis) is accepted. It means that the rates of the mean score of the experimental group are lower than the control group. It means that the communicative approach is not effective in teaching speaking.
RESEEARCH FINDING AND DISCUSSION
This chapter presents the results of the investigation, which were based on the data analysis. The writer presents the statistics of the obtained data, which was intended to lead him to come to the finding of this study. Later on the discussion is continued to the analysis and interpretation of the finding. The statistical computation covers the calculation of the mean score and the t-test to compare with the significance of the two mean score.
Before concluding the finding of this study, the writer firstly describes about description of data analysis, the result of data analysis, the result of hypothesis testing, and discussion.
4.1 Description of Data Analysis
Based on the data gain obtained, the lowest score of the students who were in experimental group pre-test was 12, the highest was 76, and post-test in lowest was 13 and the highest was 70, while the lowest score of the students who were in the control group in the pre-test was 12, and the highest was 79, for the post-test in lowest was 13, and highest was 68. (Appendix: 07)
Then the calculation of the data had conduced in which resulted the average (mean) score of each group. The mean score of experimental group (X) in the pre-test and post-test were 32.7 and 34.8 (Appendix 10). Therefore, the mean score of control group (Y) in the pre-test and post-test 33.2 and 29.15 (Appendix 11). Further, it was also found out the calculation of the standard deviation can be seen on the table bellow.
Table 4.1 The Calculation of mean (X), standard deviation (SD)
In investigation the result of speaking, the writer used statistic descriptive for the categories in which consists of the Ideal Maximum Score (SM) was 99 and the Ideal Mean Score gained (Mi) gained was 16 and the Ideal Standard Deviation (SDi) was 7.54.
The categories gained after calculating into the standard categories are as follows:
Mi + 1 SDi to Mi + 3 SDi = High
57.5 + 1 (13.83) to 57.5 + 3 (13.83)
57.5 + 13.83 to 57.5 + 41.49
71.33 to 98.99
Mi – 1 SDi to < Mi + 1 SDi = Average
57.5 – 1 (13.83) to 57.5 + 3 (13.83)
57.5 – 13.83 to 57.5 + 13.83
43.67 to < 71.33
Mi – 3 SDi to < Mi – 1 SDi = Low
57.5 – 3 (13.83) to 57.5 – 1 (13.83)
57.5 – 31.49 to 57.5 – 13.83
16.01 to < 43.67
However, if the means are viewed from the groups of the sample, it is as shown in the following table.
The mean score (M) of students’ speaking ability indicated that the existence of a tendency that the students in experimental and control group was included as average and low category, while the average score of students in experimental group was 60 and the low score of students in control group was 41.5. So, it was included as average and low category.
4.2 The Hypothesis Testing
The t-test used to know the difference between the two means. This statistical analysis was used to test hypothesis. The null hypothesis of this study is that the mean of both groups were not significantly different, and the null hypothesis of this study is that there is no effect of communicative approach toward students speaking ability.
The obtained t-value was 1.77 (appendix 13) whereas at the value of t-table for significant level of df = 48 at 0.05 level of significance was 2.021. The obtained of f-test of 1.77 was lower than 2.021, hence could be marked not significance. So, the alternative hypothesis was rejected and the null hypothesis could be accepted as formulated on chapter I.
It is concluded that the alternative hypothesis was accepted and the null hypothesis was rejected, that reads there is the effect of communicative approach toward students’ speaking ability.
Before concluding the result of the study, this part discusses about the final result of the study. In this case, the writer presents about the students speaking ability test for beginning level for the fist year students of MTs. NW Korleko in the school year 2007-2008, which have been stated on the statement of the problem. In this study, the problem were (1) to what extent is the level of students’ speaking ability for beginning level of the first year students of MTs. NW Korleko? and (2) to what extent is the effectiveness of communicative approach toward students’ speaking ability for the first year students of MTs. NW Korleko in the school year 2007-2008? To answer the research question, the research of analysis were presented in the previous chapter.
Based on those result, it was discovered that score of two groups, where the score of the students in experimental group was 60 and the score of the students in control group was 41.5. According to the standard of performance adopted from the result of standard category, and within the range of 16.01 to 43.67 and 43.67 to 71.33, it means that according to standard that the students’ speaking ability in English for beginner level of the first year students of MTs. NW Korleko in the school year 2007-2008 was average and low category.
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
In this chapter deal with the results of research and discussion on the data analysis to the effect of communicative approach toward students’ speaking ability for beginning level of the first year students of MTs. NW Korleko in the school year 2007-2008.
Based on the discussion in the previous chapter, the writer finally comes toward the conclusion:
1. The speaking ability of both groups of the average and low category is and however, the speaking ability of the students who belong to experimental group was included in the average category in which the mean score was 60. While, the speaking ability of the students who belong to the control group was included in low category in which the mean score was 41.5.
2. All of the above data was also found out that the highest students score on the speaking test through retelling picture was 70 in experimental group and 68 in control group, and then the lowest score was 13 in experimental and control group. It means that the students’ speaking ability for beginning level of the first year students of MTs. NW Korleko were average and low category.
3. There is no effect of communicative approach toward students’ speaking ability in this research, so, the hypothesis stated is not accepted.
Based on the research result, discussion and conclusion, it is suggested that this research could be enlarged and completed for the subject of speaking and researcher is as follows:
1. The study is suggested that the teacher can be more active in speaking class and pay more attention to their students in learning English which concern to get high target in teaching English especially in speaking achievement.
2. The mean score of English speaking ability for beginning level of the first year students of MTs. NW Korleko is average and low category and it was found that some students revealed average scores in speaking ability. Therefore, it is suggested that the English teacher of MTs. NW Korleko should find out some way in improving the strategy used in teaching learning process and teaching evaluation. So that, the students’ speaking ability for beginning level of the first year students of MTs. NW Korleko can be improved.
3. The next researcher are suggested in investigate the students speaking ability with more complex variable and using different design, such as experimental and control group design. In addition, the focus of the study can be emphasize on strategy used by the students in learning English. Furthermore, the study can be targeted toward investigation strategies applied to successful and unsuccessfully students in teaching and learning process.
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