THE EFFECT OF TEACHER IN GIVING MOTIVATION
TOWARD STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN ENGLISH
STUDY FOR THE SECOND YEAR OF MADRASAH
TSANAWIYAH MU’ALLIMAT NW PANCOR
IN THE SCHOOL YEAR 2007/2008
This introduction presents and discusses about background of the problem, statement of the problems, objective of the study, hypothesis of the study, significance of the study, assumption of the study, scope and limitation of the study, and definition of key terms.
1.1 Background of the Problem
Language is the only tool for people to communicate their ideas, thoughts, opinions, feeling, or even their emotion. As an international and scientific language, English becomes a necessity. Most of scientific book in our libraries are written in English. The optimistic discussion and seminar often held by certain of institutions concerning with the importance of the language. In addition, international conference, meeting, negotiation, or congress emphasizes the flexible usage of English. And in Indonesia, English is a first foreign language, because it is not utilized in daily communication. However, it is taught at almost all levels of the school, began from secondary or junior high school to university level.
Teachers and students always expect the success of teaching and learning process. Teacher, as a figure for students must be demanded to be more creative and innovative in teaching and learning process. The teachers always expected to help and guide their students, arise their interesting or increase their commitment to learn English in order to they can get the maximum capability, and they are able to master well. So, the teacher is not only presenting the materials, telling the students what to do, and evaluating their progress, but also is motivating the students in learning English.
And now, let’s see the other side, the true learning activities would e nothing if students do not regard a study English as their necessity, and here it is the problem that often found in teaching and learning process.
There are so many students regard study English as a lesson that not interesting and so bore, whether it because so difficult to understand, students have low motivation or the teacher is not so creative in teaching.
Actually, there is no lesson that so difficult to learn, except if there is no serious willingness to learn it, even in learning English. If students have very low spirit and motivation, in addition they have negative perception about English study. So, here it is the teacher’s position as a motivator.
Motivating the students is one of the important task. Teacher should do it in the teaching and learning process, especially in the teaching and learning process of English. The teacher encourages to motivate the students in learning English refers to any attempt the teacher does to increase the students’ motivation in the teaching and learning activities.
Motivation is to extend or to develop students’ willingness to learn. According to Rosita (1996: 102), motivation is a basic stimulus which encourages someone to behave. The problem here is, sometimes teachers do not know one method to attract students and give stimulus in learning English. So that why, the discourse about motivation is very important. From this discourse we hope it can rise up some principles and make it as a standard and reference in giving motivation.
The second year students of MTs. Mu’allimat NW Pancor in the school year 2007/2008 always motivated by their teacher. It showed from the enthusiasm of students of MTs. Mu’allimat NW Pancor in learning English. They are learning English not only on the lesson hours for English in the school, but also on extracurricular tutorial lesson.
So, based on the above phenomenon, the researcher will investigate about: The Effect of Teacher in Giving Motivation Toward Students’ Achievement in English Study for the Second Year of Madarasah Tsanawiyah M u’allimat NW Pancor in the school year 2007/2008”
1.2 Statements of the Problem
Based on the background, the problems of this research are:
1. To what extent is the effort of teacher to motivate students in learning English for the second year students of MTs. Mu’allimat NW Pancor in the school year 2007/2008?
2. To what extent is the effect of teacher in giving motivation toward the students’ achievement in English study for the second year of MTs. NW Mu’allimat NW Pancor in school year 2007/2008?
1.3 Objective of the Study
In order to obtain such a conclusive description, referring to the researcher problems, this study will be primarily intended at describing:
1. The effort of teacher to motivate the second year students of MTs. Mu’allimat NW Pancor in learning English.
2. The effect of teacher in giving motivation toward students’ achievement in English study for the second year of MTs. Mu’allimat NW Pancor in school year 2007/2008.
1.4 Hypothesis of the Study
Most of scientific research are pointed to evaluate the hypothesis presented. Hypothesis is a statement of which need the answer, and it is also necessary to prove its truth.
Therefore, the hypothesis of this study is formulated as follows: there is a significance effect of teacher in giving motivation toward students’ achievement in English study for the second year of MTs. Mu’allimat NW Pancor in the school year 2007/2008.
1.5 Significance of the Study
In the significance of the study, the result of this study is expected to be any use, either theoretically or practically as follow:
a. As reference to other researcher who want to investigate about teacher in giving motivation.
b. The result of this study is expected to be able to enrich the teachers’ knowledge in giving motivation to their students in English learning.
a. The result of this study is expected can be used by the teachers in teaching and learning process to support their students’ achievement, especially in English study.
1.6 Assumption of the Study
The researcher underlines the assumptions of the study as follows:
1. The students of MTs. Mu’allimat NW Pancor especially the second grade have been given the motivation in learning English by their teacher, but not so effective and continuously, so, there are some students still have low motivation in learning English.
2. Motivating the students can arise their interesting or increase their commitment to learn English.
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study
This study is limited to the second year students of MTs. Mu’allimat NW Pancor in the school year 2007/2008. The limitation includes on the subject and object of the study as follow:
1. The research subjects is the second year students of MTs. Mu’allimat NW Pancor in the school year 2007/2008.
2. The research object is the effect of teacher in giving motivation toward students’ achievement in English study.
1.8 Definition of Key Terms
To avoid ambiguity, misunderstanding, and misinterpretation of the readers, it is essential to give clarification about the terms used in this study, as follows:
1. Giving motivation in general is motivating the students to extend or to develop a willingness to carry out something in special intention to extend or to develop a willingness for students to learn.
2. Students’ achievement is mastery of knowledge or developing of skill on English study. It showed from the mark that has given by the teacher.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURES
This chapter discusses about sub-heading of study; definition of motivation and learning achievement, the important of motivation in teaching and learning process, kinds of motivation, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, the efforts of teacher in motivating students, the effect in giving motivation toward students’ achievement in English study, by learning guidance, change the environment, giving the guidance about the effective of learning strategy, relevant studies and theoretical framework.
2.1 Definition of Motivation and Learning Achievement
2.1.1 Definition of Motivation
Motivation is generated from the word “motive”. It has meaning someone encouraged to do something. The experts give some definition, as follows:
a. Motivation is a complex question in one organism that guide behavior toward a goal. The goal or intensive goal is something that determines or controls organism’s behavior (Oemar Hamalik, 1994: 108).
b. Motivation is a power that encourages someone to do something, or activator power from the inside and in the inside of subject to do certain activities to reach the goal (Ali Imran, 1996: 87).
c. Motivation is a basic stimulus which encourages someone to behave (Rosita, 1996: 102).
According to Mc Donald in Hamalik, motivation is the change of energy in someone inside, it signed by the emerging of feeling, and it preceded by respond toward the goal (Oemar Hamalik, 1994: 108).
Based on the above definition that stated by Mc Donald, he says that there are three important elements in motivation’s meaning, as follows:
1. Motivation preced the change of energy in someone’s inside. The development of motivation will bring the change of human energy in “neuropsychological” system, and it is in human’s organism.
2. Motivation can be signified by emerging feeling. In this case, motivation is related to psychological’s matters. Affection and emotion can determine human’s behavior.
3. Motivation is reactions to reach the goal, motivation emergs from human’s inside, but the emerging of motivation stimulated by the goal.
Therefore, the emerging of motivation is someone’s inside will cause to the change of energy in someone his self. It is related to psychological, feeling and emotion.
From some definitions above, so the conclusion here is, we know that motivation is everything in someone’s inside that encourage him to do something, and it can guide his behavior toward the goal. Related to educational field, motivation is encourage students’ willingness to learn.
According to Kingsey in Udin S, there are three changes showed in students that involve their selves in teaching and learning process, as follows:
a. Skill and habit
b. Knowledge and understanding
c. Attitude and ideals
So, motivation in educational meaning is the power that encourage students to involve their selves in teaching and learning activities.
2.1.2 Definition of Learning Achievement
Learning achievement consists of two words, learning and achievement. Learning is a process of effort to obtain the change of behavior entirely, as the result of experience in interaction with the environment (Ali Imron, 1996: 787).
Achievement is a representation of talent and capability, where the talent and capability are potential that need to developed and accustomed in order to be able to materialized. And than, capability is the power to behave, it is as the result of character.
Morgan says, “learning is every relative change that stabilize in behavior that occurs as a result of experience”.
Witherington says, “learning is a change in individuality that manifest itself as a new model of reaction, like capability, custom, cleverness, or a knowledge.
Based on the above definition, we can see some important elements toward the meaning of learning, as follows:
a. Learning is the change of behavior
b. Learning is the change that occurs by way of some experiences.
c. The change must be steady relatively.
d. Behavior that changed by learning process, related to some of individuality aspects, both of physical, or psychological.
يَرْفَعِ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْعِلْمَ دَرَجَاتٍ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرٌ…
“Allah will rise up (to suitable ranks and degrees) those of you who believe, and who have been guaranteed knowledge, and Allah is well acquainted with all you do” (Al-Mujadalah: 11)
Based on those explanations, we can conclude that, we can obtain the better result than before from process of learning. So, from the process of learning, we know someone’s learning achievement.
Furthermore, learning achievement is the result of learning process itself. Where, learning achievement in this case, is mastery of knowledge and skill that developed by lesson, and it showed by mark of test or the grade that has given by teacher.
Learning achievement is very wanted by students, to increase it, needed to give a stimulus to reach the goal of learning. So, between achievement and motivation must be linear in teaching and learning process in order to be able to reach the goal that hoped.
2.2 Important of Motivation in Teaching and Learning Process
As we know, learning process not only occurs in the family circle, but also the school takes it parts, and it is so important for children’s education.
Teachers play their important role as the educator, and they responsible on the success of their students’ education, because the success of students’ education can not be apart from teacher’s motivation.
Motivating the students means encourage them to involve their selves in learning activity. Whatever we do, important or unimportant, dangerous or there is no risk, motivation always be there. So does in learning, motivation is very important. And education psychologist said that motivation is an absolute requirement in learning (Oemar Hamalik, 1994: 108).
In teaching and learning process, especially in English study, in the classroom will be found different reaction toward tasks and learning materials which have been given toward students. Some of them are interested in the lesson materials, but the others are not interested , and feel annoyed or inked. This circumstance is not rare to be found in classroom. It means, teacher is not success yet to give appropriate motivation to encourage their students’ willingness. Motivating the students is one of the important task. Teacher should do it in the teaching and learning process. If students obtain appropriate motivation, that will be emerging the power to reach the best result.
2.2.1 Kinds of Motivation
Actually, motivation can be divided into two major categories, that is:
1. Intrinsic motivation
Intrinsic motivation is a motivation which is derived from a student oneself without emerging external factors or external influence.
According to Edward Deci in Brown, he defined motivation this way:
Intrinsically motivated activities are ones for which there is no apparent reward except the activity itself. People seem to engage in the activities for their own sake and not because they lead to an extrinsic reward. Intrinsically motivated behavior are aimed at bringing about certain internally rewarding consequences, namely, feelings of competence and self-determination (H. Douglas Brown, 2001: 76).
Furthermore, Abraham Maslow (in H. Douglas Brown, 2001: 74) claimed that intrinsic motivation is clearly superior to extrinsic. We may see Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. His hierarchy is best viewed metaphorically as a pyramid of need (See fig. 2.1). we are ultimately motivated to achieve “self-actualization” once the basic physical, safety, and community needs are met.
Maslow’s theory tells us that what might be inappropriately viewed as rather ordinary classroom routines may in fact be important precursors to motivation for higher attainment.
One type of extrinsic reward can indeed have an effect on intrinsic motivation: the positive feedback that learners perceive as a boost to their feelings of competence and self-determination (H. Douglas Brown, 2001: 77). Sincerely delivered positive feedback in a classroom, seen by students as validation of their own personal autonomy, critical thinking ability, and self-fulfillment, can increase or maintain intrinsic motivation.
Intrinsic motivation is of course not the only determines of success for a language learner. Sometimes, no matter how much you want to accomplish something or how hard you try, you may not succeed for a host of other reasons. But if the learners in your classroom are given an opportunity to “do” language for their own personal reasons of achieving competence and autonomy, those learners will have a better chance of success than if they become dependent on external rewards for their motivation.
Zottan Dőrnyei and Kata Csizér (in H. Douglas Brown, 2001: 81) offered a set of “ten commandments” for motivating learners. All ten items focus on what the teacher can do to stimulate intrinsic motivation.
1) Set a personal example with your own behavior.
2) Create a pleasant, relaxed atmosphere in the classroom.
3) Present the tasks properly.
4) Develop a good relationship with the learners.
5) Increase the learners’ linguistic self-confidence
6) Make the language classes interesting
7) Promote learner autonomy
8) Personalize the learning process
9) Increase the learners’ goal-orientedness
10) Familiarize learners with the target language culture
2. Extrinsic Motivation
Extrinsic motivation is an external factor which influences or effects students in learning or doing an activity. The extrinsic motivation is one thing which is needed at school. Extrinsic motivation can excite or encourage intrinsic motivation, as an example: desires, but students’ willingness will increase because there are some reinforcements which are derived from the other people such as teacher, friends, etc.
Extrinsically motivated behaviors are carried out in anticipating of a reward from outside and beyond the self (H. Douglas Brown, 2001: 76).
Typical extrinsic reward are money, prizes, grades, and even certain types of positive feedback. Behaviors initiated solely to avoid punishment are also extrinsically motivated, even though numerous intrinsic benefits can ultimately accrue to those who, instead, view punishment avoidance as a challenge that can build their sense of competence and self-determination.
Jerome Bruner (1962), praising the “autonomy of self-reward” claimed that one of the most effective ways to help both children and adults to think and learn is to free them from the control of rewards and punishments. One of the principal weakness of extrinsically driven behavior is its addictive nature. Once captivated, as it were, by the lure of an immediate prize or praise, we can become dependent on those tangible rewards, even to the point that their withdrawal can extinguish the desire to learn.
The consequence of such extrinsic motivators is that schools all to often teach students to play the “game” of pleasing teachers and authorities rather than developing an internalized thirst for knowledge and experience.
Table 2.1 depicts what can happen in an institution that takes eight extrinsic elements and, while accepting their reality in virtually any society or educational institution, turn those elements in an intrinsically oriented direction. The notion here is that an intrinsically oriented school can begin to transform itself into a more positive, affirming environment not so much by revolutionizing society but by shifting its view of the student.
There are some strategies to stimulate the extrinsic motivation of students in teaching and learning process, as follows:
1) Introduce or convey the objectives of teaching so that students know clearly what they must get in teaching and learning process.
2) Monitor the progress of students and give reinforcement of student who have higher achievement than the other students.
3) Assess or grade the students task and give comment to their task non-verbally.
4) Emphasizing the “big” picture-larger perspectives.
5) Letting students set long-term goals.
6) Allowing sufficient time for learning.
7) Cooperative learning activities.
8) Group work
9) Viewing the class as a team.
10) Content-centered teaching.
11) English for specific (vocational/professional) purposes.
12) English in the workplace.
13) Allowing risk-taking behavior.
14) Rewarding innovation and creativity.
2.3 The Efforts of Teacher in Motivating the Students
In teaching and learning process, teachers play the important roles to support students’ learning achievement. Teachers have to encourage and guide their students, and facilitate them to support their learning activities. There are some strategies to motivate students, as follows:
2.3.1 Giving the Grade
Grade is the number of achievement which is students reach in learning. In this case, grade as the symbol of students’ marks in their learning activities.
Usually, students pursue good grade, they study hard to reach satisfactory grade (Udin, S, dkk. 1997: 114).
The grade is the strong motivation for students, it’s their target and it is as the barometer in the success of students in learning. Student that reach the high grade categorized as the success student, in the other side, student that reach the low grade categorized as the unsuccessful student. So, they have to try so hard in order to obtain the high grade. But, in this case, the grade which they reach must be really depict the result (values) of students’ learning, because, if learning’s goal just to reach the grade, it’s would be never enough to b e the result of learning. So, the teachers have to give the grade which is can be related to the values in every knowledge, not only in cognition aspect, but also in skill and affection aspects.
Present is reward that is given to someone in the form of material because of certain reason. In the case of learning, present can be categorized as a motivation, but actually not always like that.
Present will be given to students who have good achievement. Of course the appropriate and interesting present in this case, for example, books, pencils, rulers, etcetera.
Praise is the expression and the sincere appreciation on the kindness and superiority of students. It is one of reward which is very easy to carry out.
If you find your students finished their duties perfectly, you have to appreciate them with the praise. It can be in the form of word, that is given to students, such as teacher says, “Good! Excellent!” etcetera.
Praise is the positive appreciation and good motivation. Praise can also in the form of gesture or symbol. For example, teacher give applause, or teacher raises his/her thumb (jempol) to her students.
The appropriate praise can be emerging gratify atmosphere and supporting the strong desire to study hard, and it can increase students’ self-confidence (Udin, S. dkk, 1997: 114).
So, there is no doubt, that in apprise, there is a power which can support students to do goodness thing. Because of praise, students feel that their goodness make them more honored and loved.
Punishment as a negative admission, but if teacher give it appropriately and wisely, it can be a motivation. But in giving a punishment as motivation, teacher has to understand its principles (Udin, S, dkk. 1997: 105).
Islam regards that punishment is not the first measure that has to conducted by a teacher, and not must be a priority. But in this case, advice is the priority.
If model and advice would not be able to solve the naughty students, so, it must be conducted resolute measure at that time. The resolute measure means here is the punishment.
2.3.5 Tests and Exams
Students will be more study hard, if they know will be executed test or exam in the near time. But if the test is given too frequently, every days for example, it makes the test would be not so meaningful. It’s better the test executed twice in a weak, and it and it will be more stimulate students to study hard.
In this case, it’s better if teacher inform their students before, that will be executed the test. The sudden test can disturb students’ motivation. For example, they will grumble because they will be not ready to face the test, and then, they will answer it perfunctorily, and finally, they will be have no spirit.
2.3.6 Warning and Criticism
Warning and criticism used to repair students that do wrong, lazy and behaving of bad character. But teacher must do it wisely and carefully in order to do not broke their self-esteem and feeling (Oemar Hamalik, 1994: 120).
So, in this case, teachers have to consider the utilizing of warning and criticism in supporting students’ motivation in learning, because if warning and criticism hurt them, it make students will be have no spirit, compete against the teacher it may concern.
Thus, the kinds of motivation, and the teachers can choice and use it to motivate their students, and of course teachers can develop and modify it as creative as possible.
2.4 The Effect in Giving Motivation Toward Students’ Achievement in English Study
One of the more complicated problems of second language learning and teaching has been to define and apply the construct of motivation in the classroom.
Motivation is very related to the goal. The more valuable the goal. The more stronger the motivation. So, motivation is very useful to students’ behavior. Especially the intrinsic motivation, it is an encouragement that emerge from students inside. In this case, related to learning activities, if the students have the strong willingness to learn, so we can ensure that there is an escalation of their learning, and than their achievement will be increase too. It is surely, because their awareness to learn related to the strong willingness to attain the goal in learning activities.
Intrinsic motivation is more effective, but of course not the only determiner of success for a language learner. And clearly teacher will be able to use a combination of extrinsic (for more immediate concerns or for extremely low motivational contexts, for example) and intrinsic motives to teacher’s advantage in classroom; there is indeed a place-and a very soundly supportable place for extrinsic motives in the language classroom.
Sometimes, no matter how much you want to accomplish something or how hard you try, you may not succeed for a host of other reasons. But if the personal reasons of achieving competence and autonomy, those learners will have a better chance of success than if they become dependent on external rewards for their motivation.
Students’ learning achievement is very related to motivation, giving test can be categorized as motivator in learning. Based on the experience, it show that students will be more diligent to study, and they will study hard if they know that in the end program of study will e executed the exam to measure their learning achievement. So, in this case, the test is a factor that motivate and guide students in learning. If the test used to measure achievement goodly, so the element of motivation in the test is very valuable.
Students’ learning achievement can be known by way of evaluation, in which evaluation not only illustrate about students’ capability to learn, but also has role as a tool to maintain students in order to they study hard and better.
According to Ebel in Oemar Hamalik (1994: 113), he claimed, sometimes the test considered as extrinsic motivator. A psychology theory stated, that extrinsic motivator can be keeping in a longtime and its effect will b e lost soon when the goal is attained. So, intrinsic motivator considered has better motivation power and more durable, but in the case of learning achievement, the most important one is attain the learning goal, without differentiate between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. If the learning goal can be attained by extrinsic motivation, it must be maximized, and we realize that giving extrinsic motivation is easier than giving intrinsic motivation.
Tests, with some special attention from the teacher, can be intrinsically motivating. Allowing some students input to the test, giving well-thought-out classroom tests that are face-valid in the eyes of students, and giving narrative evaluations.
Besides motivation, there are the other ways to supports’ learning achievement as follows:
2.4.1 By Learning Guidance
Learning guidance at school conducted to overcome many factors that cause difficulty in learning. So, in this case, learning guidance gave related to internal factor (individual problem) of students.
The goal of learning guidance is to help students that get the difficulty in learning. Teacher can do it by communicate immediately to the student, face to face relationship, like a counselor and client.
2.4.2 Change the Environment
The way to overcome the difficulties in learning that caused by external factor is by way of change the environment means change parents’ attitude to their children, and manage the environment of family to be more comfortable.
For this goal, it’s necessary to make a relationship between parents and children. The goal of this relationship is to solve children’s problem.
2.4.3 Giving the Guidance About the Effective of Learning Strategy
To support students’ learning achievement, we can help them by way of giving the guidance about the effective strategy in learning.
According to Crow and Crow in Oemar Hamalik (1994: 10), there are some effective strategies in learning, as follows:
1. Students must have the certain goal of learning.
2. Comfortable of place to learning.
3. The condition of physical must be well, so that students can be concentrate and active in learning.
4. Have the planning and follow the schedule of learning.
5. Intersperse the learning with the spare time regulately.
6. Find out the main topic from each paragraph.
7. Use technique speed reading and make a summary.
8. Learners take charge of their own learning through setting some personal goals and utilizing learning strategies.
9. Content-based activities and course.
10. Learners need to develop autonomy, not dependence.
2.5 Relevant Study
In this part, the writer states the relevant research which possible in adding the reader’s view on the effect of teacher in giving motivation toward students’ achievement in English study.
The only study which relevant to this study was conducted by Megawati (2006). The study was “Reward in Increasing Students’ Motivation in Learning English for the Second Year Students of SMPN 1 Sukamulia in the School Year 2005/2006”. The study elaborated how to increase students’ motivation through reward in increasing students’ motivation in learning English.
She used descriptive qualitative design in her study. In collecting the data, she used observation and interview. The result of the study showed that motivation is very important in the process of teaching and learning English.
From the result above, the writer assumes that teaching English for the Senior High School students is very effective, so that the writer observes the students’ English mastery.
2.6 Theoretical Framework
In illustrating theoretical framework, the researcher starts thinking based on the statement of the problems. That is in teaching and learning process, especially in English. The success of the students in learning English mostly determined by both teachers and students (Faerch and Kasper, 1983).
In productive and interactive, the teacher makes plans in presenting the material. The aim of planning is to avoid difficulties faced by the student and for reaching particular.
So, motivation in teaching and learning process is very important, especially English subject. The teacher must give the students motivation in order that the student scan be interested in studying English. Communication is a systematic technique employed by a speaker to express his meaning when faced with some difficulties (Corde, 1977). The teacher in teaching and learning process can do many activities to overcome the students’ difficulties, such as making short question with short answer. So, one of the way of teacher is to make students interested in teaching and learning process by giving reward to students.
This chapter present the description and discussion about the research methodology will be employed in this study. The discussion includes the research design, population and sample, the instrument of the study, the technique of data collection and the data analysis.
3.1 Research Design
It has been stated in the introduction that the purposes of this study was to find out the effect of teacher in giving motivation toward students’ achievement in English study. In conducting this research, the writer used experimental design that was conducted at MTs. Mu’allimat NW Pancor in the school year 2007/2008. Subject of this study was the second year students of MTs. Mu’allimat NW Pancor and the object of this study was the effect of teacher in giving motivation toward students’ achievement in English study.
According to Ary (2002: 276), and experimental research is a scientific investigation in which the researcher manipulates one or more independent variables, controls any other relevant variable, and observe the effect of the manipulation on the dependent variable.
In this study, there were two variable; independent and dependent variable. Teacher in giving motivation was the dependent variable and students’ achievement in English study was independent variable.
Firstly, the writer divided the sample into two groups, which consists of experimental and control groups, where the experimental group was treated by using teacher’s motivation while control group was not treated by using teacher’s motivation. In collecting the data, the researcher used test. The research design is presented in the following table.
Table 3.1 Experimental design
E : the experimental group
C : the control group
T1 : pre-test
X : the treatment toward experimental group with teacher’s motivation
T2 : post-test
Experimental group is group that is given pre-test, treatment, and post-test. And control group is group that is given pre-test and post-test without treatment. The result of post-test of both groups were compared to know which group is higher and to know whether teacher in giving motivation has any effect toward students’ achievement.
3.2 Population and Sample
In this sub-topic, the researcher describes about the population and sample of this research.
3.2.1 Population of the Study
The term “population” in scientific research refers to the quantity of the subject who has different characteristic that researcher investigates through research activity (Arikunto, 2002: 42). While, Singarimbun and Efendi (1992: 152) stated that population is a total of all unit analysis with identities were expected. Based on the above opinion, population is all of research subjects which have been researcher’s attention and it function as resource of data.
The population of this research covered of the second year students of MTs. Mu’allimat NW Pancor in the school year 2007/2008. The population was consisted of six classes (VIIIA to VIIIF), which amount 240 students. The following table describes the number of research population.
Table 3.2. The population of the second year students of MTs. Mu’allimat NW Pancor in the school year 2007/2008
Number of Population
3.2.2 Sample of the Study
The sample of this research was taken through random sampling technique, because the writer realized that she found some difficulties to carry out the big sample, because of the limitation of the facility, finance, energy, time, etc. possessed by her.
If the writer used the random sampling, it means that the writer did not take all of the populations, but a part of them which was done based on what Arikunto said, if the number of population is more than 100, it is suggested to take 10-15% or 20-25% (Arikunto, 2002: 111).
The researcher took 60 students as the sample. The students was divided into 30 students as experimental group and 30 students as control group.
3.3 Research Instrument
In a research, the definition of instrument and method are different. Arikunto (2002: 194) states that research method is the way that is used to collect the data, but instrument is a tool that is used to collect the data. She further says that instrument is a question or exercises or other tools which are used to measure skill, knowledge, intelligence, achievement, and attitudes of someone or a group of people.
Based on the above opinion the test is absolutely needed to measure the students’ achievement in teaching and learning English process. In this research, the writer used teacher’s motivation to measure the students’ achievement.
In collecting data of this study, the writer will use test, in which the content of the test taken from the materials that are taught by the English teacher based on the second year of Junior High School textbook.
3.3.1 Try-Out of the Instrument
Based on the researcher administrate the test to the number of sample, the try-out of instruments will be conducted to determine the validity and reliability of the test. The kind of test is an objective test. It consisted of 25 items. The score will be given to each number of item test; score 1 for the right answer on each items and score 0 for the wrong answer for each items. The researcher will conduct try-out instrument out of the sample, in this case, another sample that are considered having similar characteristic.
3.3.2 Test Validity
A test must be valid and reliable. An instrument called valid if it is able to measure what should be measured. The goal of measurement is for getting illustrated clearly about the investigation variable.
In this study, the validity instrument was hoped to measure a validity of test content. It is valid if it consulted with the contents validity. Hence, the test was taken from the material of the second year students of MTs. Mu’allimat NW Pancor in the school year 2007/2008.
A test as the instrument of every research must be valid. An instrument is called valid if it is able to measure whatever will be measured. The test used in this research was a test which is considered having a content validity.
3.3.3 Test Reliability
Reliability is very important of test to get a reliable result of measurement. Reliability is stability of test if it is used, a test is called reliable if it is obtained the stable data or consistent if it used to measure a same test in other time or place.
Toe know about the reliability of the test instrument, the researcher used the KR-21 formula as follows:
Where: r11 = is reliability of the instrument
K = is the number of item test
M = is square variance
Vt = variance total square (Arikunto, 2002: 164)
3.4 Technique of Data Collection
The primary data of this study was obtained from the result of tests given by the researcher at both of groups, in which experimental group which was treated by using teacher’s motivation and control group that was not treated by using teacher’s motivation.
The administration of the test follows some steps:
1. The researcher gage the students the question and answer sheet.
2. Asking the students to write their identity completely.
3. Before doing the test, researcher told the students to do their task carefully.
4. Researcher supervised during the writing of the test.
5. After finishing the test, students ought to submit their answer sheets.
6. The research analyzed the data.
The administration of each of the test will be done by the researcher with the help of the teacher whose class is used. The time schedule of test will be consulted to the English teacher of the second year students of MTs. Mu’allimat NW Pancor.
3.5 Technique of Data Analysis
In this research, data analysis is the most important step that has to do if the data has been gotten. In order to the data can be understood, they have to be presented in general form and conclusion.
This part discusses about: normality testing of the data, and hypothesis testing.
- Normality of the Data
Before testing hypothesis, the normality testing of the data was conducted. To test normality of the data, the following formula was applied:
Where: x2 = the score of chi-square
fo = the frequency
fh = the standard frequency (Arikunto, 2002: 259).
The criteria of the normality testing, the data are normal if: x2 < x2 1 table, and it not normal if x2 > x2 1 table. (Arikunto, 2002).
- Hypothesis Testing
Before testing hypothesis, the writer got students’ score of the experimental and control groups. The score checked for pre-test and post-test. Firstly, the writer calculated the mean score of experimental group. For the purposes the following formula was applied as follows:
Where: MA = the mean score of experimental group
X = the deviation score of pre-test and post-test
N = the number of sample
S = the sum of… (Arikunto, 2002)
Then, the formula was applied for the control group, as follows:
Where: MB = the mean score of control group
Y = the deviation score of pre-test and post-test
N = the number of sample
S = the sum of… (Arikunto, 2002)
Mean score obtained through the above formula was analyzed and interpreted. Finally, the computation of correlation of the two means score needed was tested its significant. For the sake of the computation, it was applied the formula recommended by Arikunto (2002: 280). The formula is as follows:
Where: t = computation of correlation
M = the mean score of each group
N = the number of sample of each group
A = the sample of experimental group
B = the sample of control group
X = deviation of X1 and X2
Y = deviation of Y1 and Y2
S = the sum of..
Ö = the root of… (Arikunto, 2002: 280)
Furthermore, the criteria used is as follows:
1. If t-test > t-table in significant rank of 0.5, Ho (null hypothesis) is rejected. It means that mean score of the experimental group is higher than the control group.
2. If t-test < t-table in significant rank of 0.5, Ho (null hypothesis) accepted. It means that the rates of mean score of the experimental group is lower than the control group.
Al-Qur’an dan Terjemahnya. Madinah: Lembaga Percetakan Al-Qur’an Raja Fahd, disahkan oleh Kementrian Agama RI, 1422H.
Arikunto, Suharsimi. Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktek. Edisi V. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta. 2002.
Brown, H. Douglas. Teaching by Princple. San Francisco State University. 2001.
Depdikbud. Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka. 1997.
Hamalik, Oemar. Kurikulum dan Pembelajaran. Jakarta: PT. Bani Aksara. 1995.
Imron, Ali. Belajar dan Pembelajaran. Jakarta: PT. Dunia Pustaka Jaya, Cet. I. 1996.
Rosita, Tita. Belajar dan Pembelajaran. Jakarta: 1997.
Singarimbun, Masri, and Sofian Efendi. Metode Penelitian Survey. Jakarta: LP3ES. 1989.
S. Udin. Winata, Tita Rosita. Materi Pokok Belajar dan Pembelajaran. Modul 1-6 Depdikbud. 1996/1997.