1.1 Definition of Economics Economics as a branch of Sciences was given the title as the oldest art, and the newest science is the art of the oldest and youngest of science. Economic problems were born simultaneously with the rising sun humanity tens of thousands of years ago. No single branch of any older first born thereof. Human needs for food, clothing and shelter has forced humans, the first inhabitants of this earth, to wrestle and hang out with economic problems. In the early moments of human life, in economic terms alone does not exist. The term economics was born in Greece (Greek) and its own economic terms derived from the words of the Greek language. Originally he Oikos Nomos which means the management of household or estate (domestic governance and ownership). The most famous definition of economics is a branch of science that make an effort to provide knowledge and understanding of society symptoms arising due to human actions in attempting to meet the needs or for mecapai prosperity. Definition tersbut a light definition and a definition provided for lay people, whereas what we need is an adequate definition. In this case Paul Anthony Wamuelson, an economist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has collected six definitions of the various other experts. The sixth definition is: 1. Economics or political economy (political economy), is a study of the activities, with or without the use of money, include or involve exchange transactions between people; 2. Economics is a study of how people make choices appropriate to utilize productive resources (land, labor, capital goods such as machinery and technical knowledge) that measures and limited in number, to produce various goods ( such as meat, coat, sailboat, music concerts, highways, bombers) and distribute (share) to the various members of the public for their use / consumption; 3. Economics is the study of humans in their activities of daily living, (to) receive and enjoy life; 4. Economics is the study of how humans behave manners to organize the activities of consumption and production; 5. Economics is a study of wealth; 6. Economics is the study of ways to improve the community. Professor Paul Anthony Samuelson states that every undergraduate economics could extend into many times more. However, Professor Paul Anthony Samuelson finally give a statement as a conclusion. He writes: Economists now be agreed to accept the truth of a common definition as follows: Economic is the study of how man and society end up choosing, with or without the use of money, to employ scare productive resources that could have alternative uses, to produce various commodities and distributive them for consumption, now or in the future, among various people and groups in society. It analizes the costs and benefits of improving patterns of resoursces allocation.
Economics is the study of the ways human beings and society determine / impose his choice, with or without the use of money for the use of productive resources is a step that can have alternative uses, to memprodusir various goods and distribute them for consumption, both for the present nor things to come, the various classes and groups in society. Economics that analyzes the amount of the costs and benefits that occur due to the improvement in the pattern of resource allocation. See definition above shows some of the things which are the subject of mind. First. that the main problem (main or central problem) any economic behavior or major problems in economics, is the election issue (problem of choice). Which dimkasud "election" here is the selection of the ways the use of productive resources that could have alternative uses. This means that each item has not just one use. For example, from a piece of land should be preferred, for cultivation, sale, or to set up on top of the building, it is impossible to use a third piece of land for the benefit of earlier as well. In terms of solving the problem of choice, hands down economics so that elections can be imposed on the most profitable use. Second, is the fact that the productive resources are scarce or rare items. Scarcity of productive resources it gives the sense that their use should be carefully and precisely. And masalahpun back to the problem of choice. Third, concerning the use of money. Stated in the above definition that must use the money in the economy is simply a matter of the second course. The main matter is menentukanpilihan use, as already mentioned above, and then based on that option do production. However the importance of money in the economy, but it should not be said that the process should be stopped because of lack of economy of money. The four, is the production and distribution of the results to members of the public for consumption. In every society whether it is communist society collectively or a South Sea Island tribes inhabitants, or a capitalist nation, these two things, namely the production and consumption sebenarnyalah should always be together. There should always be a group of community members who make goods and services to use or enjoy the results by a group of other community members. In fact, what is referred to as The Three Fundamentals and interdependent Economic Problems like this, clearly covers this issue 1. What commodities shall be produced and in what quantities? What items to be made and how much? that is, how many and which of all the goods and services that the many that are selected to be made and produced? 2. How good shall be produced? - How can the goods be produced? That is, who will do it and with what resources, and the technological system that is how the goods were produced. 3. From Whom shall goods be produced-For whom the goods are it later? - That is to say, who should enjoy and benefit than these things? or with other how the entire product (production) distributed to members of the national community? The third problem above, ie What, How and For Whom, are fundamental once, and faced by each economy-developing economies and the developed, capitalist or communist economy, ancient and modern, rural and urban economies but not all economies The third solve the problem in the same way. The third problem above, ie What, How and For Whom intimately concerned with four issues contained in the definition of economics that has above. Fifth, is about the last part of the above definition is. It reads is "economics that analyzes the amount of the costs and benefits that occur due to the improvement in the pattern of allocation of resources".
1.2 Economics as Science Science has and always will be to develop nature and art, and even science itself, in the direction of better and advanced, so that the produced results that are beneficial to humans and humanity. Thus, it is important that knowledge. But more than that, it is the Great Creator. Like a gigantic tree, which will be pierced in the center of the Earth, branch branches close corners and high horizon clouds reaching even the sky. But since emerging from the ground "tree" that has manifested itself two main stem, so that all the branches and twigs "tree" that grows from both the main stem. Both the main stem is a Natural Sciences and Social Sciences.