Tuesday, December 25, 2012




1.1   Background of the Study
English as an International language is used all over the world. People in some countries speak English as their first language and some other use it as their foreign language.
Indonesia is one of the countries where English is used as foreign language. Therefore, English is taught from elementary school level until university.  Nowadays, English language is very important in our life. It is used in formal or non formal language. For example in formal such as: Office, Bank, and School.
In Indonesia English become one of the subjects at school and as the compulsory subject in each of the school. The government has conducted this to increase the human resource.
Beside that, English as curriculum at school is learned since elementary school till university moreover, some school conducts this lesson since kindergarten. Beside that, there are many English courses to support the students in mastering English. By mastering English vocabulary, they can comprehend the foreign language.
Before teaching English language we should have known the element of language such as: grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciations, (Rachmajanti, 1999).
The third element above must be mastered, if they want to have an ability in English. The first step for every learner is to master vocabulary. Mastering vocabulary means practicing the third elements itself. For example, if someone wants to explain how to say something, of course they have to master vocabulary, the more vocabulary the people have the more they can do whether in speaking, reading, writing and listening.
As foreign language it is not used every day at societies, the English language is difficult to learn. to lessen the difficulties in learning English we need approaches and what strategies will be used, so that study English will be easy and interesting.
According to (Kasbolah, 1993: 56) He said that one way to make the conducive class is by using media in teaching English vocabulary.
Media means that carriers of messages (Heinich) whatever that can be used to deliver the material .in teaching English the teacher can use many kinds of media such as: circular cards, flip cards, realia and Word cards.
But in this research the writer will apply the picture  in teaching English vocabulary for increasing students vocabulary  an experimental study at  seven  grade of SMP AL-AMIN Mataram in academic year 2010-2011 , the writer choose this media because the picture according to the writer is really interesting and good way for increasing students vocabulary .
1.2  Statement of the Problem
In relation to the background above, the writer tries to formulate the research problem into the research question as follow:
a.       Can the picture as the media be used in teaching and learning process?
b.      Are the pictures effective to improve the students’ vocabulary?
1.3  The Purpose of the Study
a.       The pictures are effective to improve the student’s vocabulary at seven grade of SMP AL- AMIN Mataram in academic year 2010/2011?
b.       The pictures are effective to improve the student’s vocabulary?
1.4    Significance of the Study 
This study hopefully gains the positive contribution especially in teaching English at the classroom, and the result can be used by the teacher, students, and the writer later on.
In order to clarify the significance, the writer would like to elaborate further:
a.       Theoretically
This research hopefully could give theoretical concerning the role of the picture in stimulating the student’s capability in mastering English vocabularies.
b.      As any other research aiming and as instructional especially concerning to the teacher in applying technique through media , this research would be used as to :
Ø  Encourage the English teacher in order to apply the picture especially to overcome the student’s problem in mastering English vocabularies.
Ø   Make sure the excellent of the picture in teaching English vocabularies.

1.5   Scope of the Study
The scope of the study at the seven grade students of SMP AL-AMIN Mataram academic year 2010/2011, is class VII A and class VII B  and the object of this research is limited to the apply the use of the picture to improve the students vocabulary “.

1.6   Assumption of the Study
Assumption is temporary produced, assumption of the study through the Picture is for the student who is able to improve the English vocabulary at seven grade students’ of SMP AL-AMIN Mataram.
The assumption is as follows:
a.       The students at seven grade of SMP AL-AMIN Mataram have no experience in learning English by using the picture
b.      Using the picture can help the students to improve their ability in mastering vocabulary.
1.7   Definition of Key The Terms
To avoid misunderstanding and misinterpretation of this research, the writer would like explain one by one:
a.     Use
Based on the oxford dictionary “use “ means to put something such as tools or building something to a particular purpose  (Hornby : 1997).
b.    Picture
Jean L. Mckenchnie defines in Webster dictionary that “Picture is      an image, or likeness of an object, person, or scene produce on a flat surface, especially by painting, drawing or photograpy.
Meanwhile according to Andrew Wright, “Picture is not just an aspect of method but thought its representation of place, object, and people, it is essential part of the overall experience.
Vernon S Gerlach stated “Picture are two dimension visual representation of person, place, or thing. Photograph prints are most common, but sketches, cartoons, murals, cut outs, charts, graphs and maps are widely used….” A picture may not only be worth a thousand words it is May also be worth a thousand years or a thousand miles. Through pictures, learner can see people, place and things from areas for outside their own picture can also represent image from ancient time or portray the picture.
The use of picture are more efficient and practice than words, they are easier to recall and to remember than words, further more they expose real life situation although it happened a long time ago. As it has been explained by Vernon, S.Gerlach and Donald p. Elly,”Picture may not only be worth a thousand miles. Through picture, learner can be show people, place and things, from areas far outside their own experience. Picture can represent image4s from ancient time or portray the picture.   

c.       Media :
The definition of the media according to Romiszowki is a means of communication that is used to deliver a message in education environmental

d.    Vocabulary
The vocabulary based on oxford dictionary is the total number of words in language, all the words are used by the people to make communication.

1.8    Hypothesis of the Study
Hypothesis is a temporary response toward the research problem  that the truth is still has to variety (Suryabrata, 2003) , another opinion show that hypothesis is a temporary response toward the research problem up to get proven through the data collected  (Suharsimi,  2005 : 47 ).
So, hypothesis is an attentive answer of the problem of the research and still need verification in the present study. The research proposes a hypothesis that: the Picture can increase the student’s vocabulary at the seven grade of SMP AL- AMIN Mataram in academic year 2010/2011?


2.1  Language and Language Element
If we are going to write anything about the concept of human language, we should ask ourselves, what language really are:
a.       Language
There are some definitions of language according to the experts:
Ø  Language is the system sound and word used by the human to express their thought and feeling to other people (Michel Ashby, 1995, 552).
Ø  Language is the system arbitrary a vocal sound and the sequence of sound which is used by the human to make interaction (Tarigan, 1986: 19).
From the statement above the writer conclude that the language is primary a set of symbols used for the human communication of the language is a tool to express their thought and feeling to other people.
b.      Language element
In language element, we should have to know three basic elements, namely: grammar (structure), vocabulary, and pronunciation (sounds of system).
One language element is closely related to others, the thirds elements above have relationship each other, for example: we may say when we learn language, the first we learn the sounds and vocabulary; finally, we learn the grammatical of language. Here the writer will explain further one by one:

Ø  Grammar (structure)
Grammar is the rule that have to follow when we want to learn English/make sentence correctly?
Ø  Vocabulary
As the main things, this is basically what the learner should learn .that is list of picture that is belonged to by one of language and give the meaning when we use.
Without having enough vocabulary the learner will not master and develop four skills such as writing, speaking, reading and listening.
Ø  Pronunciation
Pronunciation is the way to utter the picture in language. here, the students learn how to utter the picture correctly. To master the lesson the learner may learn from two sources.
The first is from teacher, when the teacher utter the picture the students follow the teacher.
The second is from the native speaker whether from TV, picture, words, radio and music, due to their mother tongue in English and absolutely fluent to utter the picture instead the teacher who’s their mother tongue is not English, they sometimes do mistake or not same like the native speaker’s pronunciations .therefore, for the learners are sometimes difficult to understand the word when they make conversation with the native speaker.

2.2  Vocabularies As One of the Language element
a.       Definition of the vocabulary
As consequence, the important device in a language is word. According to Hornby (1986: 959), vocabulary is the total number of word which (with rules for combining them) makes up language.
Vocabulary of language in communication must be understood and recognize, because without understanding and recognizing the vocabulary of the target language , the verbal communication will not run well for the learner who are in this effort to master or understands the rules of vocabulary of the target language .
From the statement above the writer concludes that: vocabulary is a list of words that is used to express the idea in other meaning it is used as a means of communication tools.
b.      The Introduction of the Vocabulary
According to sitters (1991:13) the thing related to the introduction of shaping the vocabulary are as follows:
Ø  The role of media
Learning language can not be separated from the media because the media can give the explanation of words if the students do not know about the meaning.
Media also can stimulate the students in mastering vocabulary for example English cards that have the picture and way to pronunciation and its meaning
Ø  The students memory
Saving vocabulary in small notebook is an affective way to control the student’s memory in remembering new vocabulary. It will easy to be brought every where, the students can write the vocabularies that they heard or found and open it again whenever they need beside the note book, the students can use picture such as: Picture, they can bring ‘images of reality unnatural world of the language classroom. And picture bring not only images of reality, but can also function as fun element in the class. 
c.       Teaching Vocabulary
Language without vocabulary is non sense, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed through: listening, speaking, reading, and writing.
Teaching vocabulary is more than just presenting new word (harmer, 1991:159).
There are some premises and comment related to the teaching of vocabulary, those are:
a.       New vocabulary item should always be introduced  in structure
b.      Vocabulary should always be taught in normal speech utterance
c.       Not all of the words a the students hear during the learning process
d.      Vocabulary should be practiced  in question – answer form

d.      The Principle of Teaching Vocabulary
To master the vocabulary, the teacher follows the principle in teaching vocabulary.

According to J.WALLACE (1982:30) as follow:
Ø  Aims
The aim have to be clear for the teacher how many of the things listed by the teacher. The teacher expects the learner to be able to achieve the vocabulary, what kinds of picture it is
Ø  Quantity
The teacher may have to decide on the number of vocabulary items to be learned, how many new words in a lesson can the learner learn? If there are too many, they learner may become confused and discouraged

2.3  Teaching Media
The sense of media comes from “Latin“that is medium. The meaning in general is as a means of communication that is whatever can bring information between sources and receiver the things itself. We can call instructional media, if it uses for delivering the message in educational environment (Heinich and Rusello, 1982).
From the statement above we can catch how important the media in learning foreign language, next   ROMISZOWKI said, the media is carriers of message that is as a means to deliver message to students.
 Furthermore, Miarson (1984) give the information about media that is a means that can be used to stimulate thought, desire of the students so that they can be motivated in teaching and learning process objectively and it will support the affective learning achievement, in other words instructional media as part of the educational system at the school which support the learning achievement.
There are some media of the picture that can be used in teaching vocabulary such as:
a.      Picture flashcard
This classification applies to picture flashcard as well. The writer haves simplified Hill’s classification and divided them into two groups only. The first group covers “Big flash cards” (about 15x20cm or large), is typically used by the teacher for whole-class activities such as presenting new language, controlled practice or as prompts for speaking activities. The second group then covers “small picture flash card” (smaller then about 15x20cm), is usually used by the students for working individually or for games and activities in pairs or groups.
b.      Word flashcard
Word flashcard is perhaps worth mentioning at this point, even though they are not pictures. However, being used in a similar way as picture flashcard, they can often enrich the lesson. On the top of that, those two can be indeed combined and applied together, e.g. in a matching or labeling activity. As Wright (1990: 59) pointed out, word flashcard is most typically used in teaching reading and writing.
c.       Small picture flashcard
A plenty of variations of these cards are typically applied in communicative activities in pairs or small groups of the student, those finding a meaningful role in reviewing and practicing vocabulary. In a closer look, we will find one side only cards, both side ones and sets of pairs ( antonym or synonym, a picture and the corresponding word or phrase) or sets of cards connected e.g. by their meaning.

2.4   Picture As The Media In Teaching English Vocabulary
Pictures are one of these valuable aids. They bring images of reality into unnatural world of the language classroom. (Hill 1990: 1).Picture brings not only images of reality, but can also function as a fun element in the class. Sometimes it is surprising, how picture may changes a lesson, even if only it is employed in additional exercises or just to create the atmosphere.
Pictures meet with a wide range of use not only in acquiring vocabulary, but also in many other aspect of foreign language teaching. Wright (1990: 4-6) demonstrated this fact on an example, where he uses one compiled picture and illustrated the possibility of the use in five which have very different language areas. His example shows employing picture in teaching structure, vocabulary, functions, situation and all four skills. 
Pictures have their limitation too. (McCarthy 1992: 115) for example in teaching vocabulary, pictures are not suitable or sufficient for demonstrating the meaning of all words. (McCarthy 1992: 115; Thournbury 2004: 81) it is hard to illustrate the meaning of some words, especially the abstract one such as ‘opinion’ or ‘impact’. Therefore, in some cases, other means are use to demonstrate the meaning.


3.1  Method of the Research
This is an experimental research aims to identify the use of the Picture in teaching English vocabulary to the students.
This research will use statistical computation in data collection –testing methodology.
In the first phase, experimental method haves required the two groups, The first group is experimental group that is class VIII A and next is control group that is class VIII B. For the two groups the writer will apply the Picture in teaching English vocabulary means while for the control group the teacher does not use Picture. Next, for the last phase, the teacher gives the posttest English cards effective or not.
3.2  Population and Sampling Technique
a.       Population
The population of this study is all subject (Suharsimi, 2010). The population of this investigation is the seven grade of SMP AL- AMIN Mataram in academic year 2010/2011. The population is all of second year student, which consist of two classes they are class VII A and VII B.
b.      Sampling technique
Sample is half or represent of the population of the subject research, in other writer that sample is half of the population as an example which is found out by some method (Suharsimi, 2006).
The procedure in taking the sample in this research is using the cluster sample. If the subject is more than 100 peoples, it would be better to take all so the research is population research. But, if the total subject is more than 100 peoples, it is better to take 10 – 15 % or 20 -25 % (Suharsimi, 2010).
Total of the student at class VIII SMP AL- AMIN Mataram are 40 students that consists of  two classes there are 20 students from class VII A and 20 Students from class VII B.
According the explanation above this research is using the population research, where class VIII A is as the experimental group and class VIII B is as control group.   
3.3  Procedure of  the Data Collection
Data are bits of information (number of fact). A piece of data is also called a score or an observation, which convey a piece of information about some topic. The topic itself has called it variable. Meanwhile a variable is an objective of the investigation.
In this study, the data means all information that is directly gathered from the subject. The writer used test method to collect the data. The data were obtained through pre-test, treatment and post-test.
a.       Pre-test
In the process of collecting the data, the writer came to the class as a teacher. The students were given the topic related to their activities. The teacher writes on the white board or explain related to the lesson, then the student translate the vocabulary which is written. The questions to answer are twenty. From this test, the writer acquired the pre-test scores. These test for both groups either experimental group or control group.
The test includes 20 items of written vocabulary test. The students select one of the best answers. The teacher will give value 1 if the answer is correct and 0 if it is wrong.
b.      Treatment
The writer next gives diverse treatment to both groups. In this treatment the teacher comes to the class, three times. The writer will teach English vocabulary by using the Picture to the student in experimental group only while in control group the teacher doesn’t use The Picture
c.       Post-test
After teaching process is in treatment, the teacher gives post-test to both groups. The tests are similar to the pre-test, but different in redaction. The tests include 20 items of written vocabulary test. The students select one of the best answer, the teacher will give value 1 if the answer is correct and 0 if it is wrong.
3.4  Procedure of the Data Analysis
After the data is obtained from the score of the student, the writer will use the descriptive method of analysis.
To analyze the result of the test, the following test will be wisely applied:
a.       Identifying the samples scores of the experimental group of their pre-test (X1) and post-test (X2) scores, and control group of their pre-test (Y1) and post-test (Y2)
b.      Inserting the student’s scores into the data tables.
c.       Identifying the students individual deviation (d) of sample score (post-test result) to pre-test scores. The following formula is completely applied.

Ø  Deviation of the experimental group
Dx = X2 – X1
Dx = Deviation of the experimental group
X1 = Score from pre-test
X2 = Score from post-test
Ø  Deviation of the control group
Dy =Y2 –Y1
Dy = Deviation of the control group
Y1 = Score from pre-test of the control group
Y2 = Score from post-test of the control group
d.      Identifying the mean deviation of each group (D) by applying these formulas:
Ø  Identifying the deviation of the experimental group


= Mean deviation of the control group
 = Deviation of the experimental group
Nx = Total samples of the experimental group

Ø  Identifying the deviation of the control group
= Mean deviation of the control group
 = Deviation of the control group
Ny = Total samples of the control group

t            = the significance of the experimental group to control group
        = Mean deviation of the experimental group
        = Mean deviation of the control group
  = The square deviation of the experimental group
          = The square deviation of the control group
nx         = The total samples of the experimental group
ny         = The total samples of the control group
(Arikunto, 1992: 152)

f.       Consult the result between the results of t-test to t-table.
If the results or t-test > t-table, the null hypothesis is rejected. If the results or t-test < t-table than the null hypothesis is not rejected.


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